MUSIC WORLD CULTURES
MUSIC WORLD CULTURES MUH 2051
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rupert O'Keefe DDS on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUH 2051 at Florida State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/205465/muh-2051-florida-state-university in Music History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
MUH 20512512 Lectures LatinoAmerican Music Chapter 11 0 Blades Cuentas del Alma CD as class begins http WWW youtube comwatchvvEgbv12ncc Tito Puente playing Oye at daughter s birthday partyidiscuss re chapter 0 We begin by de ning some basic terms and delimiting their usage within the particular context of this unit 0 O O O 0 Key term Latin dance music I Generic and broad meaning all music related to dance found throughout Latin America de ne and its intemationaldiasporic extensions Speci c unitrelated meaning a particular complex of dancemusic genres linked to a CubaPuerto RicoUSintemational track of development students should memorize the de nition in italics on p 220 Key musical focus The song Oye Como Va Key cultural focus musicultural history of panLatino culture and society with speci c focus on note see bullet list p 219 for more detailed breakdown I Cha cha cha I Newyorican musicculture I Tito Puente I Latin dance music ie the narrow de nition I Commercial music industry Key recordings Oye Como Va recordings of Tito Puente original 1963 Santana 1970 Tito Puente Jr 2004l996 Key related genreshistorical developments I West African and Spanish roots especially re bata drumming Santeria and rumba Creolized Cuban dancemusic forms of early 201h c contradanza danzon charanga type of ensemble mambo danzonmambo son original cha cha cha Stateside developments mambobig band mambo cha cha cha salsa Latin jazz Latin rock diverse forms of modern Latino pop Key names Tito Puente Carlos Santana and band Santana Tito Puente Jr Arca o y sus Maravillas Antonio Arca o Orestes brothers Enrique Jorrin Machito and the AfroCubans incl Mario Bauza Tito Rodriguez Cuba Creolization and Roots of Latin Dance Music 222 225 Afro Cuban roots 222 24 I Spanish colonization o 1492 Columbus 1511 settlers sugar eradication of Taino etc 0 African slaves 5 million plus Yoruba and Congolese 17901860 primary period of slave trade 0 Why Cuban music sounds more African than music in British colonies I later arrival of most slaves US Brit colonies stopped bringing slaves 1804 I Different attitudes toward slavery of British vs Spanish linked to Catholic vs Protestant ideas re musicdanceworship of slaves I Easier for Cuban slaves to buy their freedom thus large communities of free blacldslave communities in Cuban towns cities by early 183911 c and they carried on cultural traditions of African forebears o Santeria Orisha religion I Syncretic religion of Yoruba derivation Ifa I Bata drumming Sacred 3 drums bells attached to leadlowest mother drum ensemble organization polyrhythmic texture context songs in sacred rituals devoted to the pantheon of orisha Shango God of Thunder Yemaya God of the Seas and Lakes Mother of All Obatala King of Kings King of all Orisha 0 CD 3 1 Song for Obatala performance actually by a Miamibased group led by Ezequiel Torres 0 http WWW ontnbe comwatchvjbedH MrlNLO Bata drummers I Rumba secular counterpart conga drums 3itumbadora conga quinto clave rhythm and claves instrument Memorize different versions of clave rhythm in Fig 111 p 224 OMI 25 also palitos callandresponse soloistscoro polyrhythms dancing social celebration lyrics re ect social setting topical issues life lessons etc 0 Different types of rumba Yambu Colombia guaguanco o Guaguanco dancing pantomime game of coy evasionplayful conquestip 224 0 CD 3 2 rumba guaguanc perf song title The Legends of Greece imetaphor 0 http WWW ontnbe comwatchvJOZWk Or9wac Rumba performance W dancers o If time Ruben Bladesi Patria i gnagnanco bass Spanish Cuban RootsDanzo39n Mambo 22425 0 Other half of the syncretic equation 0 Latter 18Lh century blending of African YorubaCongolese European elements espec Spanish Before that whitesiwaltzes mazurkas minuets etc but Cuban whites disenchantment with corruptioninefficiency issuing from Spain led to rejection embracing of new hybrid formsiEuropean dance styles mixed with AfroCubanmulatto forms The new forms e g contradanza danzon symbolized new more raciallyculturally inclusive concept of Cuban identity many achieved wide international popularity ushering in Cuban dominance of Latin dance music By 1920s Danzon as national dance of Cuba Played on charanga wooden ute two Violins piano bass guiro plus pair of drums predecessors of timbales o en maracas too During 1920s Son rivaled danzon as dominant form Much more Afro Cubanized incorporation of conga drums imp01tant In response to challenge of son many charanga groups began to