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by: Kari Harber Jr.


Kari Harber Jr.
GPA 3.72


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Class Notes
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This 134 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kari Harber Jr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2011L at Florida State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/205434/bsc-2011l-florida-state-university in Biological Sciences at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
PHYLUM PORIFERA Level of body organization Symmetry Name of Middle layer Acellular matrix location of structural elements amp has cells moving through it Name the structural elements Which components are used to ID sponges Name the moving cells Form of locomotion Diagnostic cell type for sponges Diagnostic unique occurs only in sponges How do we classify sponges PORIFEM CELLULAR level of body organization ASYMMETRICAL entire body or RADIAL not perfect 0 Middle layer MESOHYL Spongin a collagen protein amp Spicules Spicules Ca or Si are used to ID sponges Calcarea Ca Demospongiae Ca ampor Si Hexactinellida Si Amoebocytes archaeocytes are amoeboid 0 Diagnostic cell type CHOANOCYTE flagellated collar cell Collar cells exist in other phlya but they are not flagellated Classification of sponges is by 3 i 1937 T37 T3 E Asconoid a Syconoid middlesized smallest TYPES are not taxa but basic groups based on their internal architecture ie the location of their quot quot 739L m leif H Leuconoid Largest In the jar these sponge specimens look like white or transparent plant roots PHYLUM Porifera AMT L21 1w In lab you could only look at a whole specimen as above in a jar or at prepared slides PHYLUM Porifera TYPE Asconoid NOTE Many of our slide specimens have been stained red or green Look ike This is the smallest and simplest sponge type ie they are too small to dissect Name often used for this most unit 39vaLum F m ifera TYPE Asconoid d H A 1 n W d O u I m 2 PHYLUM Porifera TYPE Asconoid a Somali Long spicules at osculum neck Terms you need to know spicules spongocoel bud amp osculum Compare to fig 13A in your lab manuals Incurrent Pores Ostia Porocytes and Prosopyles Incurrent pores or ostia are the openings through which water first enters a sponge These are usually formed by several cells The PROSOPYLE is the name given to the entryway pore leading into the area of choanocytes It is formed by one donut shaped cell the porocyte Asconoid Sponges As an incurrent pore or ostium this opening brings water directly into the sponge BLACK It also serves as a prosopyle BLUE bringing water into contact with the choanocytes lining the spongocoel Thus it has a dual function serving as the incurrent pore or ostium and as a prosopyle The actual opening is formed by a single cell the porocyte Syconoid Sponges The ostiaincurrent pores in syconoid sponges are generally made of several cells pinacocytes DOTTED BLACK Water enters the sponge through this entryway and moves into the incurrent canal V Water leaves the incurrent canal area to enter the radial canal area of choan cytes via the prosopyle a porocyte cell Water leaves the area of choanocytes via a much larger pore made by many cells the apopylea 392 Note the prominent spicules 9 39 V I quot Eiiie lYLUM Porifera 39 TYPE SyconOId Sycons Syconoid sponges are the middle sized sponges Their choanocytes are located in the canals I R 39ough walls I x Water ow gt Incurrent canal I gt Prosopyle channel P a porocyte gt Radial canals R area of choanocytes gt Apopyle channel A gt Spongocoel S gt Osculum O 39v 4 LeuconsLeuconoid sponges the most complex Choanocytes are located in flagellated chambers Any large sponge is most likely a leuconoid type