ELEMENTRY OCEANGRPHY OCE 1001
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Unique Schumm DDS on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to OCE 1001 at Florida State University taught by Amy Baco-Taylor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/205457/oce-1001-florida-state-university in General Oceanography at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
419 Lecture Anthropogenic Impacts Study Guide Reading 3 posted papers posted slides Terms to Define Anthropogenic Impact human influence in the environment Trophic Cascade occur when predators in a food web suppress the abundance of their prey thereby releasing the next lower trophic level from predation or herbivory ifthe intermediate trophic level is an herbivore Ecosystem Engineer An ecosystem engineer is any organism that creates or modifies habitats Synergistic Effect effects of a combination of two or more substances that are greater than the sum ofthe effects ofthe individual substances Very little is known about the synergistic effects of our exposures to common chemicals Ocean Acidification The process by which the ocean s pH is lowered which increases its acidity Coral Bleaching The loss ofcolor in coral reeforganisms that causes them to turn white Coral bleaching is caused by the removal or expulsion ofthe coral s symbiotic zooxanthellae algae in response to high water temperatures or other adverse conditions Global Warming A gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth39s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide CFCs and other pollutants Invasive Species Any species that has been introduced to an environment where it is not native and that has since become a nuisance through rapid spread and increase in numbers often to the detriment of native species Eutrophication The enrichment of waters by a previously scarce nutrient Pteropod An order ofpelagic gastropods in which the foot is modified for swimming and the shell may be present or absent Name 5 ofthe biggest impacts humans have on the marine environment Global warming pollution eutrophication overexploitation syngergisitc effects impacts facilitate or exacerbrate futher impacts Every anthropogenic impact builds on the ones before and concurrent it What is ocean acidification What causes it How are calcifying organisms affected How can marine food webs be impacted Ocen acidification is excess 002 in the atmosphere absorbed by the oceans Lowering the pH of the ocean acidifying it effects the ocean s acidi cation making it hard to calcify bones for corals raises ASH or CCD trophic effects pteropods coccolithophorids forming reef food web effect pteropods planktoic mollusks What is global warming Name and explain 4 impacts ofglobal warming on marine species Excess greenhouse gases effects the marine life by Physiology photosynthesis growth respiration coral bleaching Distrubutions higher latitude deeperwater similar to effects of invasions northern species decline Special interactions life history events tied to bloom timings temperature life history temperature or day length life history event misses bloom Adapation short generation times microevolution to temperature changes What is an invasive species How might it impact an ecosystem Introduced species spread by human activity not native invasive biological pollution Range expansion new location naturally lion fish in the carribean Conditions fr invasion ballst water canal aquaculture live seafood industry aquarium industry Effects of species invasion outcompete natives space or food eat natives trophic cascades disease change in 3D structure loss or gain reduced recruitment facilitate invasions What are some ways in which marine habitats may be destroyed Status ofContinential Shelves endangered loss of habitat structure fishes and sharks reduced What is eutrophication What causes this phenomenon What are the effects Where is an example of the effects of eutrophication What is the impact on coral reefs Nutrients from anthropoenic sources fertilizer farm animals sewage create phytoplankton blooms uses oxygen hypoxic and anoxic zones What are the effects offishing on target species On nontarget species Fishing on target species decreases in abundance and sze and oerexplotation indirect effects trophic cascades Chapter 14 Study Guide Reading Ch 14 all Terms to Define Biomass The total mass of a defined organism or group of organisms in a particular community or in the ocean as a whole Neutral buoyancy Neutral buoyancy is a condition in which a physical body39s mass equals the mass it displaces in a surrounding medium Swim bladder A gascontaining flexible cigarshaped organ that aids many fishes in attaining neutral buoyancy Test The supporting skeleton or shell usually microscopic of many invertebrates Caudal Fin tail fin the tail of fishes and some other aquatic vertebrates Pectoral Fin Each ofa pair of ns situated on either side just behind a sh39s head helping to control the direction of movement during locomotion They correspond to the forelimbs of other vertebrates Lungers Fish that sit motionless on the ocean floor waiting for prey to appear for example grouper A quick burst ofspeed over a short distance is used to capture prey Cruisers Fish such as the bluefin tuna that constantly cruise pelagic waters in search of food Myoglobin A red oxygenstoring pigment found in muscle tissue Hemoglobin A red pigment found in red blood corpuscles that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissue and carbon dioxide from tissue to lungs Coldblooded An organism whose body temperature varies with and is largely controlled by its environment coldblooded Ofor relating to an organism that regulates its body temperature