Case Studies in SPED, Accommodations vs. Modifications, and EdTech
Case Studies in SPED, Accommodations vs. Modifications, and EdTech
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s or yo F ood Uwioe7239rI 0f7ortf3 Co oZz39ooGVeem bowo oroock No f rem UZz392oz39r U iU8VTf3 M5333 and Bacon Boston London Q Toronto 95 Sydney Tokyo 0 Singapore Al39ter you read this chapter you will be able to EXplain what it means to 1nalte renters 4 rifrfe accotrunodetions for students with special needs Describe the steps of a decisionn1alting process for acconnnodating students with special needs in your classroom Identify and describe the lltev elements of an instructional environnient Describe the major components of classroom organization and explain how they can be adapted for students with special needs Explain various w avs that students can be grouped for instruction in an inclnw sive classroom Explaiii how the use of effective class room materials and instructional tneth ods can bene t students with special needs 39 Tterins eno tioneeists iradernir learning time n i25 nssistive teehnoiogv AT to E 3 Direct instruction n 139 Discovery learning n 341 Mixedsitiil groupings n 139 Same skill groupings tn 129 Scaffoiding p M4 Transition time n 12 Mr Rodrignezteaches world l1istor3re11a large urban liigli school Wlhen he introduces new content to his students he reaches to the whole class at once First be few views material that has already been covered pointing ont how that rriaterisl relates to the new content being pre sented Next he provides any additional backgrouiid infor mation rl1atlie tliinlis willhelp students understand the new tnareri39sl inetter I3et39ore Rodrig391ier actually presents new tnaterial he handsquotout a partially completed outline of the niaior points he wilifrnaiize quotquot1This outline helps students iden tifyquot the most inrportantinforrnetion Every 10 rninutes or so he stops his iect1re39and39ieilows students to discuss and modify the otitline antl aslr questions VVl1e11Mr Rodriguezatr corn pletes his iecrnrelie organizes students into cooperative leai 11ingf grt39inps of39four to answer a series of questions on the lecture Mint1el is astudentwith a learning disability in Mr Roc39irigue s ciass Mant1e l1as a liistory of difficulty staying on taslr tlt1rir1g lEi t11139 S and 39iquotiguring out what inforrnation to write down He also lias 39t139foublje rernenilnering inforniarioii from one tiny to the n39e39XiHow well do you think Manuel will perforni in llr39R odi39i39g11ez s class VVi1at changes in the classrooni environnient nrightxlielp Mai1trel to succeed josh has eerebraiquotpals39y His scores on intelligence tests are in the norrr1alrs1j1geHowever he has lots of trouble with rnuscle inovernentslies little use of his lower body and legs and also has problernsiwith ne rnnscle coordination As a i39esnlt josh uses a wheelquotchair has trouble with his speech he speziirs halquotti39ngl3x and is difficult to understand and strt1 rglesti write letters and nurnbers correctiv Josh is inclndet39l in i iquotis Stewsrt7s39 second g1ade class What aspects of the classroorn environment do you think Ms Stewart wiil neetl to adapt forquotosh How do you thinlt she could use reciritiirigry toiaciii39tate l39osl1 s incl39tision Hi How Can the WCLUDE Strategy Help You Make Reasonable Accommodations 1 1 3 or din1inishing the education of the other students in the class For EXE1I1plE lEr Chaver provitled Royce a student with a mild hearing iinpairinent an outline of lecture notes to help him keep up with the lesson Soon other stndents who had been struggling to recognize the important lecture points requested and also bene ted from the outlines Such a reasonable accommodation assists nfiany students in the class quotfire HNICLUDE strategy for accon1n1odating39 students with special needs in the general education classroorn follows seven steps Step 1 Idennfy environinental curricular and instrtictional classroorn dernands l Step 2 Note student learning stifeiigtlis and needs Step 3 Check for potential areas of student success Step 4 Loolefr potential problem areas Step 5 Use information gathered to brainstorrn instructional adaptations Step 6 Decide which adaptations to in1plernent Step T Evaluate student progress as These steps are designed to apply to a hroad range of special needs and classroom environments Step 1 identify lassroorn Demands Because the Cl lSSI39OnT1 environment signi cantly in uences what students learn an alvaing classroom retprirenients allows teachers to anticipate or explain problems a student niight etperience Then by modifying the enviionrnent teachers can solve or lessen the impact of these learning prohletns Cornrnon classrooin dernands rnay relate to classroorn organization classroom grouping instrnctiorial materials and instructional methods Classroom organization The ways in which a teacher establishes and rnaintains order in a classroorn are referred to as classroom organization Doyle 1986 Class roorn organization includes a nuniber of factors physical organiration such as the use ofwall and oor space and lighting classroom routines for academic and nonaca detnic activities classroom cliinate or attitudes toward individual differences be havior inanageinent such as classrooni rules and reward systems and the use of time for instructional and noninstructional activities LaVerna is a student who needs adaptations in phvsical organira1ion she uses a wheelchair and requires wide aisles in the classroorn and a ramp for the step leading to her classroom DeShawn would bene t from a behavior nianagement system he inight rnove from class to class prior to the end of each period to elirninate many potential opportunities to ght with classrnates He would also bene t from an efficient use of tune niinirnizing transition times or the amount of tin1e between activities would eliniinate further opportunities to errgage in inappropriate interactions with his classmates Classroom grouping Teachers use a variety of classroom grouping arrange inents Soniennies they teach the whole class at once as when they lecture in a con tent area such as social studies Other times teachers may employ srnall gronp instruction For exarople thev tnay teach a small group of students who have simi lar instructional needs such as a group of students who all req39uire extra help on How Can rl1elNCLllDE Strategy Help You More Reasonable Accommodations For example some students with cognitive disabiiities can learn many life skills and live independently whereas others COI1lil1 i11Elllj39 need daily assistance Also keep in mind that students with disabilities are more like their peers without disabilities than they are different Like their nondisabled peers they have patterns of learning strengths and vveaknesses Focusing on strengths is essential Anne 1991 Epstein Rudolph S Epstein 2000 Epstein E3 Sharma 1997 Three areas describe student learning strengths and needs academics social emotional development and phys ical development Prohleins in any one of these areas may prevent students from meeting classrooin re qui rernents dcademlcs The first part of academics is basic skills including reading math and oral and vvritten language Although these skills might sornetirnes be bypassed for example through the use of a calculator in math their importance in both ele mentary and secondary education suggests you should consider thern carefully For example a student with a severe reading