Exam 2 Material: Part 1
Exam 2 Material: Part 1 Bio 1144
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Miller on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Angiosperms Divisions phylum Indeterminate growth plants grow until they die Growth can occur in two ways 1 Increasing number of cells by cellular reproduction mitosis and cytokinesis 2 1Tcreasing cell size Sexual cycle of angiosperms Alternation of generation switch between diploid 2n plant body and the haploid 1n plant body A Sporophyte diploid body 2n Spore producing plant form via myosin Sporophyte is macroscopic big enough to see ex Oak tree pine tree rose Phase certain parts that undergo myosis to produce myospores Sporophytes produce ower or fruits B Gametophyte haploid body In Gamete producing form sperm and egg Microscopic need a microscope to see Pollen is a clump of gametophytes Gametophyte is anywhere from 2 cells Female gametophyte is the embryo sac 397 cells Male gametophyte is pollen 2 cells L 104 hrs Sporophgfr Vi wakmns mlloSlS WOW Sven mm cam sis 05W hm mgl s 2V W Ugoltimn 9n Meio sr WWW P in 09olcm2 i 4 Wt W0 a hlcnus w W m clls Meiosis reduces chromosome number splits in half causes change of generation W restores chromosome number to normal diploid state also causes a change of generation Plant organs Root Shoot leaves stems Development is caused by cell division mitosis followed by cytokinesis more and more cells development Primary growth all plants have primary growth no option elongation of plant organs growing in length by cell division Entails a production of primary tissues Primary tissues 6 primary xylem vascular conducting tissue conducts water and minerals through the plant primary Phloemconducting tissue transports food through the plant epidermis outermost tissue provides protection dermal Parenchyma earliest cells used for storage food and water part of the cortex and pith most abundant collenchyma protection of growing plant organs found inside cortex typically Just inside the epidermis hardened cell walls support scelernchyma protection and support of plant organs that are not elongated or dead plant structures hardest of tissues found outside of cortex Secondary growth expansion of plant organs some plants undergo not all plants only in roots and stems never leaves leads to woody tissues secondary tissues Primary growth in kength Secondary growth in width 2 Major Groups of Angiosperms l lVlonocots exhibit primary growth about 60000 species 2 Dicots primary and secondary growth about 240000 species lVleristems cell factories that are constantly dividing to produce more and more cells Apical meristems RAM root Ali al meristems responsible for primary growth SAM shoot apical meristems responsible for primary growth Lateral meristems quotringsquot of cells in the plant body found in stems or roots Allows for expansion of diameter inside and outside the ring responsible for secondary growth Roots Mostly underground base of the plant Cells are the most mature tissues in the region of maturation C The root will grow sideways or upwards away from water water is down g Functions anchorage base that holds plant in place storage of food and water sunlight to leaves to roots Region of elongation cells get larger and root elongates downward Root tip is usually covered in slime absorption of war and minerals from the soil major function R g 0nly looking at primary growth in the roots 39 Region of cell division if it breaks off no more cells produced lOSUACM idlinle Root in a lengthwise section can see 4 sectionsregions of the root F Root cap protects the root from other roots or rocks if it breaks off r mam 15 M 39 l mmhxma ns39xcle Jane Modermis kl 39mtemal Mfth mm M i W WW6 NMquot WW Fibmus misv uw mm WWW mum mm man 0H d bmnmxng W s mg mwuu WANMm gt4 mm UC mun gt 4 7 Shoot leaves and stems Leaves primary function is to capture sunlight and make food Stems primary function is to hold leaves towards the sun also used for transport Primary growth of the shoot elongation at the shoot tip bud inside the bud SAM Inside the bud 558 in textbook W Hui j W E9457 SW8 NM NV whim W u Chm We a mg or Quidi meos mm mm 1 mm Hme ow Mm ans mva Leaf cross section Primary tissues ONLY WW FmWAS l i lew Wsop H teem 39 rUh 0 O 0 V IONW Epidermis mm QM Km 6 wdwmis om 01 WW 0er WOW 39 NM wan 39bYIMUl mamxmmahm Mum 0 Wm WM m panamt 40 gnu3 173011 5 WWW MI MN Stems Primary growth most are above ground but not always Both exhibit primary growth but only dicots exhibit secondary growth lVlonocots vascular bun less are scattered and dicots are in a ring to make a pith region and cortex region Vascular bundles close up in a dicot m wigWm L13 H88 S I wwm mgwum Lamle mamas om wow I opting km mt1m durum in W Kw Vascular and cork cambians both produce cells inside and outside the rings which causes the expansion All are lateral meristems and produce lateral growthsecondary growth Vascular cambian ring mitosis produces lots of cells inside secondary xylem quotwood of the treequot outside secondary phloem quotinner barkquot Cork cambian ring inside and outside periderm