largely by exchanging heat with its surroundings coldblooded Warmblooded Ofor relating to an animal that maintains a precisely controlled internal body temperature using its own internal heating and cooling mechanisms warmblooded School A welldefined large groups of fish squid and crustaceans that apparently aid them in survival Taxa to know key characters of taxonomy of etc Radiolarians abundant singlecelled animals Tests made ofsilica and tend to have ornamation Foraminifera Copepods multicellular animal Krill Multicellular animals Krill Cnidarians Jellyfish Hydrozoan Cnidarian Scyphozoan Cartilaginous fishes Bony Fishes chordata vertebrateadapations to pelagic life Class Mammalia Order Carnivora prominent canine teeth sea otters no blubber but dense fur hunted nearly to extinction eat sea urchins abalone uses tools Polar bears webbed paws thick furwith hollow hairs black skin Order Sirenia sea cow herbivores Ancestors elephantlike sparse hair up to 43 m coastal highly endangered manatees manatees dugongs Order Cetacea whales dolphins porpoises Elongated skull blowholes on top of skull few hairs Pinnipeds skin covered ippers walrus seals sea lions fur seals Odontoceti suborder dolphins porpoises killer whales sperm whales teeth one blow hole complex social groups echolocation to find food Mysticeti Cetacea two blow holes Baleen rather than teeth flexible keratin hangs from upper jaw up to 4m long Low frequency sound small prey feeding What are the main type of caudal fins on fishes and what is each type best for Heterocercal asymmetrical prevents sinking Lunate regid flat thurst Rounded exible slow speeds ie reef sh Tail n for thrust Truncateforks thrust What are some adaptations of pelagic organisms to avoid sinking Larger surface areas to volume ratio spinesornamentsappendages oil drops gas containers and swim bladder What are some adaptations to avoid predation Schooling safety in numbersappear as single targetconfuse predator Symbiosis two or more organisms mutually associated Speed Poisons Mimicry Transparency Camouflage Counter shading What is symbiosis What are the 3 types of symbiosis Commensalismmutualism parasitism Relationships with organisms Commensalism less dominant organism benefits wo harming host Mutualism both organisms benefit from relationship Parasitism parasite benefits at expense of host What are the 5 diagnostic characters of mammals Warm blooded breathe air have hair live young and females produce milk What characters differentiate the main groups ofpinnipeds from each other What character do they all share Pinnipeds skin covered flippers Walrus Large 2000 lbs Tusks to 1 m Can rotate back ippers Can walk Swim with front flippers Seals Seals lack prominent ear flaps Seals have smaller front flippers Seals have fore flipper claws Different hip structures Different locomotion strategies No external ears Small front flippers Cannot rotate back flippers under body Cannot walk Swim by wagging the body Most fully marine of the pinnepeds Sea lions Have ear flaps Large front flippers Can rotate back ippers Can walk Swim with front flippers Fur seals Have ear flaps Large front ippers Can rotate back flippers Can walk Swim with front ippers What characters differentiate manatees from dugongs Atlantic Manatee round tail nails on front flippers Dugongs fuked tail with no nails Western Pacific Ocean What are some adaptations cetaceans have to allow for deepdiving Streamlined bodies skin that reduces drag by suppressing turbulence adapted for deep diving absorb 90 of oxygen inhaled store large quantities of oxygen in blood hemoglobin reduces oxygen requiredmuscles insenstitive to build up of carbon dioxide What characters differentiate dolphins from porpoises Is a killer whale a dolphin a porpoise or its own group Suborder Odontoceti Dolphins killer whales porpoise Dolphins larger more streamlinedlong rostrum falcate doral fin hooked pointy teeth Porpoise bulky smaller flat teeth blunt snout triangular smaller dorsal fin What are the 3 families of Baleen whales and what are some ofthe key characters of each group Give a common name ofa whale in each group Gray Whales short baleen no dorsal few grooves bottom feeders Rorqual whales short baleen many grooves Balaenopterids blue fin etc Megapterids humpback whales Right whales rights and bowhead float when dead long fine baleen What differentiates Odontoceti from Mysticeti No teeth in Mysticeti How does echolocation work in Odontocetes blow hole sound generated through skull sound reflected and sent to spermaceti organ where sound exists Emit clicks of different pitches low frequency great distance High frequency closer range Explain gray whale migration Where do they go and in which season Why do they not stay in either location year round How long is the distance and at what rate do they travel 13700 mile annual migrationfeed grounds in Arctic summer and breedingbirthing grounds in tropical eastern Pacific winter What international organization governs commercial whaling Give the 3 exceptions when whaling is legal and an example nation for each exception International Whaling Commision lWC 1948 established to manage whale hunting There ways to legally hunt whales Objection Nonvay Scientific Whaling Japan Aboriginal subsistence whaling US Chapter 15 Study Guide Reading Ch 15 all extra slides Terms to Define Epifauna Animals that live on the ocean bottom either attached or moving freely over it Infauna Animals that live buried in the soft substrate sand or mud Meiofauna Small species ofanimals that live in the spaces among particles in a marine sediment Spray zone The shore zone lying between the high tide shoreline and the coastline It is covered by water only during storms Supratidal