problem is likelyquot to have trouble in any subject area that requires reading including math social studies and science and on anv assignment vvith written directions Cognitive and learning strategies make up the second part of academics These strategies involve learning how to learn skills such as inemorization teittboolt reading note taking test taking and general probiein solving Such skills give stu dents independence that help them in adult life Students vvith problems in these areas experience increasing difficulty as they proceed through the grades F or e ample students who have difficiilty rneniorizing basic facts have trouble learning to rnultipllv fractionsquot and students who cannot take notes could fall behind in a history course based on a lecture format Survival skills the third area of academics are skills practiced by successful stu dents such as attending school regularly being organized completing tasks in and out of school being independent taking an interest in school and displaving posi tive interpersonal skills Brown Kerr Zigrnond St Harris 1984 Students lacking in these areas usually have Zlifl39lCL1iCj7 at school For eitarnple disorganized students are not likely to have vvork done on time nor are they likely to deliver parent per mission forms for eld trips to their parents or return them to school Snrvivai skills also help some students compensate rot their other problems For exarnpie given two students with identical reading problems teachers sornetimes offer more help to the student who has good attendance and tries hard oclolemotional development Students sociahemotional development involves classroom conduct interpersonal skills and personalpsychological adjustment Classroom conduct problems include a nurnber of aggressive or disruptive behav iors such as hitting fighting teasing hvpe1activit r yelling refusing to compl39y39 with requests crying and destructiveness Although most ofthese behaviors may be e hibited by all children at one time or another students with special needs may en gage in them more frequently and 39vvitlquot greater intensity Conduct problems seriously interfere with student learning and can lead to problems in interpersonal relations and personal psvchologicai adjustment For eitarnple students who are dis ruptive in class are less likely to learn academic skills and content their outbursts also may he resented by their peers and lead to peer rejection social isolation and a poor selfimage H5 How Can the INCLUDE Strategy Help You Make Reasonable Accominodotions p 1 1 F teacher requires that students present booic reports to the class a deniand for student practice Again a potential inistnatch exists that could prevent Sain from succeeding Step 5 Use information to Brainstorm adaptations Once potential rnisniatches have been identified the Ustep of INCLUDE is to use this infotination to identify possible ways to eliuiinate or rniniiniae the effects of them Adaptations could include bypassing the stulent s learning need by allowing the student to employ compensatory learning strategies nfialdng a modification in classroom teaching or organi 39ation and teaching the student basic or independent learning slriils The Professional Edge box on page 118 s39urn1narizes points to keep in niind when rnalting instructional adapta1ions for students Bypass strategies Bypass strategies allow students to gain access to or denionstrate mastery of the school curriculuin in alternative ways For t X 1II1if a bypass snategy for Claire who has a serious probiein with speiling would be a cornputerized spell checker Alternatively a peer could help her proofread her work However bypassing cannot be used in apri1r1ary area of instruction Susan cannot speil check her spelling test Also bypassing a sirill does not necessarily mean that the skill should not he re niediated Susan may need spelling instruction as part of her English class Finally bypass strategies should encourage student indepe39ndence For etainple Susan rnight b ffl H 1 k th th I f d Whotclossroorn demands e JLttei o earning to use aspe ciec eria ei an rcying on apeei proo rea er mjgmfhr5 Studenrhave d eM culty meeting What bypass In n a a H 1 1 o I I I I I i i39S5i39GUi39i39i teaching and organization leathers can rnalce adaptations in EllL11 mnge Omdapfmo5 ciassrooni organization grouping niateriais and instruction to heip students suc mightiielp him demonstrate ceed For eitaniple if Ramos has attention problems he might be seated near the rhothe has learned his as front of the rootn and he might bene t from a special system of rewards and con 3l9 m 1quot0 5 W9 05 W5 51055 sequences and a classroom in which busy bulletin board displays are removed Ail ma 5 WV9 these are classroorn organization adaptations A change in classroom instruction would be to call on Ramos frequently during class discussions and to allow him to earn points toward his grade for appropriate participation rri I Bypass strategies are tech niques students with ripe ciai needs use to learn or demonstrate inas tery of intensive instruction on basic skills and ieoming strategies A third option for in cluding studcnts with special needs is to provide intensive instruction designed to address basic slltills or learning strategies in which the student is de cient Often a 1 1 C39lEI39l1CLl 111 III 11 WHV t llrll special education teacher carries out this instruction in a resource room This ap mi imims the mlpglct of preach assumes that basic slcills and learning strategies are prerequisites for suc hei1S3b W cessful general education E2pEi l3 C S Unfortunately the results of research on i whether skills taught in pullout programs transfer tothe general education class are mixed some studies show positive results Niarston 1996 Snider 1997 whereas others show miniinai effects Wfarig Reynolds amp Walherg 1988 Studies do sug gest that teachers play an i1nportant role in deterinining whether sltills taught in a separate setting transfer to their classroorns Ellis Lena St Sabornie 1987a 1987b F or e atnpie Ms Henry had a student in her English literature class who was re ceiving pullout services on taking effective lecture notes First C Iienry found out frorn the special education teacher what strategy for note taking the student was learning Then she reminded the student to perform the strategy before she deliv ered a lecture and sonietiines even during a lecture Finally Ms Henry collected How Can the INCLUDE Strategy Help You More ReasonableAccommodations Step e Decide which Accommodations to implement After you have brainstornied possible bypass strategies or instructional adaptations you can irnplement the D step in INCLUDE which involves selecting strategies to tiy A number of guidelines are suggested here to help you decide which accoinrno quot dations best suit your students needs Select oge oppropriote odoptotioris Students adaptations should match their age For eztainple using a third grade book as a supplement for an eighthgrade sci ence student reading at the thircl grade level would en1barrass the student In such a situation a bypass strategy such as 1 taped textbook would be preferable if the stu dent has the necessary background and cognitive slrills to listen to the book with un derstanding A good rule of thumb is to remember that no students whether in rst grade or twelfth and regardless of their special needs want to use what they perceive as baby hooks or materials Select the easiest oeroinmodotions tirst