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by: Alyce Kunde Jr.


Alyce Kunde Jr.
GPA 3.64

Tyler Towne

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Tyler Towne
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyce Kunde Jr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2012 at Florida State University taught by Tyler Towne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/205489/psy-2012-florida-state-university in Psychlogy at Florida State University.




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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter 8 Memory Book Notes Memog Learning that has persisted over time information that has been stored and can be retrieved To remember anything we must get information into our brain retain that information and later get it back out Encoding The processing of information into the memory system for example by extracting meaning Storage The retention of encoded information over time Retrieval The process of getting information out of memory storage Atkinson and Shiffrin Memory Model 1 We rst record toberemembered information as a eeting sensory memory 2 From there we process information into a shortterm memory bin where we encode it through rehearsal 3 Finally information moves into longterm memory for later retrieval Sensog Memogy The immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system Shortterm Memog Activated memory that holds a few items brie y such as the 7 digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten Longterm Memog The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system Includes knowledge skills and experiences Working Memog A newer understanding of shortterm memory that focuses on conscious active processing of incoming auditory and visualspatial information and of information retrieved from longterm memory Associates new and old information and solves problems Automatic Processing Unconscious encoding of incidental information such as space time and frequency and of wellleamed information such as word meanings Effortful Processing Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort Automatic would be like remembering where you ate dinner yesterday and effortful would be like remembering the chapter concepts Rehearsal The constant repetition of information either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage Spacing Effect The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better retention than through massed study or practice ie cramming isn t the best way Serial Position Effect Our tendency to recall best the last and rst items in a list Visual encoding Encoding of images Acoustic Encoding Encoding of sounds especially words Semantic Encoding Encoding of meaning including the meaning of words We have especially good recall for information we can meaningful relate to ourselves Iconic Memory A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second Echoic Memog A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli Without active processing short term memories have a limited life and capacity usually only 7 bits of information at a time Longterm memory storage is essentially limitless Although the brain represents a memory in distributed groups of neurons those nerve cells must communicate through their synapses Longterm Potentiation LTP 1 An increase in a synapse s ring potential after a brief rapid stimulation Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory After neuron is stimulated the memorycircuit connections increases their sensitivity and now the sending neuron needs less prompting to release its neurotransmitter and the receiving neurons receptor sites may increase Flashbulb Memories A clear memory of an emotionally signi cant moment or event Amnesia The loss of memory Implicit Memog Retention 39 J J J of 39 quot quot Explicit Memory Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare Hippocampus A neural center that is located in the limbic system helps process explicit memories for storage Recall A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier as on a fillintheblank test Recognition A measure of memory in which a person need only identify items previously learned as on amultiple choice test Releaming A measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for the second time Example In 25 years it might be hard to recall people from high school but if shown their picture it would be much easier to recognize their faces and names Memories are held in storage by a web of associations each piece interconnected with others Priming The activation often unconsciously of particular associations in memory What we learn in one state drunk or sober may be more easily recalled when we are again in that state Beerfest Mood Congment Memory The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good or bad mood When in a good mood are parents are great but when in a bad mood we cant stand them Aging makes encoding get worse When learning retention drops dramatically as time goes on but then eventually levels off Spanish class Stored memories can decay Proactive interference The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information If you buy a new lock and try to remember the code your memory of the old code of a lock might interfere Retroactive Interference the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information Its like when a second stone gets tossed into a pond right after the first one and the new ripples effect the old ones Positive transfer is when knowing old information will help you encode new information like if you know Latin it will help you learn French better Repression In psychoanalytical theory the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts feelings and memories We repress painful memories to protect ourselves and minimize anxiety Misinformation Effect Incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event We can recall an experience and lling in memory gaps with plausible guesses and assumptions Imagination in ation can occurs partly because visualizing something and actually perceiving it activate similar brain areas The more vividly we can imagine things the more likely