sponge Leuconoid Sponges The ostia several cells allow water to enter incurrent canals Water leaves these to enter the flagellated chambers area of choanocytes via the prosopyles porocytes Sponge Reproduction Sponges are usually monoecious but can be dioecious ASEXUAL SEXUAL M Maleampfemale gametes w are formed Budding Archeocyz es gt eggg Choanocyz es gtsperm Fertilization is involved Planktonic larvae or mini 39 Gemmu39es flagellated colonies are 3 methods above released to colonize new areas Fragmentation Regeneration Freshwater sponges PHYLUM ARTHROPODA 4 SUBPHYLA SUBPHYLA Trilobitmorpha SUBPHYLA Crustacea SUBPHYLA Chelicerata SUBPHYLA Hexapodamot on Midterm SUBPHYLUM Trilobitmorpha Trilobites are the most diverse group of extinct animals preserved in the fossil record PHYLUM ARTHROPODA SUBPHYLUM Crustacea 5 CLASSES BOCCM CLASS Branchiopoda CLASS Ostracoda CLASS Copepoda CLASS Cirripedia CLASS Malacostraca Subphylum Crustacea to recap Class Malacostraca SAID Order Stomatopoda Krill Order Amphipoda Beach hoppers Order Isopoda Roly Poly amp Sea Roach Order Decapoda Crab amp Lobster Do not need to know Orders just that Roly polies are related to crabs Crustacea Branchiopoda Bamacles Malacostraca Stomatopoda Copepoda Isopoda E Amphipoda Ostracoda Deca poda O Can you remember how to tell a male from a female crayfish 1st pleopod is reduced or absent in females SUBPHYLUM 13 1 The male cra i m the Tshaped abdomen whereas the femaleabdomen is much ng ader Any dissected crab in the lab will not be stained like this but you should be familiar with the structures PHYLUM ARTHROPODA SUBPHYLUM Chelicerata 3 CLASSES CLASS AraChnida Spiders amp scorpions CLASS merOStomata Horsehoe crabs CLASS Pycnogonida Sea spiders HYLUM a m H h c a r A H Abdome Cephal r Prosdma amp Opisthdsoma Comparison s How many of the following organisms are Deuterostomes Give the Letters of all organisms with incomplete digestive systems How many phylaclasses are represented here Read Q s carefully Compare traits and group Phyla when studying Quick Review Diploblastic 2 Cell Layers Triploblastic 3 Cell Layers Quick Review Diploblastic 2 Cell Layers Phylum Cnidaria Triploblastic 3 Cell Layers Phylum Platyhelminthes onward Level of Organization Cellular Tissue Organ Level of Body Organization Cell multi Phylum Porifera Tissue Phylum Cnidaria Organ Phylum Platyhelminthes onward Symmetry Radial Where do we first see this Bilateral And this Pentaradial And this Symmetry Radial Phylum Cnidaria Bilateral Phylum Platyhelminthes onward Pentaradial Phylum Echinodermata except Holothuroidea which are secondarily bilaterally symmetrical Digestive Systems Incomplete No anus Can you name 2 phyla Complete Have an anus Can you name 2 phyla Digestive Systems Incomplete No anus Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Platyhelminthes Complete Have an anus Phylum Nemertina onward no anus in C Ophiuroidea Body Cavity Acoelomates 2 phyla Phylum Platyhelminthes Phylum Nemertina Pseudocoelomates 2 phyla Phylum Nematoda Phylum Rotifera EuCoelomates 6 phlya Phylum Ectoprocta Phylum Annelida Phylum Arthropoda Phylum Mollusca Phylum Echinodermata Phylum Chordata Coelom Development Schizocoelous EAMA phylum Ectoprocta Phylum Annelida EndodermEctoderm Phylum Monusca Mesoderm Coelom phylum Enterocoelous phylum Echinodermata phylum Chordata Protostomes Some lit includes Platyhelminthes amp psuedocoelomates but we shall begin protostomes at eucoelomates for the purposes of this course Protostomes and Spiral cleavage Schizocoelous Determinate E PaSSeD it EAMA M phylum Ectoprocta A Phylum Annelida phylum Mollusca Phylum Arthropoda Deuterostomes Radial cleavage Enterocoelous Deuterostomes Indeterminate REDI for anything C phylum Echinodermata phylum Chordata Study