Aecornniodations need to be feasible Althougli rnalring adaptations often means some additional vvorii for quotyou it should not require so rnuch time and effort that it interferes vvi1l1 teaching the entire class It is easier to circle the 6 out of 12 math problems you vvant Maria to complete than to create a separate vvorltsheet just for her Select odoptotions you ogree with You are more likely to implenient an approach successfully if you believe in it Poilovvay Bursuclt jayanthi Epstein 8 Nelson 1996 especially in the area of behavior management For eaaniple in selecnng re wards for students if you are rrncornfortable with candy try activities such as time on the computer However adaptations should not be considered only in light of teacher beliefs lDEA97 is clear that the unique needs of students take precedence over the convenience of schools Vfith irnagination and some input from special ed ucators you will undoubtedly find strategies that inatch your teaching approach vvlrile rriairirnizing your students iearning Select adaptations with demonstrated effectiveness Over the past 25 years a massive body of professional literature on e ective teaching practices has accumu lated This research can help you avoid fads and other unvalidated practices The strategies suggested throughout this test are based on research and form a starting point for your understanding of validated practices Another means of staying pro fessioi1allv current is to read relevant professional journals Step Evaluate Student Progress Although many effective teaching practices exist it is inipossihle to predict vvhich will be effective for a given student As a result once an adaptation is iinplemented the E step oi39lNCLUDE is essential evaluate strategy effectiveitess You can traclt efFect39veness through grades observations analysis of student vvorir portfolios per forrnance assessments and teacher parent and student ratings Evaluating this inH formation helps you decide vvhether to continue to change or to discontinue an intervention H9 hecit quottour teernino What are three etainpIes of age appropriate interven tions Why is age zlppro priateuess a key concept for thinidng about students with special needs in gen eral education classes I tio i 5 A list of general education and speciai education pub lications appeared in Chapter 1 Check root teething What are all the steps in INCLUDE quotWhat is an eitarnple of each mHw mwm 1 W eeariier Erniettiires Afteiquotvti1 read this chapter you will he ahie to Describe what it means to say that a student has a low incidence llS3l3ill Fjf Depict the characteristics of students vvith moderate severe or multiple dis abilities including mental retardatiou and the accominodations general edu cation teachers can make for them Explain the characteristics of students With sensory impairrnents and the ac commodations general education teachers can make for them Describe the ciiaracteristics ofstudents with physical or health impairments and the accommodations general edu cation teachers can malte for them Outline the characteristics of students with autism and the accommodations gerierai education teachers can make for them has Terms and tfoncepts Asperger s syndrome is 139 ssistive technology n ma Augmentative communication is 164 Autism p 13 own syndrome n 159 Furictionai curricuium p 159 Hearing impairments p 168 Eow incideriee disabilities p we Grthopadic impairments p i7 other heaith impairments n 17 Traumatic brain injury n W Visual impairments in 168 Kamil is a rst grade student with a moderate cog niuve disabili39tv She is described by her teachers and her mother as a bundle of energy and she is enthusiastic about schooi and all the activities that occur in her classroom r ii though Karnil is just learning to recognize colors and to identify shapes and is a prereader she receives nearly ail her iristructionin the rstwgrade classroom Because Ms seams quot often uses cutouts puppets or other concrete strategies to il 39 lustrate the literature heing read Kamil follows along vvid1 out much di iculty VVhei1 other students vvorlt on vvriting or editing 39Ka1ni139wo1ls wirli a computer program either prac t395icingsliapea and colors or learning to recognize her name ViTlti39at39aiethelearning characteristics and needs of students 39l39ilie39Ka111il39 W39liat are appropriate expectations for Kaniil s 39teacquotlier39 to liave for39 her this year Vllhal accon1rnodations does39iKami39l need to succeed in first grade If Ms Atkiiis has in M aquestion aboutIltLamilhow canshe nd an ansvveir 5 P 3l3quot39l39esiisis afi zhegrade student According to federal gui3ii39eli39nes339heis eligiljle to receive special education hecause he l1asniultiple disabilitieses39iis uses a motorized wheel chairai1cl he has limitedquot use of his arms His wlieelchair is j l specialip equipped to provide support for his head because F 39neclcmuscles39are wealc Because writing is not possible C iquotfoiije39siEislie does assignments lav dictating his answers to a l 39 peer slotihe orhis assistant a paraprofessional employed to erisureethat Jesus personal and rnobilit3r needs aremet 39 Seinetimes l esus39 composes stories with a computer program tl l1iZ39i1T2iI 1Eil it13llifs spoken words intoprint He is becoming 39 39quiiequotp139o quotcier1t in using this techuologjT Althtiugh Jesus also l1asquota39quot39iriil c39lquotieognitive disalilityhe is iearning with accommo datious most ofquotthe same curriculum as his classmates Iis Iquot 39 ge39iieral39ed11cation39 teaclier and speciai education teacher meet139egularlr to discuss upcoming units of instruction and tl1e39types39of39adapted materials and alternative assignments quot39inost le11eficial for39es1is How are decisions made about ivliat Jesifisshould be learning in fth grade What can Jesus teacher do from both an instructional and social perspective toinclude Jesus in classroom activities Carter is a seventhgrade student diagnosed vvith autismrvho has some remarltable skills Iis math achieve ment isfar ahove grade level and he has a prodigious abilitjr torerrieuilzier facts and figures particularljv ahout his favorite sui3jects currentl3r presidents of the United States and E53 d countries Carter has inany personally determined routines that 39 hefol39loivsiiisohool Foreaarnple39beforel391e leaves the classroom he counts the I quotbackpack reties39hissli39oes and says as he leaves the room That s my Iquot p tliescliedule of the day or interference with his per What is autism What should 39toquothelplii39nilearn accornnrodations rnight Carter need 4 p a11dTlater39ind schoolquot I to become aspecial education 39 a39clC1er rliard toirnproveher chances of succeeding in I didinia liigh school She novv prefers sign dl aprofound li39eari39ng 39l39o39sssince she was 339 months old Mar iii39iica f39oriapiproaicli39aii39dCquotsidequot hasan39interp39reter who accompanies her s11liject39 is English She has prob I 0 on tliern How quotdo hearing I VVhatquotare39 Mardna s responsi q d 39 I do toIli39elpher prepare foreolle gel I Students lilte K21rniles1is Carter and Martina have the same rights as led peers For tie with peers tion that they lued and con For Martina success in d available in gen these and other stu dents to be part of a classroom connnunitjv with nondisah other voung children with signi cant disabilities attending first gra prepares them for the demands of school and also creates the eapecta can fully participate in typical educational