WRLD MUS CULTURES I
WRLD MUS CULTURES I MUH 2512
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Date Created: 09/17/15
MUH 2512 Self Study Assignment Chapter 12 NAME The interrelated domains of Egyptian dance examined in this chapter are raqs baladi raqs sharqi and belly dance zaar takht and tabla solo maqam dum and tek 90 The ArabIslamic world encompasses the Arabian Peninsula Iraq Syria Jordan the Maghrib region of northern Africa all of the above 990 3 True or False Two important features unifying the vast and culturally diverse Arab Islamic world are the religion of Islam and the Arabic language 4 The adoption of Islam and the Arabic language in Egypt fostered a significant cultural developments in the realm of religion science politics literature and music b more accepting societal attitudes regarding the place of music and dance in religious worship c increased isolation of the Egyptians from other peoples of the region d all of the above 5 The rise of Egyptian nationalism was inspired by a resentment toward the occupying Greeks and Assyrians b general opposition towards foreign domination of Egypt c a new nationalist spirit that led to the rejection of panArabism d Both A and C but not B 6 A maqam in Arab music a is identical to a raga in Indian music maqam is an Arabic translation of the term raga b features both musical and extramusical characteristics that distinguish it from other maqamat c traditionally employs a scale of seven ascending and seven descending pitches derived from the 12 pitches of the chromatic scale the ascending and descending forms may differ from one another d is the sole basis of any taqsim performance as in Indian music modulation from one mode to another is strictly forbidden 7 True False The French occupation and British colonization of Egypt had profound political ramifications on Egyptian society but Egyptian music and its related culture were affected only to a small extent by these sociohistorical developments 8 According to the speculative theories of AlRawi and others the ancient roots of Middle Eastern women s dance are to be found a among the cultures of prostitutes and concubines that ourished in the royal courts of the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt b in Ancient Egypt where women are believed to have first developed dances in imitation of the dances of male courtiers who entertained the Pharaohs c in the court of Pharaoh Ramses II who decreed that all women of noble birth should learn to dance in order to re ne their character d in cultures of antiquity that predated the great civilizations of Ancient Egypt 9 10 The hereditary families of dancers who formed the foundation of professional public women s dancing in Egypt are called The word may be translated literally as which is telling in terms of the traditionally marginal position of professional female dancers in Egyptian society 11 is the name of the ancient healing ritual involving spirit possession and trance that is discussed extensively in this chapter 12 14 Identify three pieces of music from the CD set that incorporate rhythms derived from the music that accompanies the ancient healing ritual referenced above 15 TrueFalse The movements employed in the ritual dancing of the above healing ritual have been absorbed into the movement vocabularies of belly dance and raqs sharqi 16 19 Identify four of the standard ArabEgyptian percussion instruments membranophonesidiophones that are used to accompany raqs baladi raqs sharqi and belly dance performances 20 22 Notate using the D t 7 notation format of the chapter the basic skeletal rhythmic patters of the following dance rhythms o Fallahi o Zaar o Saaidi 23 26 Indicate the timings e g 102109 where each of the following rhythms occurs in Belhadawa Walla Belshaawa CD tr 317 0 Masmoudi o Saaidi o Malfuf o Fallahi 27 If called upon to distinguish a Saaidi rhythm from any of the others discussed in the chapter what would be the main thing to listen for in terms of the sequence of drum strokes 28 29 Name three instruments of the traditional takht ensemble that are heard in Zeina CD eX 313 and are discussed in the related Guided Listening Experience text 30 31 Name two instruments heard in Zeina that are not part of the traditional takht instrumentation 32 Sayyid Darwish was a pioneer in Egyptian music in the early 201h century who a established a new aesthetic ideal for Egyptian music and other arts b achieved the status of a musical legend and a cultural hero of the Egyptian nation c became an inspiration and a musical leader for later generations of Egyptian composers and musicians including Muhammad Abd alWahhab d all ofthe above 33 Badiaa Masabni was a Sayyid Darwish39s counterpart in the domain of women39s dance she was responsible for many choreographic innovations and for launching the careers of great dancers such as Samia Gamal b both a leading dancer and the greatest Egyptian female singer of the 20Lh century