Ideas Make lists of structures for common purposes and learn which organisms posses which them eg Book lungs book gills trachea spiracles papulae lungs amp gills eg Malpighian tubules renette glands protonephridia lames cellsbulbs etc eg Statoblasts gemmules cryptobiotic eggs Be able to define these terms and identify organisms that illustrate them Cephalization Metamerizism Tagmatization Homology Serial Homology Polymorphism Torsion Detorsion Ecdysis Syncytial This list is not exhaustive add to it yourself Memory tip Learn the exceptions to the rules the oddities I love to test on those Make sure you understand why they are tricky though Fire coral is NOT a coralit has a medusa Turbellaria is the only freeliving class in Platyhelminthes other two are parasitic Ophiuroidea no anus tube feet plated amp not for locomotion Holothuroidea secondary bilateral symmetry Phylum Chordata 3 Su bphyla URO CEPHALO VERT Subphylum Urochordata Subphylum Cephalochordata Subphylum Vertebrata Adult Has only 1 Chordate characteristic Pharyngeal gill bars have become a filter feeding basket Subphylum Urochordata Larva Has all 4 Chordate characteristics Subphylum Urochordata Tunicate tadpole larvae Note 4 chordate characteristics 1 Dorsal hollow nerve cord 2 Notochord 3 Pharyngeal gill slits or bars 4 Postanal tail A Q Subphylum Cephalochordata Post anal tail Notochord Nerve cord Aojg Atriop Metapleural I Folds not very Pharyng al 9 Cirri visible except in bars amp SlltS cross sections Phylum d 9A1 l Subphylum 39 ll Dorsal region Note fin ray A myomeres B dorsal Iv hollow nerve cord nerve tube C notochord D Phylum Subphylum MF Anterior region Note D pharynx E endostyle produces mucus to help catch food in between the gill b A atr39um Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata ACOARM 6 Classes Agnatha Hagfish amp Lampreys Chondrichthyes Sharks Osteichthyes Bony fish Amphibia Frogs amp Salamanders RepUHa Lepidosauria nonavian reptiles lizards snakes Testudines turtles Archosauria birds amp crocodilians gators amp crocs Mammalia Your lab partner Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata TYPES of SKELETON Cartilaginous Skeleton 2 classes Agnatha Chondrichthyes Bony Skeleton RAMO 4 classes Reptilia Lepidosauria Testudines ampArchosauria Amphibia Mammalia Osteichthyes Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata NUMBER OF HEART CHAMBERS Agnatha 2 Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes Amphibia Lepidosauria amp Testudines Reptilia is split 4 Archosauria Mammalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata WHO HAS AN AMNIOTIC EGG Amniotes RM Lepidosauria Testudines Archosauria Mammalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Always take the shortest route If you can t remember all the classes that are ectothermic just remember the animals that are not Endothermic Bi rd 5 Mammals Endothermy ability to maintain body temperature by internal metabolic processes quotH i Tn39thgail q iphn 3 In I ft391 quot 39Ii iinidxl 11 q I n 39 1 K 39 Don t forget the dissections and all those special little structures Once upon a time there u 3911 lived a fossil Arthropoda 5 SUBPHYLA 1 Trilobitmorpha 2 Crustacea 3 Chelicerata 4 Myria pOda Diplopoda amp Chilopoda 5 Hexapodaamm Phylum Arthropoda Send your emails CC MOB or Subphylum 2 Crustacea 3 0 cc M39 Class Copepoda Class Cirripedia Head of the mob Class Malacostraca quot Class Ostracoda Class Branchiopoda SprhYIUm 2 A Class irripedia Crustacea y Class Branchlopoda 39Acorn amp Stalked Fairy Shrimp Bap7 Class Malacostraca La FQESt Class 4 ORDERS Class Do not need to know 1 Copepoda the names of these Orders for the practical SAID just note that A amp B are closely related Stomatopoda Mantis Shrimp Amphipoda Beach Hoppers amp