environments and live as va tributing members of couununities after their school years college depends on her receiving the strong academic back eral education classes Because of their disabilities hovvever dents in inclusive schools might need specialized equipment or assistance ln this chapter vou learn about the characteristics an lovvincidence disabilities that is moderate severe or multiple disabilities sen d autism The federa these disabilities and the proportion of students vvith low incidence serve ED EA are sumrnarired in Table 395 1 You also learn about 3CC OI11I11 to the unique needs of these students that general education t 1 Chapter 1 all the care gories of disabilities are listed and the concept of high and lovvincidence disabilities is explained sorv impairments phvsical or health disabilities an enable them to learn Vllhen you vrorl with students with lovoincidence disabilities vo diversity of their needs the range of educational services they of specialists who ensure they receive an appropriate education als within any categories of disability do not exhibit all the characteristics o E54 d needs of students with odations speci c eachers can make to list are Lowulncidance Disabilities u are StI39L1Cl bv the d the variety Typically individu Tquot 39a1739quot 3 I 539 S39ci139ooii1g eStudentswiti1Lowincidence Disabilities Receiving Special Education f Services in i 9919935 39 39 W Percentage of Mi Students Receiving iDER Services Total Number of Students Federal Disability Category Defining Characteristics Mental retardation Multiple disabilities Hearing impairments Orthopedic impairments Other health impairments Visual impairments Deafwbiindness Autism Traumatic brain injury Significant beiowaverage general intellectual functioning with deficits in adaptive behavior identified between birth and i8 years of age Adversely affects educational performance Two or more disaiaiiities so interwoven that none can be identified as the primary disability adversely affects educational performance Hearing loss is permanent or fluctuating mild to profound in nature in one or both ears Loss may be referred to as hard ofhearing or deaf Adversely affects educational performance Physically disabling conditions that affect locomotion or motor functions May be the result of a congenital anomaly a disease an accident or other causes Adversely affects educational performance Condition resuiting in limited strength vitality or alertness and caused by chronic or acute health problems adversely affects educational performance Vision loss in which student cannot successfully use vision as a primary channel for learning or has such reduced acuity or visual field that processing information visually is significantly inhibited and specialized materiais or modifications are needed adversely affects educational performance Presence of both a vision and a hearing disability that causes severe communication and related problems adversely affects educational performance Developmental disability characterized by impairments in communication learning and reciprocal social interactions Usuaily identified in infancy or early childhood Adverseiy affects educational performance impairments manifested by limited strength vitality alertness or other impaired development resulting from a traumatic brain injury Adverseiy affects educational performance 60239l ii iO658 653537 67422 i90935 26015 i 39i54 42487 i quoti 895 was 13 22 05 00 05 01 Students age 5 2i receiving services through lDEiit Part B iUS Department of Education 1999 Addi tional students receive services under Part H ofthe same law under Chapter l Approximately 1935 stu dents who received services through this law were categorized as having developmental delays biiecause federal categories of disability do not distinguish among students with various degrees of mental retardation it is difficult to provide a precise estimate of the number of students with moderate or severe cognitive disabilities However approximately onethird of the students in this category have moderate or severe cognitive disabilities S o u H c E iquottom TwentyFirsrr innuai Reportto Congress on the implementation of the individuals with Dis abilities Education Act i999 Washington DC US Department of Education E56 cHasrts sl urces One valuable source of in forrnation about students with Down syndronie is the website of the organization called Downs City at httpffwwwnadsorg This site includes resources news and inilorrnation about this syndrorne The INCLUDI strategy see Chapter 4 can also guide you through the process of providing ap propriate instruction for students with moderate or severe disabilities disability but they display thern much more than other Students with Lowlucidence Disabilities wwwabiongmancornfriendfie students do The following points can help you keep in perspective students needs and your role in their education lowincidence disabilities together rnalte up only about 10 First students with that you may teach percent of all the students with disabilities in schools That means students with these needs some years but not others and inalte accornrnodations de scribed in this chapter for a srnall nurnber of students An exception to this situation could occur if your school district operates cluster programs in which students with lowincidence Cl39lS3l39lll1quot39iES from throughout the district are hussed to a single school In such cases you tnight iind that your school has a class of students with lowinci deuce disabilities inalting it liltely that you will teach more students with such needs Second students with lowincidence disabilities often have received some type of special education services horn birth or shordy thereaftet They might corne to lltIiI1ClE1quotg3I39tEI1 already having attended an infant stirnulation prograin or a preschool program in which their special needs were addressed in a day care inclusive pre school or special education setting You rnay find that rnany supports and extensive technical assistance are available for students with low incidence disabilities Third students with low incidence disabilities need the same basic attention from you that other students do If you are unsure about a student need it is nearly always best to rely on the same professional iudgrnent you would use in working with other students If you encounter difficulty you can access the technical support that special education protessionals offer Students with certain disabilities espe cially severe or complex ones are often accompanied by a paraprofessional or per sonal assistant who might work with them for several years Such an individual may be able to offer insight about responding to the student You may have rnany concerns about rneeting the needs of a student with a low incidence disabiiity in your classroom The Professional Edge features questions you can ask to prepare yourself for a student with a low incidence disability to join your class The questions address the student s strengths and potential learning and social needs and physical or health needs They also cover dornains in which accorrnnoda tions might be needed including the physical arrangernent of the classroom What other questions would you add to these lists If you lOOl ahead in this teatboolt you nd that this chapter as well as Chap ter 6 on l1igl391lI1CllE 1 16 disabiiities address students with cognitive disabilities This dual consideration occurs because the federal category of