c an important choreographer who is credited with having saved the art of raqs sharqi from the ravages of excessive Western in uence during the mid20Lh century d all of the above 34 39 6 points In a brief paragraph 36 sentences summarize the major contributions and innovations of the following Egyptian media stars of the mid201h century era l930sl960s Muhammad Abd alWahhab Umm Kulthum and Samia Gamal Link these individuals to Egyptian musicdance nationalism and mass media arts and entertainment 40 41 Name one instrument that you would likely find in both a rqa ensemble w a takht ensemble and one instrument that you would likely find in a firqa but not in a takht 42 Under the presidency of Gamal Abd alNasser Egypt experienced a a preoccupation with authentic folk baladi culture and its revival and preservation b a major revival of raqs sharqi c censorship of Muhammad Abd alWahhab and Umm Kulthum on account of their radical political views d all of the above 43 47 5 points In a brief paragraph 24 sentences discuss Farida Fahmy and her contributions to Egyptian nationalism as a symbol of Egyptian folldpeasant ideals during the Abd alNassser era terms and ideas to use Reda Troupe purported freedom from Western themes and ideals fallahin nationalistic ideals baladi 48 51 4 points Where do the names of the rhythms fallahi and Saaidz39 come from From what regional and cultural traditions of Egyptian dance did they arise terms to use Upper Egypt Lower Egypt Nile Delta region tahtib peasant 52 53What is a Tabla Solo dance What instrument or instruments accompany the dancing and what kind of form does the musical arrangement typically have use examples from Belhadawa Walla Belshaawa CD tr 317 to support your answer 54 56 Fill in the blanks with the correct term from the following options raqs baladi raqs sharqi belly dance 0 Egyptian professional women s dance is 0 Egyptian folk and rural dance traditions are 0 International dance styles rooted in Middle Eastern dance are 57 66 10 points The types of exoticization and stereotyping associated with Middle Eastern dance that are discussed in this chapter ie relative to female dance traditions specifically are hardly unique Many other peoplesiNative Americans African Americans Roma Gypsies Jews Indians ie of India etcihave been similarly essentialized through popular cultural images and stereotypes in films television shows video games sports team names and symbols musical compositions etc Identify five cultures you can use the ones listed above or others where such processes of essentialization have occurred relative to dance andor music traditions and identify at least two substantive Websites or other sources books articles documentary films for each of these cultures that you would use as primary sources to research this topic For each source give a complete citation see the Further ReadingListening Viewing lists at the Online Learning Center for models of citation formats and write a 12 sentence annotation summarizing the relevant content of each cited source MUH 2512 Bakan lecture notes Ch 8 India INTRO 11720 INDIA What does it connote What does it make you think of Play example from a raga recording e g Gurdev Singh sarod Raga Ahir Bahirav alap note gat starts at 942 Now what thoughts images ideas come to mind Ravi Shankar Icon of Indian music a problematic status in many ways sitar iconic too 1960s Beatles counterculture hippies great sitar explosion o Shankar a microcosm of complexities and paradoxes of world music generally the Godfather of World Music according to George Harrison Actually Hindustani music and the instrumental raga tradition speci cally that he mainly represents Barhat 0 Key concept of chapter speci cally refers to notebynote expansion of melodic range of a raga in perf but metaphorically extends to growt more broadly e g musical interactions gharanas global web of in uence of an iconic artist like Shankar Indian Music in Context 12023 Students should familiarize themselves with basic historical geographical demographic information in this section Indian civilization ancient roots 3000 BCE and culture of India and Indian subcontinent extremely diverse 200 languages 1600 dialects etciHindi English Hindu religion 80 of pop Vedas Vedic chantSanskritire Indian classical music questionable o baqawathari musician AND he who sings the praises of God 0 Caste system refer to box on p 125 Bhajan devotional songs and hymns CD 2 9 close links to classical music trads 5Lh cent Buddhism Jainism also Sikhism l6Lh c 8th c Islam note Su sm CD 2 10 Su song Shafqat Ali Khan AND Nusrat CD ex of qawwali ANDOR NUSRAT YOUTUBE CLIP 0 Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan on youtube http wwwyoutube comwatchvW7Abe8kaM Nusrat good short qawwali Clip 0 X http wwwyoutube comwatchviKOszmthw TV broadcast REMOVED FROM YOUTUBEgt remove it from master list 0 http wwwyoutube comwatchvjeiIC8Tga9w electric sound Qawwali originated in Punjab region