outer bark replace the epidermis and cortex of the stem serves as protection Secondary growth in dicot stems after three years after secondary growth began secondary growth starts late in the rst year see gure 3522 d L X it lt W W mm 5 3 th W from 0 d We 6W mmw cambian 1 Mum mnan 1 mp momma Jamilrm M08 DWKK Compare plant organs Leaves primary growth only 1 Roots monocots primary only dicots primary and secondary Seems both primary dicots secondary Roots endodermis and pericycle Monocots pith and cortex dicot cortex xylem at the core Stems monocots scattered vascular bundles dicots pith and cortex vascular bundles in a ring Primary Growth elongation mitotic activity of apical meristems RAM 88 SAM primary tissues Secondary growth expansion of stem and root secondary tissues vascular and cork cambian Regulation of plant growth Combination of internal factors hormones chemical messengers transported through phloem interact with environmental factors soil temperature etc listen to 130 Hormones control growth germination owering fruiting shedding leaves color of leaves Plant hormones can be either growth inhibiting or growth promoting Inhibiting are dominant in the winter promoters dominant in spring and summer Five hormones all require ATP for transport through the plant 1 Auxins produced in seeds fruits shoot tips stems and leaves Never roots Growth promoter Transported within the phloem tissue animals through the bloodstream effects promote cell elongation promotes shoot elongation promotes the production of wood secondary growth promotes fruit development promotes the production of roots in cuttings inhibits lateral bud developmentnext year39s buds inhibits the abscission of leaves fruits and owers abscissiondropping of because when leaves fall off no more photosynthesis no more food no more growth Auxins focus on growth now not down the road 2 Cytokinins found in coconut milk growth promoting hormones Produced in seeds fruits and roots Effects promotes cell division think of the name produces more cells growth promotes developement of lateral buds antagonistic to auxins lateral buds produce new growth for next season inhibits leaf senescence change in leaf coloring due to chlorophyll break down 5 Gibberellins also called Gibberellic acids largest group in plant hormones 180 growth promoters Produced throughout the plant but highly concentrated in seeds offspring plant already has gibberellins in it Effects promotes stem elongation by stimulating cell division and cell elongation helps in process of primary growth promotes the break down of food reserves in a germinating seed embryonic plant has right conditions it will grow plants emerge out of seed gibberellins are necessary for the plant to have food Rdw vaomlodj 0 WU Wyer o Water enters the seed and causes it to swell and crack the seed coat where more water can get in and eventually allows the embryo to escape Embryo starts to secrete Gibberellic acids which act on the aleurone layer starts on the outside to break the bonds In the outer layer is an enzyme that breaks the cell bonds in starch alpha amylase Starch is broken down to individual glucose molecules which is then used as ATP Basically starch gt glucose gt cell respiration gt ATP biological energy Process is inside the seed so the embryo directs the process releasing the Gibberellic acids based on the amount of water in the soil Advantage of seed plants the embryo knows when the enironmental conditions ar enjoy right 4 Abscisic Acid growth inhibitors found in seeds mature leaves and dormant buds Lateral buds that have been produced are full of abscisic acid to stop it from growing Effects inhibits cell elongation inhibits alpha amylase production by aleurone layer if energy isn39t produced embryo will not grow promotes the production of storage compounds to prevent early germination keep starch as a food reserve rather than allowing it to be broken down promotes leaf senescence promoting degradation of chlorophyll in the fall absisic acid wins over ctyokinins 5 Ethylene actually a gas formed by incomplete metabolism Growth inhibiting hormone but since it is a gas it is not actually transported through the plant Produced in the plant then release through the plant Effects promotes the abscission of leaves fruits and owers trying to get leaves to fall offno more growth interacts with the three growth promoting hormones to regulate cell size and shape if the plant grows too facets cell walls will be thin and the plant will fall over and die promotes fruit ripening the peel traps the ethylene gas produced by the fruit Growth in general from a seed requires Breaking of dormancy stage where it is alive but not growing combination of internal and external factors to cause this Internal hormones stored food absorbed water embryo swelling External sunlight temperature more day length soil moisture Seed consists of seed coats embryo and stored food If the water gets in and causes everything to swell and the seed coats crack and causes ssure allows water in 88 embryo out As the seed coat cracks radical rst root grows down 