mental retardation is used for all students with this disability whether the disability is mild moderate or severe This chapter addresses only students with moderate or severe cognitive dis abilities Students with rnild cognitive disabilities have characteristics and needs more similar to those of students with learning and behavior disabilities and they are discussed with those groups P b hat Accommodations Qen You Maire tor Students with Moderate Severe or Multiple Bisahilitiesl Students with rnoderate severe or rnultiple disabilities include those whose coi tive irnpairrnents and adaptive behavior de cits are so significant and pervasive that considerable support is needed for them to learn This group also includes students CHAPTER 5 i H P I Another term you may hear in conversations about students with mod erate or severe disabilities is developmentally delayed This term is broad inciudw ing students with cognitive disabilities multiple dis abilities and autism Students with LowEncideoce Disabiiities wwwehiongmancornffriend3e and they may need intensive services throughout their lives ln most school districts some students with moderate or severe disabilities are being integrated into general education classroorns particularlgr at the elementary school level Most states use scores on intelligence tests and adaptive behavior scales to de termine the presence of a cognitive disability Although intelligence tests must be interpreted carefully and are not helpful in designing instruction for students an overall IQ score of less than 70 with signiiicant difficulty in the area of adaptive be haviors for example ordering a meal in a restaurant leads to eligibility for special education in the category of mental retardation Students with moderate or severe cogniuve disabilities generally have IQ scores of approriniately 3 5 or below It is im portant to realize that leaders in the field argue that a more appropriate strategy for identifying individuals with cognitive disabilities is to de ne the disabilitv on the basis of its impact on daily life activities and student needs for services Beirne Smith Patton it lttenbach 1994 Generally students with moderate or severe cognitive disabilities have several noticeable characteristics First the amount of inforrnation they can learn may be quite limited and the rate at which thev learn it may be quite slow These two face tors suggest that considerable repetition of skills particularly essential for adult func tioning are needed For example Noemi a middle school student with a severe cognitive disability is working to learn to communicate her needs to others She has a cornmunication device that enables her to indicate that she needs a drinit of water that she needs to use the bathroom and that she is hungry The paraprofessional sornetiines worlm with her on this sltill but her classmates also as her questions re lated to these needs Martin an elernentarjv student with a moderate cognitive dis ability is learning a variet r of preacademic skills within his general education classroom including telling a story from a picture boolt recognizing his name and address and understanding directional prepositions such as up down inside and scan side He rehearses these as opportunities arise during general instruction and when other students are completing individual assignments that are bejvond his capability he worlts on his skills on the computer sometimes with a peer assistant Students with moderate or severe cognitive disabilities need to learn many other essential skills One example is social skills Several IEP goals and objectives may relate to participating in one to one or small group interactions with peers re sponding to questions 9Sl Cl by others and sharing toys games or rnaterials An other eaample is recreational slrills In one recent study high school juniors who were typical learners worlted with their English teacher and a special education teacher to teach students with moderate cognitive disabilities how to play cards see lect a television program play a sports videotape and piay a computer game Collins Hall St Branson 199 The English students used the project as the basis for a series of writing assignments Results indicated that not only was the project successful in teaching these useful leisure activities to students with cognitive dis abilities but the typical students became more understanding of and positive to ward individuals with disabilities A second characteristic of individuals with moderate or severe cognitive dis abilities is that the ins have difficulty maintaining their slrillsz without ongoing practice they are likely to forget what they once learned To ensure that these stu dents continue to practice necessary slcills teachers should stress SiiilS they need both in and outside school This learning characteristic cornmonlquotv worries general education teachers having students with these disabilities in their classrooms UV hat is the student going to do while in the classroom Students with such signi cant Whutdccomrnodorions Can You Make for Students vfth Moderate Severe or Multiple Disabilities needs practice repeatedly a small number of skills Teachers will not nd it necessary to provide new alternatives for each day For example the student mentioned pre viously who is learning to recognize his name and address wil1 need computer prac tice on that slrill for many days In addition once the student has identi ed the inforn1ation the student should practice printing it on cards writing it on the chalk board and saying it aloud Ettensive practice on a single skill using many ap proaches is commonly appropriate A third characteristic of students in this group is that they may have difficulty generalizing skills learned in one setting or situation to another setting or situation lt is thus critical that they learn as many slcills as possible in context For eitarnple rather than have these students practice buttoning and unlmttoning out of context as part of a segregated classroom exercise have them apply this skill in the morning and afternoon as they enter and leave school wearing coats or sweaters Older stu dents need to learn how to greet classmates and teachers appropriately for example with a l 1iClSl13ls39 or by just saying hello instead of shouting or tightly hugging them Obviously such a slrill is most easily taught as students meet and greet people throughout the school not in a special education classroom One additional characteristic of students with moderate to severe cognitive dis abilities is difficulty combining small sldlls into a larger one For example a student may be taught each step involved in rnalzing a sandwich but unless the steps are taught in an integrated way the student is probably going to have difiiculty carry ing them out in a logical sequence In the study of teaching leisure skills just surn mariaed the English students outlined clear steps for each activity ie turn on the TV set turn on the videocassette recorder select channel 4 on the television and so on and taught them so that each one built on the one before Helen is a young woman with Down syndrome a condition that often in cludes a moderate cognitive disability She illustrates a typical experience for such a student in a school district committed to inclusive education She attended elemen tary school with her peers even though she did not always learn the same things they were learning Her teachers expected her to behave appropriately