India Pakistan Bhangra also from Punjab play or remind class of CD 1 23 bhangra ex Bhangra has became a major element of filmi git lm song in Bollywood movie soundtracks note B0 of Bollywood from Bombay the former name of city of Mumbai 0 http www youtube comwatchvn1JDK Wieag music videoBollywood style bhangra Lots of Western pop in uence in that video Indeed long history of Indian contact with West European in uence from 15111 c 19Lh c British colony 1947 national independence Gandhi Kamatak South vs Hindustani North classical trads Having heard examples of bhangra lmi git traditional Su song qawwali gives some sense of diversity of music culture in India and Indian subcontinent also including Pakistan Bangladesh Now shift speci cally to the two great classical traditions Kamatak in South India and Hindustani in North India 0 Both based in the same ancient Hindu musical culture 0 Recognized as distinct since about 16Lh c Similar types of melodic systems called raga metricrhythmic systems called tala types of instruments Similar belief in superiority of vocal music though instrumental traditions better known outside of India 0 Main reason for differences Greater in uence of Islamic cultures in the north which transformed Hindustani music on many levels for other differences see Table 81 125 Texture in both single line melody drone rhythmic accomp I vina tambura mrdangam iKamatak p 125 photo CD 1 25 I sitar tambura tablaiHindustani p 120 photo 0 O O Hindustani raga Our main focus Ravi Shankar b 1920 bestknown proponent Shankar part of Maihar gharana founded by his guru mentor Allaudin Khan Baba Shankar s 01d teacher in the Raga film we saw who in turn traces his lineage back to 16Lh c musician Tansen o gharanaa lineage of musicians who share a common tradition of raga study and performance across multiple generations each has distinctive style of approach to performance practice see also box on p 127 Another very famous musician in Maihar gharana lineage is Ali Akbar Khan son of Baba master of an instrument called the sarod see photo p 130 and a major international ambassador of Indian music in his own right 0 I If time Alam Khan son of Ali Akbar Khan clip httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvA5Gh93hjjrA I ADDED httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvhobK 8bIka Ali Akbar Khan perf 0 Out of same Maihar lineage also comes Anoushka Shankar sitar player daughter of Ravi and Vishwa Mohan Bhatt who we ll learn more about later 0 For a primer on Hindustani raga MGT for this chapter Intro to Indian Music CD 2 11 p 128 box featuring and narrated by Ravi Shankar terms alap tintal theka sam etc Just listen we ll learn relevant de nitions later INSTRUMENTS 12932 0 Sitar p 129 melody instrument long necked plucked chrodophone w 67 melodydrone strings l3 sympathetic REFER TO DIAGRAM ON p 129 for other features Other melodic insts discussed on p 130 Tambura 129 45 strings Drone instrument emph vadi or tonic Tabla 13132 Two drums bayan dahina compare to S Indian mrdangam Rhythmic accompaniment instrument RAGA DEFINED 132 o raga a complete anal self contained melodic system that serves as the basis for all the melodic materials in any composition or performance created in that raga There are many at least 58 o Raga de ning characteristics set of pitches scale omamentsmelodic motives rules and procedures set compositions extramusical assoc 0 Requirement of strict adherence to the raga in performance TALA 132 13537 rhythmic framework and especially metric cycle e g for metered sections of a raga performance tintal l6 jhaptal 10 o Theka skeletal pattern tali claps khali waves plus nger counts matra sam beat 1 0 DO KEEPING TAL EXERCISE ON TINTAL see pp 13537 Link up with 145 200 then 250 330 of CD tr 2 11 Refer students to OMI 23 for practice 0 Tihai cadential pattern thrice repeated RAGA GROWTH AND FORM 0 A raga not a piece but rather a templatefor musical action in the musician s mind or a kind of a road map that musician follows in learning and performing 0 Musical symbolic and spiritual potential to be realized in barhat or growth Ultimate Nada Brahma Sound of God At once a unifying structure anal a medium for limitless innovation and variation Overall progression from slow and abstract movement to fast tempometered music see Fig 84 p 135 FORM Alap improvised free rhythm solo exploration of main tones pitches of raga scale gradual growth in melodic range rhythmic intensity usually leading to sense of beat or pulse by end Jor and or jhala Gat marked by entry of tabla steady beat and tala cycle established continued growth in intensity and complexity leading to climactic nish continued growth in interaction of performers e g melodic soloist tabla player alternation of composed and improvised passages GUIDED LISTENING EXPER Raga Nat Bhairav 13841 CD 212 Part of Raga Bhairav familyimorning raga devotional rasarange of emotional qualitiesisadness to valor peace to agitation