develop a more Africanizedson in uenced style Some have called this danz n mambo Arca o y sus Maravillas w Lopez brothers Cachao and Orestes o Instrumentation congas added cowbell added to timbales kit paving way to modern set 0 Styleform addition of long mambo sections to the a1rangement more AfroCubanized ostinatobased Violin syncopated gures improv ute solos 0 Historical importance Fed into both cha cha cha and big band mambo 0 http WWW youtube comwatch Vl 1 quZAZyMY Cuban cha chadanzondanzon mambo clips by Cuban band dancing too Enrique Jorrin and the Cuban Cha Cha Cha 225 27 Some of what we just saw in the Video clip links to original Cuban cha cha cha Violinist Jorrin had also been in Arcano y sus Maravillas Violinist 1950 formed Orquesta America charanga selfconsciously invented the cha cha cha in order to provide an accessible easytodanceto Cuban style devoid of many of the complexities of earlier styles Speci cally had marketing to American international dance audience in mind Foursquare beat medium tempo l2cha cha cha footwork of dancers simple mainly unison singing by band members as opposed to no singing or complex callandresponse type Basic rhythmic foundation Musical Guided Tour p 227 First Jorrin cha cha hit La Enga adora Beguiler Later ones included El Bodeguero The Grocer CD 3 37note modern Cuban charanga group style mainly traditional but Violins replaced by synth simple rhythm unison group tempo up to 120 Cha cha s international popularity through mid50s then zzled but reinvented through a synthesis with big band mambo in the hands of Tito Puente etc Mambo Big Band Mambo Evolved in a sense out of the danzonmambo son and other earlier forms Perez Prado Mambo 5 1949 first international hit recording Prado invented genre However a new style of mambo associated mainly with Cuban Puerto RicanNewyorican musicians in New York perfected the style and launched mambo craze of the early 50s Tito Puente Tito Rodriguez Machito the mambo kings Defining features of the genre see bullet list p 228 CD 3 4 Sambia by Machito and the AfroCubans Good illustration of this style and its distinctive features as outlined intro followed by saxes riff trumpettrombone riffs in CampR style layered riffsostinatos after that driving AfroCuban rhythms read more about this important band and their in uence in box on p 2307seminal link Cuba CubanAmerican dance bands American jazz http WWW youtube comwatchvn7xGFrNQ32E Historic Machito Tito Puente Newyorican Connection NYC 229 31 Newyorican as opposed to T Rodriguez PR MachitoBauza Cuban b 1923 Spanish Harlem El Barrio NYC Multicultural environment complex multiple identity EnglishSpanish language jazz classical Latin music Puerto Rican parents played as a young man with Machito s band identified himself mainly with Cuban music Mongo Santamaria drafted during WWII and played in the Navy band etc Cuban music had long been popular in Puerto Rico Massive migration of Puerto Ricans to NYC postWW 11 Set up environment for ourishing of Cubanderived Latin dance music that Puente was central to 1949 Prado Mambo 5 Max Hyman buys Palladium read box on p 232 T Puente forms his own band 1950s mambo craze with Puente and band at epicenter Many albums through 1950s and 1960s including Dance Mania 1958 1963 El Rey Bravo w orig recorded version of Oye Como Va a mambo ized cha cha cha whose style had become idiomatic for mambo bands by this time GLE Oye Como Va essentially a cha cha cha with big band mambo instrumentation textures and stylistic elements 23135 Compared to El Bodeguero 0 basic cha cha cha groove and feel similar but Oye a bit faster more edge and intensity minor key A min vs major o more syncopated funky rhythmic groove thanks to organ riff bass line big band horn section as opposed to charanga O O O singing style similar but with more harmonization simple song about macho guy bragging about his virility to a mulatta dancericompare to basic game of rumba guaguanco discussed earlier Famous signature unison gure see Fig 112 p 233 Mambo sections with layered ostinatos through horn section riffs Of the two mambo sections second one more syncopated complex in horn parts GLQS guide through p 233 34 SantanaLatin Rock 234 237 0 TP s Oye helped make El Rey Bravo his secondbiggest seller to date but that success was dwarfed by the mass popularity of Santana s version seven years later 1970 which sold millions and went to 13 on the Billboard rock charts unprecedented for a Latin tune 0 Santana version beyond its own success had a big impact on TP s own career on salsa explosion of the 70s and on new panLatino identity closely linked to Latin dance music 0 Carlos Santana b 1947 Mexico gigged in Tijuana moved to SF at age 15 embroiled in rich multicultural music scene of that city rock blues jazz etc and its counterculture scene Also discovered