and her peers helped her when she got coirhised by classroom directions or otherwise needed sup port in the classroom As she moved to middle school she participated with peers in cotaught science and social studies and in elective classes such as foods and com puters and she received some of her reading and math instruction in a special edu cation classroom In high school she tool several classes including choir US history home econornics career ewploration and family living She also entered a vocational preparation program so she would be ready to get a job after high school At 21 Helen graduated from high school She now works in a local medical office Her job includes duplicating medical records doing simple ling tasks running er rands and helping get mail ready to send Hel en s success as an adult is in large part a result of learning many slrills fostered in inclusive schools Three principles usually guide instruction for students with moderate or severe cognitive disabilities Hicltson Blaclrman or Reis 1995 The first is the principle of a functional curriculum In a functional curriculum the goals for students whether they attend a general education classroom or receive supports elsewhere are based on reallife slcills they need to succeed For eaainple such a student might bene t more from learning to make purchases than learning to write a story because most adults make purchases regularly but not all have to have writing skills The most important job sltills Helen learned during her school career were punctuality following multiplestep directions and keeping her voice appropriately low 39est 1s 159 In rural areas parents of children with severe or multiple disabilities face the problem of isolation T hey are likely to be the only parents in the area with a child with complex needs and they may not have a network to provide support and inforu39zation Advances in telecommuni cations can help alleviate this dilemrna Many factors affect fami lies of children with dis abilities Hughes 1999 in her ethnographic study of 34 families found that those who participated in church activities were less stressed and better able to cope with their children with developmental disa39oilities 1 se CHAPTER 5 Students with Lowiincidence Disabilities wwwabiongmancomx39friend3e i39e39is393ph sicai39education is often the first area I39iquottlLiSiicin at SIildEF i S with iow in ce isajhiiitiquotes nr ila39nyschools physical education in attending the schooi quot es siii39ii s ose without Ce 1Siiibtiiite i h39 39 dquot35 mlUChias an Student caquoti E it39iesi39quot39Eii39id e r1 ce s u opo rts Peiiegrini ncaiiltalts and those 3tionquotquot39 quot cinsuioerviseoi re inquot 39 Ei39triiIjg39io39rips39boys tended eie acti tsiaiaiiro39raise their heart lie1 esihsilthaiftboih boys quotBequot quoti39s7iii39i39ii39tiesiranisledtheir heart e ctiassrstaliit39 lih sllt tiifhets seesiudsd Sltd P Iealthy physicai iquotihlc39ci j39iiiti39tx39eidisahilities Sirnilar results are found when students with ciisahiiities par ticipate in integrated p39hysicai education programs Downing amp Rehoiio 1999 However in a study of par ent perspectives of ii iCiUSi i 39E3 physical education for stu dents with physical disabiiities it was found that smaller class sizes support for teachers and teacher interest were critical factors for preciicting success Downing 8 Rebolio i999 Strategies and Approaches The key to including successfullystudents with iowinci cience disahiiit39ies into physical educationcasse39s is care fui planning with the students iEP teams using the INCLUDE strategy By deterrninin39gquotstudent goals reiated to physical education student stamina aridother health variables and the extent of appropriateparticipation ac commodations can be deveiopeci tomatch stucientchar acteristics and needs Sleek i9943939BloCk84Burke 1999 The following is a sample of accommodations that can be made for students participating in a dance actiitrity whom you read about at the heginiting of the chapter was raiiighr fire safety as a inctional skill within the context of a nfrnch hroader science cnrricnlurn The second priiiciple is coinrnnnitybased edncaniorrg that is what is learned in school should he related to what occurs in the Ci39iIT1ilI1i1L and other settings in wliich the strident E113 function Many students both those with and those without disabilities bene t from applying skills learned in school to real life settings and ac tivities For some systematic instruction in the CC1I11 1i1 itj339 is necessa139y to teach skills needed to live worlr recreate and continue to learn there Lessons about the local cornrnunity might include going to the hanlc visiting people who litre in a re tirentent center and ezrploririg job possibilities in local restaurants hotels and other businesses Part of Helen communityquoti3ased instrnctioit was learning how to ride the bus rorn her horne to her job The third principle is that education should be chronologiealiy age app1 priate This concept conveys the idea that individuals with disabilities even very significant disabilities should use niateriais that look appropriate for their age and shonld learn skills or variations of slcills that typical learners their age are acquiring This idea can he eirplored in more than one way First it implies that students with signi ca1it cognitive disabilities in high schools should not be using niateriais de signed for 37iung children Second it highlights the idea that the life skills approw Whorzscconsmodotions Cor You More for Students with Moderate Severe or Multiple Disoiiilities P 163 Genera K p 6 Use coiored ma39rkerserc39ohes oiigftiiquoteifiiioif P direction x g N i c 6 Use coloredmarke39r s39quoto fh39 ifj39ds39eiidiquotfee39i39ferquotieit and right a x I N 0 Practicesmsfi pottionsotder equot39arielquotCgradtaII5 add Z F131 mrmant 5rudewiilsWi39f iieit e more steps Siowdown39music39 39 quot Studen ts who 39useiarEaeeic4iiirfquotquot Normaopperquotbo39e39ji 39srieii iifi5 s SoE3stitutearm39riioxieliiiyenis39gfofi e 39moiie39rrients3939 39 9 Alow39parteer39t39ospus3939nm eiso39iiquotquot wii39ii39eei39t39haires in needed id 39 39 39 39 i quot quot S tuden is W o 0 39 39iis39 Him 5 red 39 up k p 39 i39liiIijl i39iiiFici ntr0i H o i w It I i Substitute ariy39otiti3o39l s39liief39orementsthe tid39etzt M has for39more39treditiioijii39iifi39iiiiei39fiieitts 39 Z x F s Allow pe39es toassists ijdquotquotquot39 quotiiiti39oirerisehtsa b P Aiiow p chair I 339 I I 9 Encourage steele39ritto3fequot 39iIitei piquotoper pestee fa nd39quot to focus ey 39s39do39igi39 rin39er 39 quot 39 PCX oB D priete for jrouiig children including taking ttirgos shziririg following ditections and others occur most sppropiiatel39y in the school setting with other children Speci c vocational skills such as operetirig 3 cash register or stocking shelves should be re served for older students who are ciiroriologicelly much cioset to using such siriils Eristrtittioriei eccemreedetioes for Students with Moderate to Severe ogititiee iseeiiities Etpe139ieece shows that te21cl1ei39s iii tiier1r school districts are iooltirig for is single stret egj to make iricludii1g students widi 1 I1iE1 3tE arid severe disabilities in their cities rooms clear and simple Unfottoneteha site at strategy does not exist Most successful inclusive programs use rtiiiity sttstegies and 1112111 vaiiatioiis of them G 39c1I1I Snell Beers ii R amp39jquot ES 1995 Writer is emerging triore sod more clesriy