MUSIC WORLD CULTURES
MUSIC WORLD CULTURES MUH 2051
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rupert O'Keefe DDS on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUH 2051 at Florida State University taught by Sara Black in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/205462/muh-2051-florida-state-university in Music History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
MUH 2051 Section 2 Fall Semster 2010 Final Exam Study Guide THE FINAL EXAM IS THURSDAY DECEMBER 9 300 500 IN HMU 124 The nal exam will include 60 multiple choice questions worth a half point each The rst set of questions will be based on the following listening examples Raga Nat BhairaV CD 2 Track 12 Chapter 8 Featured instruments slide guitar tabla drum tambura Prominent performers belonging to the family of raga bhairaV one of the many names used for shiva the Hindu deity of destruction Vishwa Mohan Bhatt Kumar Bose Shefali Nag play on this one RaVi Shankar plays it as well but not on this cd Important inspiration source materialrecon gured guitar to be more Sitar like and made the sliding guitar Genres represented Raga BhairaV and Raga Nat Music from the Muqam CD 3 Track 30 Chapter 13 Featured instrumentsZheng and drum Prominent performers Zhou J i Shao Guangchen and Li Mei Important inspiration source material from Uighur tradition known as Dolan Muqam This is a pure village styple representing the rough raw end of Uighur music These people were the poorest most despised class They served the Chinese administrations indentured serfs and are known fro rebellion Genres represented Muqam Atlanta Kaira CD 2 Track 25 Chapter 10 Featured instruments koras bala koni guitar Prominent performers Toumani diabate Taj Mahal and Ensemble Important inspiration source materialdiscovered the kora in 1970 he thought the kora artistry of Konte was something truly profound and personal He went to Mali in search for his musical roots and met Toure and Diabate He produced the CD Kulanj an which he said represented the culmination of a long and fascinating musical roots odyssey bringing blues and Malian music back together Genres represented African blues Gravelwalk CD 2 Track 20 Chapter 9 Featured instruments acoustic fiddle and electric violin uillean pipes Irish wooden ute electric bass and drum set Prominent performers Eileen Ivers group Eileen ivers Jerry O Sullivan Seamus Egan Bakithi Kumalo and Steve Gadd Important inspiration source material She was an Irish immigrant in NYC Lived in a community where Irish music dancing and social and cultural values were a basic par of life The environment in which she was raised was a diversely multicultural one and this affected the formation of her music and cultural identity as much as her Irish heritage She grew up listening to salsa rock jazz Broadway and classical Genres represented Celtic Oye Como Va Tito Puente version CD 3 Track 5 Chapter 11 Featured instrumentssaxophones trumpets trombones ute whistling Prominent performersTito Puente Important inspiration source material multicultural upbringing and eclectic musical background shaped his multifaceted conceptions of his own identity throughout his life He identified himself as Puerto Rican although he grew up in NY Enrolled at Julliard Post WW2 there was a growing market for dance bands that played Cuban derived Latin music First big hit Mambo 5 Genres represented Latin Oye Como Va Santana version CD 3 Track 6 Chapter 11 Featured instruments electric guitar and B 3 electronic organ Prominent performers Carlos Santana and Greg Rolie Important inspiration source material Cha Cha remodeled version of Puente s version except he replaced the ute and horn riffs with his guitar Genres represented jazz You can YouTube most of these songs to listen to them Middle East Terms to know Orientalism representation of Asian and Middle Eastern cultures based on exoticism and possible stereotyping Mysticismreligious belief or practice whose goal is direct personal experience with the diVine People to know about Nusret Fateh Ali Khan Preeminent singer of the 20Lh century who brought international attention to Qawaali tradition The Egyptian Ghawazi tradition class of female dancers originating from Ancient Egypt or 16Lh Century Gypsy Immigrants Ghawazi means foreignerSpeaking to marginalized social status of dancers ghwazi lled commercial demand for professional dancers Catered to Orientalized fantasies of patrons 1800s ban of Ghawazi led to economic and cultural decline in Cairo Symbolism of instruments in Su music Ney reed reed plucked from a reed bed like soul separated from a spiritual home Hollow out reed like soul free from ego