Sand Fleas Isopoda B Pill bugs Giant Sea Roach Decapoda A Crabs Lobsters etc Tiny redeyed 39 aliens Really weird looking Class Ostracoda 1 Seed shrimp quot 39 with bivalve like shell L pleopods Crayfish 1St pleopod in males specialized intromissive organ Absent or reduced in females age C h eli edgquot quot appen quotbearing 39a vinegar law Help I ve 2 fallen and 611 1 1Ttm 5 20 can t et u Dquot Em u g p Class Malacostraca Order Decapoda Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum 3 Chelicerata the literate Chelicerat 5 Class Pycnogonida Class Arachnida Class Merostomata 39 3m Ffi fanged ch 7 i to bit gmzsuck 7 1 blood 9 3 4 7 Subphylum 3 Arachnida l l l l l 1quot ll a Book Vt gills f i Males Clasps females with their 1St periopods pedipalp In the males this is much enlarged to form a boxing glove In females the 1St periopod or pedipalp is just a regular walking leg modified here as a claw TAGMOSIS Book lungsB gills amp tracheal system 7 J 39 mm n KT 7 If 51 quot3 r x 39 J Ll QM TYquot Sr J J Cephalothorax Abdomen Crustacea belong to the mob they ve been punched in their nose so gills do the job Prosoma Opisthosoma Gquot quotI Cephalothorax Abdomen I so y Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Myriapoda DIC39 OI CID39 Class Chilopoda Class Diplopoda Which one has most legs per segment Subphylum 4 39 if 772quot C71 Class Diblopoda I a 2 pairs of legssegment Class Chilohpoda L 1 pair of legssegment Vicious jaws of a 39 carnivorous predatorquot Just to clarify phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Class Insecta Subclasses Apterygota no wings Fromthe lab manual chart Pterygota winged Divisions Exo pte rygota Endopterygota Orders OHHO CHi LD Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Class quot Cy iii a T I n secta Orders OHHIO amp CHiLD Order Orthoptera Order Coleoptera Order Hemiptera Order Hymenoptera Order Homoptera Order Lepidoptera Order Isoptera Order Diptera Order Odonata Suphylum 5 Class Insecta Metamorphosis is the change from a LARVAL form to an ADULT form MOLTING NOT REPRODUCE Their wings have HOLOMETABOLISM Holometabolism Holometabola Endopterygota 4 ORDERS Egg gt larvae gt pupa gt adult 6 CI Holometabolism 4 ORDERS Wings on the INSIDE inthe larva and must undergoa Complete metamorphosis to bring them out in the adult This is a VERY dramatic change Division Endopterygota Holometabolous Life Cycle 4 ORDERS Order Hymenoptera 3 Bees ants wasps Order Lepidoptera Butterflies moths CHiLD Bugs for decorating Order Coleoptera T B tl a nurserly or a L32 fcfre 1i39sformed by ELYTRA children 5 picture book Order DIptera True flies Look for HALTERES Hemimetabolism 5 ORDERS Wings on the in the larva already Only need an incompletepartial metamorphosis using half of the effort to bring the insect to the mature adult stage Their a re HEMIMETABOLISM Hemimetabolism Incomplete metamorphosis Wings on the outside Hemimetabola Exopterygota 50RDERS egggt nymphmini adultgt adult Naiad if aquatic egg g Division Exopterygota Hemimetabolous Life Cycle Order Odon OHIIIO 5 ORDERS Order Hemiptera Bug allies assassin bugs bedbugs Look for X on back formed by wings crossing over each Dragonflies damselflies Other True bugs Order Homoptera cicadas aphids Look for home formed by Order Isoptera wings over back of insect Termites Q I Order Orthoptera Q Headon Crickets grasshoppers Roaches amp mantids Subphylum 5 Class Insecta Subphylum 5 Class Insecta Cleoptera 39Lliil l i Inside a Grasshopper Remember the baseball and glove Respiratory system Tracheal system has spiracles etc The PSEUDOCOELOMATE Condition Ectoderm Mesoderm PSEUDOCOELOM Endoderm Lumen of gut Any organism which has a false body cavity pseudocoel is said to be a pseudocoelomate Definition of a pseudocoelom a fluidfilled