image Shiva as naked ascetic with matted locks and body smeared with ashes Nat Bhairav a combo raga Nat Bhairav Popularized by Ravi Shankar in 1940s Basic scale roughly D E F G A Bb C D Performer Vishwa Mohan Bhatt who plays a specially modi ed guitar Mohan vinaIndianized slide guitariphoto p 138 o Protege of Shankar started on sitar Direct class through listening with GLQS of p 14041 box INTERCULTURAL CROSSINGS Fascinating history of encounter between Indian Western music traditions Diverse and multifaceted Book chronicles one trajectory of that via Shankar s web of in uence We ll just hit on a few highlights here specifically ones relating to the exam In the Raga lm we got to see Ravi Shankar performing and interacting with several of his bestknown teachers collaborators and students Allaudin Khan Baba Alla Rakha tabla Yehudi Menuhin violinist and of course Beatles guitarist and Shankar sitar student George Harrison Through Harrison and the Beatles the sitar and Shankar himself catapulted to megastar status in the pop music and youth counterculture worlds of the 1960s 1970s including associations with drug culture etc as per film we saw 0 First Beatles recording to feature the sitar Norwegian Wood 1965 from album Rubber Soul Play CD Subsequent albums re ect Harrison s deepening immersion in Indian music and culture Bestknown of all Within You Without You 1967 from Sergeant Pepper 3 Lonely Hearts Club Band Play CD 0 Great sitar explosion Ravi Shankar perf at Woodstock 1969 Shankar also in uenced many American jazz musicians including the great saxophonist John Coltrane o Coltrane took just a few lessons with Shankar in the winter of 196465 and never went much beyond that in terms of any formal course of study with an Indian master teacher 0 o For years though he was an avid consumer and student of Indian O recordings by Shankar especially and this in uenced his musical approach greatly leading to his unique modal jazz style of the 1960s This recording of a Coltrane tune called India recorded in 1961 is an example CD 2 13 0 Another wellknown jazz musician who was strongly in uenced by Shankar was guitarist John McLaughlin 0 Intensive studies of Indian music and deep immersion in Indian music 0 including conversion to Hinduism 1975 Formed group Shakti which took Indian musicj azz fusion to new heights I Zakir Hussain tabla player son of Alla Rakha I L Shankar violin master in Hindustani tradition nephew of Ravi Shankar I Also two wellknown South Indian Kamatak percussionists thus group a fusion of not just WestemIndian musics but HindustaniKamatak traditions as well I Good example of early Shakti this 1976 live recording Joy CD 2 14 0 Incredible virtuosity Not a raga but many raga elements 0 Improvised solos McLaughlin L Shankar Z Hussain 0 Highly complex fractional tala 146 47 Overall 16 beats and might be considered a variant of tintal but by no means a clear or straightforward version of tintal 0 Finally we come to Trilok Gurtu who takes us into a whole new realm of Indianj azzworld music fusion 0 O O OO O 0 Born into a family of distinguished Indian musicians in Bombay now Mumbai 1951 Grew up studying tabla with revered Hindustani masters performing raga but also listening to Coltrane James Brown Jimi Hendrix etc Worked as studio percussionist in Bollywood film industry played and toured internationally with bhangra bands eventually moved to New York 1976 to pursue a jazz career Developed unique oor kit approach see p 147 Rose to international fame in late 1980s as member of two groups John McLaughlin Trio and Oregon pioneering jazzworld music fusion group whose founding members had been Ravi Shankar students In late 80s too commenced an ongoing series of recording and touring projects under his own name Living Magic CD 2 15 from album of the same title one of his best recordings Fascinating mixture of Indian and jazz elements I Not a raga but ragalike in its alap like opening played solo on a South Indian Vina and featuring electronically processed Vina drone tones leading into a later gat like section with drumming complex metric cycles and ensemble performance Raga like process of growth barhat Band features wellknown jazzworld musicians from Brazil West Africa Norway United States and Gurtu himself of course None of the people we ve studied in the chapter Shankar Coltrane McLaughlin Hussain etc appear on the recording but all have in uenced Gurtu s music and approach in one way or another Music highly complex in both its Indian and Western elements 0 Melodies exhibit elements of dodecaphony ie 12tone serialism a complex posttonal melodic organization system used in much contemporary Western art music 0 Meters metric cycles extraordinarily complex 7 10 even 13 beats Re ects both fractional tala ideas in contemporary Indian classical music and what are known as asymmetrical meter concepts in Western music 0 FOLLOW GLQS on 149 50
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