Zone The shore zone lying between the high tide shoreline and the coastline It is covered by water only during storms Supralittoral Zone The region of lowlying land closest to the shore but subject to seasonal or occasional flooding in marine environments usually excluding the intertidal zone situated in the region of lowlying land nearest the shore Intertidal Zone The ocean oor within the foreshore region that is covered by the highest normal tides and exposed by the lowest normal tides including the water environment oftide pools within this region Littoral zone The benthic zone between the highest and lowest spring tide shorelines also known as the intertidal zone High tide zone The portion ofthe intertidal zone that lies between the lowest high tides and highest high tides that occur in an area It is on average exposed to desiccation for longer periods each day than it is covered by water Middle tide zone The portion ofthe intertidal zone that lies between the lowest high tides and highest high tides that occur in an area It is on average exposed to desiccation for longer periods each day than it is covered by water Low tide zone The portion ofthe intertidal zone that lies between the lowest low tide shoreline and the highest low tide shoreline Subtidal zone That portion of the benthic environment extending from low tide to a depth of 200 meters 660 feet considered by some to be the surface of the continental shelf Sessile Permanently attached to the substrate and not free to move about Nematocyst The stinging mechanism found within the cnidoblast of members of the phylum Cnidaria Pneumatocyst ln phytology a pneumatocyst is a large float containing gas found in brown algae An organism may have more than one They provide buoyancy to lift the blades toward the surface allowing them to receive more sunlight for photosynthesis Kelp forest A extensive bed of various species of macroscopic brown algae that provides a habitat for many other types of marine organisms Polyp A single individual of a colony or a solitary attached cnidarian Coral reefs A calcareous organic reef composed significantly of solid coral and coral sand Algae may be responsible for more than half of the CaCO3 reef material Found in waters where the minimum average monthly temperature is 18 C or higher Coral Bleaching The loss ofcolor in coral reeforganisms that causes them to turn white Coral bleaching is caused by the removal or expulsion ofthe coral s symbiotic zooxanthellae algae in response to high water temperatures or other adverse conditions Zooxanthellae A form ofalgae that lives as a symbiont in the tissue of corals and other coral reef animals and provides varying amounts oftheir required food supply Hermatypic Reefbuilding corals that have symbiotic algae in their ectodermal tissue They cannot produce a reef structure below the euphotic zone Mixotrophs An organism that depends on a combination ofautotrophic and heterotrophic behavior to meet its energy requirements Many coral reefspecies exhibit such behavior Abyssal storms Stormlike occurrences of rapid current movement affecting the deep ocean floor They are believed to be caused by warm and coldcore eddies of surface currents Chemosynthesis A process by which bacteria or archaea synthesize organic molecules from inorganic nutrients using chemical energy released from the bonds ofa chemical compound such as hydrogen sulfide by oxidation Hydrothermal vents Ocean water that percolates down through fractures in recently formed ocean floor is heated by underlying magma and surfaces again through these vents They are usually located near the axis ofspreading along the midocean ridge Cold seeps Whale Falls whale carcass that has fallen to the ocean oor the carcass provides sustenance for a complex localized ecosystem over periods of decades Black Smokers A geothermal vent on the seabed that ejects superheated water containing much suspended matter typically black sul de minerals Archaea One ofthe three major domains of life The domain consists ofsimple microscopic bacterialike creatures including methane producers and sulfur oxidizers that inhabit deepsea vents and seeps and other microscopic life forms that prefer environments of extreme conditions of temperature andor pressure Subduction zone A long narrow region beneath Earth s surface in which subduction takes place Deep biosphere The microberich region beneath the sea oor Taxa to know key characters of taxonomy of etc Bivalves Mollusk such as an oyster or a clam that has a shell consisting of two hinged valves Annelids Phylum ofelongated segmented worms Crustaceans class of subphylum Arthropoda that includes barnacles copepods lobsters crabs and shrimp Echinoderms Phylum ofanimals that have bilateral symmetry in larval forms and usually a ve sided radial symmetry as adults Benthic and possessing rigid or articulating exoskeletons of calcium carbonate with spines this phylum includes sea stars brittle stars sea urchins sand dollars sea cucumbers and sea lilies Kelp large varieties of Phaeophyta brown algae Lobster large marine crustacean considered a delicacy Homarus americanus American or Maine lobster possesses two large chelae pincers and is found offshore from Labrador to North Carolina Various species of Panulirus spiny lobsters or rock lobsters have no chelae but possess long spiny antennae effective in warding offpredators P argus is found offthe coast of Florida in the West Indies whereas P interrupts s common along the coast ofSouth California Scleractinian stony corals order 0 cold and deep more diverse than tropic Octocoral sub class contains SCLI artipatharia and zoanthidea Crownof Thorns Tube Worms
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