body cavity derived from the blastocoel which surrounds the gut Func ons ie what s it used for Hydrostatic skeleton Circulatory Location of organs reproduction amp excretion PHYLUM NEMATO DA Roundworms Eutely Only longitudinal muscles Pseudocoelom functions as circulatory system Complete digestive system Renette cells excretion Amoeboid sperm L 39 V 9 55 w cs through esophagus Note Iriradiale esophagus pseudocoel P 8 thick cuticle g 54 Male or female Which one is which How do you tell Phylum Nematoda cs through female A amp male B nematode worms Notice the 2 large round structures in the female uteri and the thick cuticles on both the male and female worms g 53 Phylum Nematoda Lumen of gut Male or female How many different sizes of gonads do you see PHYLUM ROTIFEM Cirri corona amp trochus bring in water currents and therefore aid in feeding respiration and locomotion Mastax amp trophi internal feeding apparatus Pedal glands and spurs toes attachment Flame bulbprotonephridiaexcretion Parthenogenesisamictic mictic viviparous Name another we studied PHYLUM Rotifera A psuedocoelomate Note corona for feeding locomotion amp respiration mastaxtrophi pedal glands amp spurs toes fig 55 PHYLUM ECTOPROCTA Depending on time they are sometimes taught in the pseudocoelomate lab at other times in the Annelid eucoelomate lab They are a conundrum having some protostomous characteristics and some deuterostomous features For our purposes they will be considered protostomes and pseudocoelomates based on molecular evidence Gelatinous Encrusting amp Plant like forms Freshwater vs Marine Basic Bryozoan Body Plan Iquotquot 0 rea 0 en aces Stomach Zoecium chamber in which the individual ZOOID lives Intestine What do you call the structures that enable freshwater Retractor muscle to pull organism bryozoans to back into zooecium surVIve over Winter Bryozoa Freshwater Bryozoa Gelatinous zooecium red in the specimens we studied in lab Have statoblasts black blobs for surviving through the winter Monomorphic Zooids all the same Phylum Freshwater Form Note Iophophore A u shaped feeding structure on the zooid 394541 Both forms shown here are marine Make sure you can distinguish this from the Hydrozoan Marine Bryozoa Lophophore is circular Plant like colonial and polymorphic zooids have different forms for different functions Name Bryozmem 2 gt ls Avicularia for defense 8 perhaps food capture V Vibracula keep colony free of debris and settling organisms Marine Form Excellent example of polymorphism They have autozooids for basic feeding and modified zooids for other functions Policemen gell ser Mollusca 5 Classes Polyplacophora Many plates on a foot Cephalopoda Head foot Gastropoda Stomach Scaphopoda Tusk shell Bivalvia Hatchet foot Typical questions for Mollusca How many of these specimens posses a radula oWhich ones are filter feeders oWhich have undergone torsion Detorsion Name the m function of the mantle Name a class used for currency oWhich specimens have lungs Just have think of which live on land vs in water Name the oldest part of a univalve shell Bivalve Answersmaybe Gastropods Cephalopoda Mono A amp Polyplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopodahave a captacula Gastropods Opisthobranchia sea hares amp sea slugs and the land slugs of the Pulmonata Mantle secretes the shell Scaphopoda Pulmonata their name gives this away Apex for Univalve Umbo for bivalve but often the terms are used interchangeably I 13111311quot 39 mm w cavity mmth 71 It I Chitons radula 8 plates 39 Class lacophora Class Cephalopoda Octopuses Squid Nautilus Cuttlefishbeak pen ink sac chromatophores jet propulsion dissection Aquatic marine Generally having thick pointed shells spines amp many have opercula WORDS TO KNOW snails conchs