88 the shoot stem and leaves which grow up Embryonic leaves called cotyledons emerge 1 cotyledon monocot 2 dicot Seedling plant due to mitosiscytokinesis more cells produced as well as cells getting bigger cells increase in size and number Internal development plant cells gt plant tissues gt plant organs Tissues aggregate into a plant organ the plant organs roots stems and leaves make up the plant In order for all this to occur it obviously needs hormones chemicals elements ATP Plant Nutrition things that plants need for proper growth and development Essential nutrients elements of life 16 Carbon Hydrogen FWM CO 391 H2 0 4 19M mummi 0F Mohy MI Oxygen 1395 soil nutrients absorbed through roots follow the pathwaytubing of water xylem A Can be put into one of two list required in larger amount macronutrients and smaller amounts micronutrients 7 l0 0 mg Macronutrients 6 minimum of 1 gram for 1 kg of dry weight of leaves greater than 1 gram 1 1Titrogen 1T component of proteinsamino acids 1Tucleic acidsD1TA 88 RNA coenzymesintermediates in reactions and chlorophyll photosynthesis Potassium K enzyme activator involved with osmosis involved in the opening and closing of leaf stomata Phosphorus P component of 1Tucleic acidsD1TA 88 RNA cell membranes ATP coenzymes Calcium Ca component of cell walls enzyme regulator involved in cell membrane permeability what can or cannot pass throug cell membrane 5 Sulfur S component of proteins coenzyme coenzyme A after glycolysis before Krebs cycle needed for acetic acid cycle 6 Magnesium Mg component of enzyme activate chlorophyll Amtqu Micronutrients Trace Elements 397 less than a 1 10 th of a gram required Molybdenum Mb Required to extract nitrogen out the soil Copper Cu enzyme activator and component of many enzymes Zinc Zn enzyme activator and component of many enzymes Manganese Mn enzyme activator and component of the chloroplast membrane essential to trigger oxygen release Chloroplast has a double membrane Mn must be a component or oxygen cannot escape because Mn allows the membrane to open to allow oxygen out if oxygen gets trapped photosynthesis will shut down 5 Chlorine Cl involved with osmosis and oxygen production in photosynthesis Photosynthetic reactions cannot take place without chlorine because water will not split properly 6 Boron B component of cell membranes and is necessary for DNA replication 397 Iron Fe component of chlorophyll See Hanalowt mummy are M c anltxam 39 Rm is 90310 90310 90310 Transport Within Plants moving materials through the plants nutrients food water etc Formal de nition Movement of water and solutes in plants Conducting tissues phloem and xylem Water 88 soil nutrients through xylem Food carbs and hormones phloem Importance of Water Photosynthesis requires water to split to generate electron and release oxygen Provides support for plant organs no water no support no photosynthesis Minerals dissolved in water in order to ow cannot ow without water Elongation and individual cell growth require water Chemical reactions Average plant cell is about 90 water plants do not have a skeleton only a cell wall full cells act like an internal skeleton Solvent for most substance dissolves things a Solution a mixture of two or more molecules b Solvent usually a liquid dissolves the molecules in lesser concentration more abundant greater concentration c Solute lesser amount of molecules that gets dissolved or broken up in the solvent Movement of water and solutes through the plant Water includes water and soil nutrients moves through xylem Food includes carbohydrates and hormones moves through phloem Physical properties of water Polar molecule By de nition no charge but it is polar because hydrogens create a partial positive charge while the oxygen creates a partial negative charge Hydrogen bonding H connected to an electronegative atom can be Hygroden bonded to another electronegative atom Each water molecule can Hbond to 4 other water molecules in pure water Cheats a tight net 006 Hm Water exhibits cohesiveness it sticks or adheres to other water molecules Also exhibits adhesiveness sticks or adheres to other molecules cellulose 1Tatural temperature stabilizer Transport medium because it ows easily high viscosity Water is the best biological solvent Mercury is the best solvent in general Water has three forms with at least one at all of earths temperature range solid ice liquid vapor Principles of Water and Molecule Movement Physical process no energy expended in these processes 1 Bulk Flow movement of molecules in response to pressure or gravity Gravity things moves from high to low Pressure cell pressure from high pressure to low pressure 2 Diffusion movement of molecules along a concentration gradient from high to low concentrations Something is keeping a separation Two plant cells the cell walls are keeping the separation between cells gradient one has high concentration the other is low The water will diffuse from the highly concentrated cell to the lower concentration cell 395 Osmosis the difusion of water across as selectively permeable membrane Membrane of a cell