we are to in ate them into memories Source Amnesia Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced heard about or read about or imagined At the heart of many false memories We may hear something and later recall seeing it Memories we have from experience are more vivid then memories we have imagined Study Guide A computer is like memory in that it translates input key strokes into an electronic language like how brain encodes sensory info into neural language The computer stores info on a drive from which it can later be retrieved Circuits are the sensory memory RAM is the working ST memory and the hard drive is the LT memory Connectionism views memories as emerging from interconnected neural networks Specific memories arise from particular activation patterns within these networks The difference between implicit and explicit memory is that people cannot declare that they know how to do something implicit memory They can find their way to the bathroom but cannot tell you where it is implicit motor and cognitive skills there is not conscious recall But explicit has conscious recall and people can declare that they know how to do something like facts and general knowledge Space encoding where something is on a page of a textbook time later in the day you can unintentionally note the sequence of events for the day frequency effortlessly keep track of things that happen each day like seeing someone multiple times a day and well leamed information seeing a word on atruck you cant help but register the words meaning are all encoded AUTOMATICALLY in automatic processing Effortful processing the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning it We can boost our memory by constant rehearsal People who learn quickly forget quickly Recency effect recalling the last items of a list quickly and well because they are still in working memory Primacy effect After a delay shifting their attention away from the last items their recall is best for the rst items Craik and Tulving 1 1975 Compared visual acoustic and semantic encoding They ashed a word at people then they asked a question that required the viewers to process the words at one of three levels 1 Visually the appearance of the letters capitals or lowercase 2 Acoustically the sound of the words 7 rhyming 3 Semantically the meaning of the words if a word would fit in a sentence They found that processing a word more deeply semantic produced better recognition later Semantic encoding was most remembered followed by acoustic and then visual because they were shallow processed Making things meaningful helps you remember them better Self reference effect we are able to remember things that are more relevant to ourselves and is processed more deeply Organizing Encoding Chunking we more easily recall info when we can organize it into familiar manageable chunks Example 7 ROY G BIV colors of the rainbow Hierarchies A few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts Example Outlining notes with headings and subheadings Mnemonic Devices Memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices 0 Pegword system Requires you to memorize a jingle Example one is a bun two is a shoe three is a tree Then you will be able to visually associate bun with one and two with shoe Retrieval Cues When you encode into a memory a target piece of information you associate the target with other bits of info about your surroundings mood ect The bits can serve as retrieval cues anchor points you can use to access the target info when you want to retrieve it later The more cues the better Best cues come from when we encode the memory tastes smells and sights often evoke our recall of associated episodes Example of priming After seeing or hearing the word rabbit we are more likely to spell the spoken word hare rather than the other way hair Putting yourself back in context where you experienced something can prime your memory retrieval A specific emotion can prime us to associate with an event later Mood s effect on retrieval helps explain why moods persist When we are happy we recall happy events which helps prolong happiness Ways to Forget Things Sins of forgetting l Absentmindedness 7 inattention to details leads to encoding failure mind is elsewhere when we lay down are car keys 2 Transience 7 Storage decay overtime part ways from classmates unused info fades 3 Blocking 7 Inaccessibility of stored info seeing actor in old movie name at the tip of the tongue but we cant get it out Sins of distortion 1 Misattribution 7 Confusing the source of info remembering a dream as an actual happening 2 Suggestibility 7 Lingering effects of misinformation a leading question 7 Did Mr Jones touch your private parts 7 later becomes young child false memory 3 Bias 7 Beliefcolored recollections current feelings toward person may color our recalled initial feelings Sin of intrusion l Persistence 7 Unwanted memories being haunted by images of sexual assault Without effort many memories never form Often we forget a memory because we can t retrieve it not because we discarded it The forgetting curve Ebbinghaus its rst rapid than levels off Proactive forwardacting and Retroactive backwardacting interference Misinformation Effect After exposure to subtle misinformation many people misremember Example Experiment photoshopped peson with family in a hot air balloon then they were shown the photo 3 times a week for 2 weeks and after that time half the people remembered the nonexistent experience often in rich detail This effect is important especially in criminal cases with eye witnesses and testimonies because people can lead people on to get certain results Also important with child abuse the memories of the rst three years of a persons life are unreliable Spreading activation is a method for searching neural networks The three stages of successful memorization are encoding storage and retrieval DRM Demonstration Given list of words and people a lot of times will remember a word that wasn t said just because it is related to the other words Example bed slumber pillow nap rest Sometimes people will say sleep when remembering the list


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