Holes symbolize personal suffering Soul becomes an instrument for use by God Tambourinecircular shape representing the universe Lute Representative of the human body Clapping separation and union with the divine India Terms to know Nada BrahmaSound of God Na breathe da fire Sound is the creative vital force by which the entire universe is animated People to know about Yehudi Menuhingreatest violinist in uential in bringing yoga to west through BKS Lyenagar met Ravi in Paris as kids and then became friends in Inida invites Shankar to perform in NYC Ravi and Menhuin West meets East performance won Grammy for best chamber Music performance 1967 Ravi Shankar greatest Sitar player of the 20Lh century bom into an upper class Brahmin toured Europe as a Sitar player and dancer with brother Uday s music troupe l938 initiated into Maihar Gharana family as a disciple of baba allaudin khan began to rise in 1950s bc of radio film scores and tours George Harrisonfinds prop sitar on set of beetle s movie HELPS goes to India with Shankar to study Sitar helps Shankar become international superstar performs sitar on multiple beetle songs l969 embraces Hara Krishna movement introduces Radha Bhakti Yoga and Kirtan Bhalltti Yoga is the yoga of love and devotion popular movement n Krishna Rama Shiva worship in India CE 600 spread by mystic poet singers focused on forging a relationship between the devotee and god Egalitarian movement that broke down caste barriers and rejected rituals that required the mediation of the priestly class Yoga involves service friendship as well as chanting Chaitanya Mahaprabhu 15Lh century saint and Bhakti reformer who popularized ecstatic singing as worship Kirtan Callandresponse devotional singing between soloist and congregation Teth include hymns and sacred mantras including names for God Singers often accompanied by ha1monium drums ecstatic dancing India s Iquot J 39 and Kamatic music traditions Kamatic music South India Hindustani music North India Both traditions employ ragatala share musical concepts Kamatak music shows basic Sanskrit Hindu roots of music Hindustani music shows in uence of Persian Mughal culture Raga and Tala Raga a melodic mode or system of scales melodic gures and ornaments that are internalized and serve as a template for improvisation There are hundreds of ragas in use in Indian music Each Raga set is de ned by Set of ascending and descending pitches may be different going up and down Set of melodic ornaments and melodic motives including microtonal in ections Rules and procedures for putting them together Set of precomposed compositions that may be integrated into performance Extra musical associations 7 Emotional character 7 Time of day 7 Season etc How a raga grows Alap slow abstract unmetered section by melodic instrument and drone 7 Test of the soloist s improvisational skill 7 Each tone pattern of raga introduced w ornaments and microtonal ornaments 7 Gradually expands melodic range becomes more metered until a regular pulse is established Gat metered section 7 Announced by drum ourish then metric cycle set out 7 Dialogue between melodic soloist and drummer 7 Gradual increase in tempo and intensity until nal climax Tala metric cycle which provides rhythmic framework for improvisation As with raga there are many talas to choose from in performance Instruments used in raga performance and their functions Tambura Plucked chordophone Function drone 45 strings tuned to crucial sitar tones Thin threads underneath strings give distinctive swirling wavelike timbre Sitar Longnecked plucked chordophone Function lead melody 67 strings some for melody some for drone plus 13 sympathetic strings for resonance Movable frets for tonal exibility Hollow ngerboard for bending strings adding ornaments Tabla Pair of singleheaded drums Higher pitched drum with clear ringing tone and lowerpitched drum with deep resonant tone Pitch can be bent with pressure on the drum head Wide variety of hand nger strokes gives wide variety of sounds Other Sarangi plucked chordophone Sarod Bowed Chordophone violin Shehnai doublereed aerephone Bansuri ute Rasa theory in Indian drama human moods correlating with transcendent emotions Goal to inspire empathy to help audiences experience rasas and achieve a state of catharsis examples erotic love anger Diegetic and nondiegetic lm music Diegetic source of music Visible or implied source onscreen Heard by characters onscreen Exists as part of narrative Non diegetic underscore No visible source of music Heard only by audience Exists outside of narrative Indonesia The 3part Agama Hindu universe Upper World 7 Located heavens above Mount Agung 7 Inhabited