torsion coiling radula operculum amp Subclass Pulmonata Aquatic freshwater Shells are thin rounded with no spines ridges or opercula 3 slibciass39PLiImonata Detorsion If something looks strange chances are it is something from Class Sinistral Dextral POP quot Subclass Prosobranchia Aquatic snails shells Have gills Subclass Opisthobranchia Marine Have gills Nudibranchs Sea slugs Sea hares Mantle cavity amp shell reduced or absent Subclass Pulmonata Terrestrial Slugs and terrestrial snails Have lungs Sca ho oda tusk shells Wampum Indian currency Head in sand Respire through mantle no gills Captacula for feeding on capturing foramniferans Bivalvia or Pelecypoda clams scallops etc filter feeders bivalved shells dissection Bivalvia or Pelecypoda clams scallops etc filter feeders bivalved shells dissection Dorsal hinge Anterior Visceral mass gonads PercardiaI Ventricle Umbo amp digestive tissues Stomach Area of gastric amp digestive glands Posterior Excurrent 4 amp lncurrent siphon hairs amp papullae Foot Ventral Mantle Quiz Mollusca How many classes posses a radula 3 of the 5 classes Cephalopoda Polyplacophora amp Gastropoda How many are filter feeders 1 of the 5 classes Bivalvia What feeding structure do Scaphopoda use A pedicellaria Bcaptacula or CAristotle s Lantern B to catch foramnifera PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES amp PHYLUM NEMERTINA The ACOELOMATE Condition Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Lumen of gut Any triploblastic organism which lacks a body cavity is said to be an acoelomate PLATYHELMINTHES Flatworms ORGAN grade of body organization TRIPLOBLASTIC MESENCHYME Middle layer derived from mesoderm germ layer spacefilling packing tissue ACOELOMATE Mesoderm obliterates the blastocoel in the embryo PLATYHELMINTHES 4 main classes CLASS Turbellaria Freeliving Flatworms CLASS Trematoda Endoparasitic Flukes CLASS Cestoda Endoparasitic Tapeworms CLASS Monogenea Ectoparasitic on fish Marine flatworms But what we saw in lab was a freshwater flatworm It was brown andlooked as if it were boss eyed Note extensible pharynx P pharyngeal opening PO mouth M amp intestine I fig 32A PHYLUM Platyhelminthes CLASS Turbellaria Anterior Q Phiryngeal reglon cs through anterior of organism fig 34 aka Batman s plane Note No pharynx only caeca PHYLUM Platyhelminthes CLASS Turbellaria cs through pharyngeal reg n g 34 Note Pharynx gastric caeca amp Mesenchyme C 39I First of 2 Acoelomate cs 7 I v quot 39 h 39 31 3 a quot quotlrdjl39f M PHYLUM 39 r aquot 39 39 SFE n V gs x g V Th39gSg QS Platyhelmmthes mmviw 1uh x 4 cLAss Trematoda View of whole fluke organism Note the two suckers Anterior A one is for feeding the ventral V one is for attachment mum 139 Fklyholu u iu 3 PHYLUM Platyhelminthes cLAss Cestoda Scolex I and maturing proglottids The most reproductively mature sections are at the posterior end of the tapeworm What are these sections called Imwu Platyholmlnthcs cuss Gated Sperm in from partner sperm 9quot here to enter another partner s proglottid Speckled hackground n U efus Testes a Shell Gland 65 u Ovar Uterus will swell with many out PHYLUM pockets as the Platyhelminthes 3995 deve39 cLAss Cestoda Mature proglottid w reproductive structures fig 37D PHYLUM V Platyhelminthes cLAss Cestoda Gravid proglollid chock full 0 eggs closeup of fig 37 E PHYLUM Platyhelminthes CLASS Monogenea External parasite One host Attaches by sucker with hooks NEMERTINA This is our 1st organism with a COMPLETE digestive tract 39IV 1 l vy39 39 glequot n it G7lri3 r Lmlwqa You did not see this large specimen but had to fill out labels on a diagram in your lab manual showing a slide of a cs 2 d acoelomate cs L ltiJ 1ltte the Diwali g i nUuTquot CZW


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