Latin dance bands of TP etc Fusing Latin sounds w rock etc potently symbolic of emerging cosmopolitan pan Latino identity 0 1968 Formed Santana 1969 album Santana Evil Ways by Willie Bobo the hit single Latin rock idiom established Woodstock that same year 0 http WWW youtube comwatchvinzllaol74CE Soul Sacrifice at Woodstock o 1970 Abraan Black Magic Woman and Oye Como Va hit singles GLE Oye Como Va Santana 237 40 0 Basically a cover version of TP original but in a Latin rock style 0 Review bullet list comparison to original Puente version pp 23738 0 Listen Subjective comparison of affect 0 Listen again guiding through GLQS partic clap sig unison figure RH up for TP horn riffs LH up for bluesrocldjazz licks in guit solo d O O O O OO Organ riff but on Hammond B 3 Embellished groove Carlos S s skillful folding in of various original horn riffs and lines into his guitar solos in an improv solo that replaces the mambo of the original Integration of Latin jazz blues rock etc uniquely Santanaish Freer treatment of the cha cha cha groove with jazzrock in uence use of drumset supplementing Latin rhythm section Rolie s organ solo style Second guitar solo compare to first goes further a eld in integration of different elements Oye and Pan Latino Identity Material 240 43 Impact of Santana s Oye Revitalization and transformation of TP s career note most people in new audiences who went to TP s didn t even know Oye was his tune Rockandrollrock explosions of mid1950s through 1960s had diminished Latin music s mainstream popularity exacerbated by Cuban political situation Success of Oye and other Latin rock hits led to revival of interest in more traditional and emerging neotraditional styles eg salsa and new styles of Latin jazz Tito Puente became king of both though he didn t like the term salsa see quote p 241 http www outube comwatchv8Y O 6thWj rg Tito Puente anol Celia Cruz with the Poncho Sanchez banol w Sanchez on congas live salsa show with dancing Quimbara starts with rumba guaguanco groove then to straight salsa Santana s Oye and Latin music and Latin rock more broadly became an important symbol and marker of a new panLatino identitysocial consciousness to quote from the book to a conception of LatinoAmerican ness that insisted on inclusion while demanding distinctiveness of identity and that recognized the uniqueness of Latin Latino nationalities and cultures while building bridges between them p 241 Both Puente and Santana cultural icons symbols of panLatino pride and achievement and each in their own different ways important symbols and advocates of panLatino unity awareness social causes etc Puente s enduring relevance across and bridging multiple generations one of his main contributions Santana in a different way is important for similar reasons Another important cultural icon of the panLatino world is salsa Latin jazz and Latin pop superstar Ruben Blades also a lawyer film actor and politician 0 http WWW yontnbe comwatchvl 4 GlquNFP U Blades Montrenx Jazz Festival Cnentas Del Alma O O O O O O O O Tito Puente Jr s Oye Como Va Since Santana s historic recording myriad other arrangements and recordings of Oye see list on p 243 for a few TP Jr s has probably garnered the most interest and attention b 1971 to Tito Sr and Margaret Puente in NYC became a Latin percussionist early no choice 50 pairs oftimbales in garage studied piano arranging producing largely with his dad grew up playing with his dad other luminaries Celia Cruz moved to Miami as a young adult host to a vibrant contemp Latino music scene rivaling if not exceeding New York s Truly panLatino 1996 Guarachando with Latin Dance style poprock hiphop techno Latino pop elements fused with mambo cha cha cha merengue etc at its core Hit single was Latin Dance version of Oye Como Va sold very well and won a Latin Music Award Remix version 2004 the one TP Jr himself prefers and it s the one included on your CD set Sampledsynthesized Latin perc insts and grooves plus lots of other stuff 0 Processed sample of Santana B 3 organ riff O 0 Various transformations of the basic cha cha groove as the arrangement unfolds from trad to funky and technoesque o Countermelody from 119 sung by wellknown vocalist La India male vocalist Cali Aleman also featured o Interpolation of synthsampled renditions of mambo horn riffs woven in o Tito Puente Sr timbales solo especially towards the end note both Puentes play timbales on thet track throughout 0 L S Since death of his dad in 2000 TP Jr s career increasingly geared to carrying on the music and tradition of his father Big 3 Palladium Orchestra Tito Puente Jr Orchestra 2004 album En L03 Pasos De Mi Padre Read concluding TP Jr website quote on p 248 to the class http WWW youtube comwatch v1OIGCWO4 qu Jr iso so clip at best TP
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