however is the fact that atteiidiiig school 215 rrieitibers of geiieral ediicstion clsssroorris is beiieiiciel for many students with these needs In one review of 3 6 studies on iticliidirig stiideiits with cognitive disabilities in g 6l1 1quotampl education settings the E11Jl1l1C1395 found that stu derits did better there both icsderriic1llr arid socially Lliit1co1t1pa1fsi3ie studerits did in S lfCOI1lC3iI1 Cl special ediicetion clsssrooiris Freerni11 ES Alkin 2 In fact 1113113 s39eis tees l The ARC an orgsnizatiori on II1 139liquot ll retardation has 21 website filled with i1 1i39iCF o1stion for uiide1stsntlii1g stud eiits wi tli co gni ti ve disribiiities You csii tied the site at httpfti1esic orgfwelcoii39iehtriil E52 quot E tree is ten r cuaarsa s i quotquotEearn39i39nr J How does meeting the needs of students with moderate or severe disahil ities in your class help you meet the needs oi39voui other students I Students with Lovwlncidence Disabilities vvwweblongrnancom friend3e of the adaptations and general school conditions needed bjr students with moderate and severe disabilities are the same ones that inalte learning more successful for all students McDonnell 1998 A few of them are unique and designed for the abilities and special needs of the individual student Clarify expectations and use instrucrionei approaches that match those expecta tions As a teacher grou should loiow what a student is expected to learn whether or not that student has a disability F or example in a social studies class the quotgoal for a student with a uioderate cognitive disabiltv might be to iocate on a map states where relatives live whereas the goal for other students might be to understand de tailed topographical maps For a student with a severe disability a pertinent activity might be to identify photos of local CO 1II11II1i 7 businesses A fundamental ingredi ent for adaptation is to make learning standards appropriate for the student as well as a natural part of the instructional environrnent You should work with a special educator to arrange learning activities suitable for reaching those standards using ageappropriate niaterials Giangreco Dennis Cloninger Edelinan amp Schattrnan 1993 Willis LS St For 1996 One detailed svstein designed to accomplish this plan egtainines overall goals for the student and clari es etpectations that should exist all day for etan1ple approaching adults and peers in an ageappropriate fashion as well as those for speci c subject areas for eirau1ple39n1allting choices between two items during rnath Forest amp Lusthaus 1990 Table 5 2 illustrates this blending of the IEP goals and thetypical curriculum for one student Use heterogeneous classroom groups Most professionals who write about adapt ing general education classrooms to include students with rnoderate and severe dis abilities stress the importance of strategies such as peer tutoring cooperative learning and friend support sjrste1ns in classrooms with a heterogeneous group of learners in cluding a few students with disabilities Wisniewsld 8 Alper 1994 B3 su39ucturing your teaching so that students work with each other you foster a sense of classrooni cornniunity and help students learn to value and respect classinates with disabilities as individuals York Vandercook MacDonald iquotIeise iieff 82 Caughejr W92 ner tit optima times for specialized instruction vere disabilities sornetinies need to learn sltills that are unlikely to arise as part of the traditional school curriculum For example a fdi grader who needs to learn how to tell time on a digital clocl rnajv not have enough opportunities to practice in class However if a peer special educator or related services provider W01 lltS with her as classrnates are entering the room during the inorning or for a few rninutes between lunch and the beginning of afternoon activities critical instruction in telling tune can occur in content instead of out of context in an isolated setting Jesus introduced at the beginning of this chapter has some specialized needs that are rner in this g Research suggests that this practice of arranging for brief periods of oneto one or sniallugroup instruction is necessary for student success Logan 8 ivlalone l998b it also indicates that if special educators are providing specialized support they should ensure that thejr also coteach work with rnore diverse groups and assume other roles in the classroom so that thejr do not inadvertently provide too inucli as sistance to the studentsLogan 8t Malone 1998a Enlist nature support systems Peers older students parent volunteers student teachers interns and other individuals at school can all assist a student widi a mod Students with rnode quotate or se 39 Whotxiccommodotions Can You xloke for Students with Moderate Severe or iviuitipie Disobiiities JL as 153 Sa7rnp39ie Cornrnonication Siiiis Mapped onto Elementary Schooi Sttioiects Subjects Communicative i aiiy Oral Skilis Language DBL Social Studies Math Speliing Rejecting Says no to the activity Rejects one topic for Rejects certain Rejects one picture for Sociai interaction skills Ma king comments Greetings departures Requesting artivitffitemS information Rejects certain pictures to illustrate sentence Exchanges visual gia nces Smiles in response to a comment Teases others between activities Asks others to come taiit Decides on what picture goes best with the DOE sentence States whether the sentence is funny Beginning and end of school Beginning and end of each ciass secondary As new peopie enter a room Errands to the office Asks for help during activity Asks for certain paper pen or pictures to do assignment another Rejects the offer of help from a peer Exchanges visual glances Srniles in response to a comment Teases others between activities Asks others to come talk Makes comments about topic of study Responds to direct questions from teachersipeers Beginning and end of school Beginning and end of each ciass secondary As new people enter a room Errancls to the office Chooses to do one activity over another Requests different writing rnateriais Asks for heip or more information rnanipuiatives for others Rejects the offer ofhelp from a peer Exchanges visual glances Smiles in response to a comment Teases others between activities Asks others to come talk States whether it is fun to do math Beginning and end of school Beginning and end of each class secondary As new people enter a room Errancls to the office Asks for help to solve problems Asks for rnanipulatives to do math Asks whether probierns are correct Asks for calcuiator another Rejects the offer of help from a peer Exchanges visual glances Siniies in response to a comment Teases others between activities Asks others to come taik Decides which pictureitern goes with each speliing word States whether sentence using word and written by peer is okay or not Beginning and end of school Beginning and end of each class secondary As new people enter a room Errands to the office Reg uests that speiiing end or continue Asks for another speliing word Asks for specific partner to work with S o u R c E Adapted from Analyzing the Communication Environmentquot by J E Downing i999 F4 59 in Teaching Communication Skiiis to Students with Severe Disooiiities Bai Co Reprinted with permission tirnore Raul li Brookes Puioiishing crate or severe disa bility Fulton LeRojr Ifiricioietr 8 Weeidey 1994 Peers can often answer simple questions or respond to basic requests without adult interverttiion In