by Trimurti gods venerated ancestors Middle World 7 Located Bali itself 7 Inhabited by Balinese people Lower World 7 Located sea and below 7 Inhabited by evil spirits malevolent creatures Texture and u of gamelan music Colotomic Cycle Cyclic measurement of time anywhere from 6 to 108 beats Certain beats within a cycle marked by different instruments Played by hanging gongs kajarkempli EX l6beat ketawang Gong Ageng X Ketuk Kempul Kenong X Kempyang Core melody 7 Slowmoving melody that acts as steady base for the rest of the piece 7 Played by lowpitched gangsa Elaborated melody 7 Fastmoving elaborations on core melody 7 May be several layers of elaboration 7 Faster variations played on higherpitched instruments 7 Performed by highpitched gangsa gong chimes suling rebab voices Kecak Gamelan Suara genre pioneered by Walter Spies for movie The Isle of Demons Kecak expands the sanghyang dedari ensemble applies it to dancedrama performance of Ramayana Singers portray monkey my in the Abduction of Sita 7 Hero Rama s wife Sita is kidnapped by demon Ravana 7 Hanuman the monkey god leads a monkey army to rescue her Vocal gamelan recreates gamelan gong cycles melodies and textures of gamelan using onomatopoeic syllables The use of Gamelan Rele anillr in Atmasoul Cremation the rst step in freeing atma from Middle world to begin journey to Upper world Body is carried in wadah tower to Temple of the Dead for burning Community procession accompanies body Keeps up the tempo of the procession Announces to Upper World spirits the departure of atma from this world asks them to receive the soul Frightens bhutas and leyaks away evil spirits Gives courage to deceased spirit so it will not run away Accompanies cremation as song of farewell to soul Music acts as a ladder on which atma ascends to heaven China People to know about Cui J ian Cui J ian pioneers Chinese Rock in the mid1980 s Unlike more popular Cantopop Chinese rock has connections with social protest movements Cui J ian song Nothing to My Name becomes anthem of Chinese democracy movement Cui J ian performs at 1989 Tianenmen Square protest Excessive military force used at Tianenmen Square becomes symbolic of struggle against authoritarian rule Chinese instruments Qin Zheng Sheng 7 string board zither chordophone Popular among junzi high class individuals believed to possess superior moral character Usually played solo often in solitude as an aid to enlightenment discipline re ection Board zither chordophone 16 or 21 strings laid across wooden frame with resonating chamber Movable bridges can be positioned for different tunings Strings capable of intricate and beautiful ornaments Related historically to Japanese koto Mongolian jatag Vietnamese dan tranh Korean kayagun Mouth organ aerophone with many reed pipes Pipa Four string plucked lute chordophone Erhu Bowed twostring chordophone Xiao Endblown bamboo ute Cultural Revolution and R 39 quot v Opera Cultural Rev Movement instigated by extremist Gang of Four with goal to rid Chinese culture of anything alien to the egalitarian spirit of socialism Oppression of religion ethnic minorities intellectuals the arts anyone who disagreed with the party Enforced through deportation to camps torture execution The arts among other intellectual activities condemned as elitist outdated Only revolutionary songs or instrumental performances approved by the government were allowed Musical artistic intellectual development of Chinese culture grinds to a near halt Destruction of many Chinese cultural treasures Rev Opera Eight Model Plays govemmentsanctioned operas and ballets on revolutionary themes Revolutionary reforms of opera 7 Contemporary themes plots costumes 7 Realistic staging ordinary speech 7 Stylized characterization and gestures removed 7 Traditional opera melodies interspersed With revolutionary songs 7 Some adoption of Western instruments and harmonies Africa Musical Africanisms Complex polyphonic textures 7 Rhythmic complexity Layered ostinatos with varied repetition Conversational element 7 Callandresponse 7 Multiple voices 7 Musicdance dialogue Improvisation Timbral variety 7 Buzzing rattling and other timbre effects Distinctive pitch systems and scales Traditional role of j elis Social Roles Musician Praise singer Historian Genealogist Socialpolitical commentator Satire humor Arbitrator Who becomes a jeli Royal Jeli hereditary class of professional musicians Kouyate Diabate Sissoko families trace lineage to the courts of early Mali empire Formerly employed as praise singers by royalty Now hired by politicians or other wealthy patrons Signi cant presence in intemational recording industry PR specialist Diplomat