is a gate keeper restricts materials coming in out of the cell except water Water has free reign to come and go Water will go from high concentration to low concentration Membrane cannot restrict water ow but it is selectively permeable so it can restrict solutes in the water Water moves trough osmosis solutes do no move via osmosis MM 0416 CCIIBwillbeM3a1 0H1 mum U Movement of Water 88 soil nutrients through the Plant Transpiration cost or expense a plant pays to live on land Example corn plant requires 55 gallons of waterover 90 days of tips water 2 of water is used for mantienance of plant photosynthesis elongation etc 98 is lost in transpiration Large trees could use 100 gallons of water during growing season but only 50 is lost to transpiration Actual de nition loss of water vapor through the stomata of the leaf Water goes through roots stems then leaves and evaporates through the leaves because it is heated by sunlight The leaf is the organ of photosynthesis sunlight energy gt metabolic energy transpiration is also done by the leaf Photosynthesis requires water to split and form an electron chain When guard cells are open water and oxygen are let out and carbon dioxide is let in when they are closed holds water and oxygen in but no carbondioxide gets in WW HAMNS LU W39 12 WV 933129 5 9m m Guard ails p L S MMLDS39EJ 0 H20 WWW Lngid O 0 WWW EPIJEI MS l D3 03 H30 m 01H Mechanism of Opening and Closing of the Guard CellsStomata 1 Daytime sunlight early in the daylight carbon dioxide is low in the leaf so the leaf will be full of water and stomata will open 2 Guard cells pump in potassium requires ATP increased solute ion concentration gt water will be in lower concentration they can39t both be 100 ultimately for this step the solutewater concentration changes Water from the xylem via osmosis to the guard cells which ll them to full capacity turgid Guard cells swell up and open the stoma water and oxygen out and carbon dioxide in Pump out the potassium requires ATP water moves out guard cells shrink stoma close water and oxygen are trapped and carbon dioxide is locked out 0 0399 Cause of transpiration water loss is sunlight energy major energy source causes heat Leaf gets heated by the sunlight as it warms vapors form guard cells swell stoma opens water and oxygen out and carbon I dioxide in photosynthesis again and repeat Water will move cell to to cell down the concentration causing a lower concentration in the mesophyll which results in a quotpul quot by osmosis from the next cell in the leaf xylem attached to stem xylem attached to root xylem buried in the soil water is quotpulledquot into the root xylem and up the the leaf to participate in photosynthesis This is called transpiration stream unidirectional ow water does not ow back advantage of cohesiveness and adhesiveness to the xylem no ow back Transpiration Stream water in soil with nutrients gt root epidermis gt root cortex gt root xylem gt stem xylem gt leaf xylem gt mesophyll heated up evaporates gt vapor gt atmosphere m WWW M k 7 H10 Q0 S CAT Mechanism Once the stomata are open guard cells are turgid this is a fully physical process Water molecules are being pulled one at a time C cohesion water molecules are tightly bound together don39t separate easily A adhesion water adheres to other polar molecules cellulose Water molecules are bonded together and somewhat bound to the walls water does not go back down T tension pull due to initial loss of water by evaporation from the mesophyll 1To energy needed after stomata are opened Energy needed to evaporate water comes from sun plants to not pay to evaporate the water Translocation movement of solutes food carbs hormones Similarities between transpiration and translocation properties of water and that39s it Differences A Translocation moves food and solutes through water bidirectional top to bottom or bottom to top involves phloem tissue requires ATP expenditure by the plant B Transpiration moves water only unidirectional involves the xylem tissue does not require energy from the plant comes from sunlight energy In plants food is dissolved in water into the form of sucrose double sugar Sucrose is always transported from a source location with an excess carbohydratesleaf to a sink location where a carbohydrate is stored or neededroots Mechanism for how food is moved Pressure Flow Hypothesis Sucrose ows via water from source to sink Higher pressure to low pressure Phloem tissue has two types of cells associated with it 1 Sieve tube members kind of like soda cans sacked on top of each other 2 Companion cells like fork lifts load and unload sugar in and out of sieve tube members require ATP SWSQJ 5M XI glam Simmcmlmlnm CmePamcm CdlS UDJv l Kw g 1 Companion cells pump sucrose into sieve tube members requires ATP 2 As sucrose concentration increases water concentrationpotential decreases 395 Adjacent xylem with higher concentration of water will quotdonatequot water to the lower concentrated phloem via osmosis Sieve tube members has a higher pressure now so bulk ow will carry sucrose from higher pressure to lower pressure