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Chapter 1 Shively Notes

by: dresaavedra

Chapter 1 Shively Notes POLS 104

American Govt. in Comp Perspective
Kathleen H. Winters

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About this Document

Here are some notes from the book Power and Choice written by Shively, as well as the in class notes that I took.
American Govt. in Comp Perspective
Kathleen H. Winters
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by dresaavedra on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 104 at University of St. Thomas taught by Kathleen H. Winters in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see American Govt. in Comp Perspective in Political Science at University of St. Thomas.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
09132015 914 Did you know Athens Greece is the birthplace of democracy USA is representative democracy 0 Direct you vote on every piece of legislation 0 Representative we vote for a representative of legislation Power the ability to get something done Authority the right to do something Why are power and authority related to or important in politics How would you de ne choice 0 What do you consider to be coercion and is a coerced choice still a choice 0 Ex Blackmail What political science is not 0 Discussing what s going on in politics Arguing for against public policy 0 Writing position papers for government What politics is 0 Scienti c analysis of political phenomena and politics 0 Aristotle said quotIt is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting itquot Is it quotScienti c Researchquot 0 Characteristics There exists a theory or hypothesis Empirical quanti ed or measured Qualitative o Consistent systematic and transparent process 0 Would you consider umbrellaology to be scienti c 0 Yes anything can be scienti c and researched The Scienti c Method 0 The recognition and formulation of a problem Formulation of hypotheses The formulation of your research design 0 The collection of data to test your hypotheses Studying Politics 0 The Great Divide 0 American Politics 0 Judicial Politics 0 International Relations 0 0 OOO Comparative Politics Political Theory Poitica Methodology 0 What is being studied 0 Institutions 0 Generally examining the structure process and output of government a Includes the people in government More focus on how power and choices are made 0 Behavior Generally examining thoughts actions and effects of humans a Not necessarily those in government More focus on who has power in uences andore makes choices Political Science vs Government classes 0 Government classes focus on facts process what happened and who is important 0 Political science is more about asking questions 916 Speculation and Scienti c Inquire Research questions often begin with an quotI wonderquot thought 0 This can lead to speculation 0 Speculation is good to start with but don t end with speculation Speculation can lead to hypotheses and scienti c testing of hypotheses Until you speculate a hypothesis you can t test anything 0 Many hypotheses are created through speculation or brainstorming Where to start when conducting scienti c research 0 Research question 0 Identi cation of a broader theory o Formulation of scienti c claims Speculation l Hypothesis 0 Indentify your dependent variable the variable you re tying to explain 0 Indentify independent variable the variable you think explains or affects your DV 0 State your speculation on how the IV affects the DV 0 Ex The more caffeine a student consumes the higher their exam grade Data collection strategies 0 All strategies have pros and cons Typical strategies used in political science 0 Case studies Experiments Direct and indirect observation Content analysis Surveys Interviews How to research like a scientist Claims must be testable and falsi able 0 Empirical rather than theoretical or normative o Consistent systematic process 0 Transparency keep records 0 Research is relevant and interesting OOOOO 0 Steps to evaluating scienti c claims o Is there a correlation between the cause and effect 0 Does the cause precede the effect 0 Can we rule out a third factor causing both 0 Can we indentify a casual mechanism Ecological Fallacy Definition occurs when using aggregate level data to draw conclusions about individuals 0 Ex Southern states tend to vote Republican 0 Southern states tend to have higher proportions of African American voters o Ecological Fallacy African Americans tend to vote Republican Chapter 1 Politics Setting the Stage Political scientists study politics and analyze it o Read the newspapers listen to press conferences and take part in political campaigns 0 Also try to see both sides of any questions and keep our emotions low key Borrow from other disciplines like economics history sociology psychology and philosophy Politics have two main things in common 1 Questions involve making a common decision for a group of people a uniform decision applying in the same way to all members of the group 2 All involve the use of power by one person or a group of people to affect the behavior of another person or group of people Politics becomes applicable once a decision is made that will apply to all members of the group Politics always involves the exercise of power the ability of one person to cause another to do what the rst wishes by whatever means 0 For example Hitler convinced German to vote for him Manifest power based on an observable action by A that leads B to do what A wants 0 Example a police officer s signal that cause a driver to stop and wait is an example of manifest power Implicit power B does what A desires not because of anything A says or does but because B senses that A wants something done and for any of a variety of reasons B wishes to do what A wants done 0 Example a father may toss the car keys to his daughter on a Saturday morning completely unprompted except by his knowledge of her habits and his desire to comply with her wishes Much dif culty in analyzing political power The question of power in American cities has become extremely complex Choice involves power pg 9 Politics consists of making a common decision for a group of people through the use of power Authority a person or a group of people has authority if there is general agreement among those involved that she has the right to control certain decisions and that her decisions in those areas should be complied with Government is a group of people with ultimate authority within a territory Legitimacy a matter of degree not everyone in a state will necessarily agree that its government is legitimate or that a given type of gov act is legitimate Legitimacy by results government retains legitimacy when it provides its people with what they most want security against physical assault pride economic security etc o Legitimacy by Habit once a government has existed for a while people become accustomed to obeying its laws Legitimacy by Historical Religious or Ethnic ldentity many governments enhance legitimacy by the ties that exists between themselves and the people 0 Legitimacy by Procedures government strengthens its legitimacy by following certain procedures in setting itself up procedures in which many people have con dence ex Democracy system in which citizens participate in selecting their leaders and perhaps determining the country s policies State a country France Russia United States Mexico etc Political scientists prefer the word quotstatequot to the more usual quotcountryquot Interpretive political scientists deal with historical and philosophical aspects of politics Behavioralists lean more toward looking for broad patterns across cases and using statistical analyses of numerical information Theory statement linking speci c instances to broader principles Empirical theory theories describing how things work in the world we observe Normative theories involve making a judgment about the world not describing how it works Subcategories of political science pg 20 Appendix Principles of Political Analysis Falsi able must be potentially possible that the statement is not true Tautologies a statement that is not falsi able says nothing about the world Three kinds of statements about politics 0 Statements of fact is and describe 0 Statements of value how good evaluate o Explanatory statements why analyze Trivial explanation a thoroughly obvious uninteresting explanation Causation for one thing to produce another thing the producer has to precede the product temporally Political historians and political scientists are engaged in the same task Begging the question answering a question with a rewritten question 0 Ex North Vietnam won because it was more powerful than South Vietnam this does not really answer the question rather it changes it to Why was North Vietnam more powerful than South Vietnam Circular argument one in which a person proves A from B but we know that B is true only because of A Post Hoc Explanation taking a set of things that have already happened showing that one of them could have resulted from the others and asserting that those others are a cause of the thing in question 0 Ex Commentators have asserted that it was the appeasement of Britain and France that led Hitler to his frantic war of conquest Could be plausible but it is post hoc Boils down to a matter of common sense


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