Jeli instruments Kora Most wellknown nonpercussion African instrument global symbol of African music 21 string spike harp chordophone Two parallel sets of strings strung on straight neck that passes through calabash or half gourd resonator Performer holds instrument by two handgrips plucks with thumbs forefingers Traditionally played seated on oor w tailpiece on oor to add resonance Bala xylophonetype wooden idiophone w 3octave range Koni or ngoni banjolike plucked chordophone Ireland People to know about Seamus Ennis D Great Irish musical icon Son of prominent piper who grew up with great traditional musicians passing through the home Hired by national folklore commission national radio station and the BBC to travel through Ireland recording local traditions Credited with documenting local Irish traditions and getting them to the public PlanXty 1970 s leaders of the second wave of Irish music revival Enjoyed friendship and admiration of piping legend Seamus Ennis Credited with updating the traditional sound and giving it a youthful air Credited with pioneering the modern Irish ensemble sound The Pogues Formed 1982 by punk musician Shane McGowan Pioneered Celtic punk by fusing traditional Irish sounds instruments w punk energy and sensibility Themes include Irish nationalism Irish republicanism working class pride drinking Gained cult following but early career derailed by McGowan s self destructive behavior Reformed in 2002 Dance rh hms Jig triple subdivision 7 Swwawawaw Hornpipe like a slower reel Reel duple or quadruple subdivision 7 Swa or Swwwaww Neotraditional approach to Irish music Combines oldfashioned solo traditions and playing styles with sophisticated arrangements Shifts emphasis from solo performance to ensemblebased sound Introduces rhythm and harmony instruments to ensemble rather than having all instruments play the melody Innovative use of textures and changing combinations of instruments Irish diaspora Irish potato famine political instability economic downturn spur immigration from Ireland to UK USA etc Particularly strong communities in Boston and New York City Irish communities outside of Ireland preserve and develop traditional music as touchstone of identi cation with the homeland Prosperity travel tourism mass media communication technology connect diaspora culture to the homeland Ireland experiences revitalization of music in the homeland by Irish outside off Ireland who preserved it Development of a transnational panIrish musical culture Latin America Major cultural strands of Latin American music and what they contributed Native American 7 Music was functional in ritual celebration etc 7 Music was based on communal oral tradition African 7 Polyphonic textures rhythmic complexity 7 Layered ostinatos 7 Conversational element 7 Improvisation 7 Timbral variety 7 Distinctive pitch systems and scales European 7 Spanish music already a blend Western European Arabic Gypsy Nordic Indian Judaic Danzon Up until l9Lh c white Cuban society relied on European music and dance genres Disenchantment with economic restrictions government corruption and Spain led to white Cubans distancing themselves from European identity and past Hybrid African and European forms like danzon re ect emerging Cuban identity antiSpanish nationalist movement more racially inclusive idea of being Cuban means By 1920 s danzon essentially national dance of Cuba Cha cha cha style 1950 bandleader Enrique J orrin records rst cha cha cha record La Enganadora His approach create Cuban dancemusic style accessible to nonCubans ie Americans 7 Make it simpler less exhausting 7 Dispense With syncopated rhythms replace the with foursquare rhythm with steady clear quadruple beat 7 Medium tempo range 7 Simple footwork that s easy to lea1n onetwocha chacha 7 Harmonized callandresponse singing replaced with simpler unison texture Cha Cha Cha becomes international phenomenon Eventually oversimpli cation and rock n roll killed the cha cha cha Big Band Mambo musical style As son begins to eclipse danzon in popularity danzonmambo emerges as more Africanized version 1949 Perez Prado has rst international hit Mambo 5 Mambo Kings Machito and the AfroCubans Tito Rodriguez and Tito Puente take mambo to new heights of popularity in the US Mambo borrows from jazz and popular music without softening Afro Cuban percussion and rhythm Fania AllStars 1964 Fania Records established in Manhattan under Johnny Pacheco Recorded young inner city artists playing energetic blend of Latin dance and big band jazz records become popular in Newyorican community 1971 Fania All Stars created group nds broad audience and starts playing stadiums and arenas