some cases they understand their classmate with s disaijilior better than admits do 1Iondricltson S11okoo1tiYeltta Hamreehiietupski 8 Gabie 1996 Tiiejgr sornetimes also can melee needed edjustmen1s in eqtnprnent remove dropped articles and get E64 CHNPTEF 5 In Chapter 2 vou learned about strategies for corn inunicating with parents of students with disabilities Such strategies can foster a positive educationai experience for students with moderate or severe disabiliIies Sensitivity to cultural val ues ntrust be a constant consideration for special education services even in the selection of assistive technology it a iairiilv val ues blending in meni bers iiiay not wish their child to use devices or equipment that draws attention to the child c Students with LowIneidence Disabiiities vvvvwahEongrnancotnfriend3e needed instructional materials for the suident Older students can serve as peer tutors or special buddies both for instruction and for the development of appropriate social skills Parents student teachers interns and others can all assuirie part of the re sponsibilitv for supporting students For example an adn1inistrarive intern who reads a storv to the class releases the classroom teacher to observe the student with a mod erate or severe cognitive disability or to worlt brieilv with that student A student teacher can work with a sinall instructional group that includes both tvpical learners and the student with a nioderate or severe cognitive disability Create a eoifuborative effort with families When vou teach a student with a mod erate or severe disability vou should coninuinicate re gT1l i1 i x39 with the students parents Faniilies ltnow their children better than school professionals and parents can provide valuable information about teaching there They might aiso have questions about how to reinforce at home skills iearned at school Occasionallv ytiu rnav encounter a iani ily that does not want to be actively involved in the education of their child In these cases it is your responsibility to accept their decision without judging it with all parents it is also essential to rernernber that their responses to their children are based on niaiiv factors including their culture Alvarez 1998 clari es this point in her discussion of children with disabilities in Hispanic families Al though acltnovvledging that many variations in families exist she noted that His panic farnilies responses to their children with disabilities are likely to be influenced by their generallv strong religious beliefs if they believe their child s disability is a punishment quotfront God or fate and umzhangeabie thev may not assertivelv seelc ser vices for him Hispanic tnothers iiiay assume nearly all 1 SpO Slllli39EI T for caring for a child with a rnoderate or severe cognitive disabiiinr whereas fathers inav be seen as fainilv decision inaiters This means that inothers who often come alone to school meetings concerning their child may feel pressured if not given the oppor tunity to discuss the rnatter with their husbands before agreeing to arrv action Toke advantage of essisrive tethnoiogy Consider for eitarnple the nianv lovv tech and higlntech rneans for enhancing learning Sonic students experience success when you provide them with pictures that remind thern of ltev concepts and with the widespread availabilitv of digital cameras in nite opportunities are created to talte photos of signs locations people and other items that can be used as tools for contextual learning ln another eiratnple rnany students who cannot use language to corrnnunicate use various forrns of augrnentative cornrnunication that is alterna rive coirununication forms that enable students to convey their rnessages Other stu dents use technologv to aid inovetnent Assistive technology can be either simple or cornplezt as shown in the Technology Notes feature on pages 66 l67 Multiple isahiiities Because students with inultipie disabiiities often have eittraordinarv needs they are considered a distinct group in lDEA97 Most students with rnultiple disabilities have a cognitive disability and a physical or sensor in1pairrnentesus the ltinder gartner you met at the beginning of this chapter has a cogitive disabilitv and a phvsical disability The needs of these students and the acconiniodations that help them succeed can be siinilar to those for students with moderate and severe cogni tive disabilities differences being a matter of degree and cottipledry Ftr eirarnple Whoteccornmodotioos Can You More for Students with Moderate Severe or Multfpfe Disebifties 0a in one school integrating students with n1nltiple disabilities into general education classes teachers faced the foliowing printiarjv challenges 9 P1 ovidi1g a quotfunctional cnrricnlnrn vrithin the contett of the general education class Providing cornninnityhased instruction for all students Scheduling staff coverage Pronioting social integration between students with ninltiple disabilities and other students Hainre Nietnpslti Mc onaid amp Niettipsiti 1992 Other teachers have added concern about the rnnnber of special service providers who come to the classrooni to worle with students with multiple special needs and the potential disruption this causes for other students Yet others have dis covered that in a crowded setting the wheelchair coinpnter eqnipnient other ther apentic equipment and specialized niaterials for eaarnple large hooks in three ring39 binders made with inanv picnires of a snident vvidi nniltiple disabilities can pose obstacles to classrooni traffic patterns safety and storage capacity Because many students with innltiple disabilities have liinited speech and do not easily convequotv their preferences and needs cornninnicating with thein can be a challenge One strategquot 539 for coinntinnication is using anfg391nentativ39e connnnnication systems the same svsteins that are sornetinies used hv students vvith moderate or se vere cognitive disabilities As a teacher 37011 can expect some but prohabljv not all students with rnnltiple disabilities to participate in general education activities in P39O111 school They are lilteljr to receive considerahle support quotfrom a special education teacher or a para professienal who thus becomes available for co teaching and other ciasswide inte gration activities McDonnell 1998 These professionals and other nieinhers oi the I1111ltlLliSClpliI13I39 quot teain can assist you in setting expectations for students plan r1ii1g appropriate edncan39onal eztperiences 111onitoritig their perforrnance and prob lein solving when concerns arise ViYiill H1S I Fox 1996 In an elementary school a student vvitli innltiple disabilities niiglit attend your class for ntacrning activities re main in the rooni for lai1g39nage arts and participate in art and rnnsic with other stu dents Tliat student might aiso receive sonic services in other braiding locations for eiiarnple the library gjvni learning center or special education classroon1 in a sec ondarv school a student with rnnltiple disahilities inight attend sonic core classes with peers sonic classes vvith a vocational einphasis for eitarnple consnnier and food sciences and might spend part of the school day learning to function in the broader conininnity and to perforin jobspeciiric skills Denihlindness Althotigh students with dual S43i1SOITfiII1paif1T1 tS tvpiciillv are not totallv blind or deaf they do have EXfF21O fli11I3F711 EClS related to staviiig in touch with the environ Inent 1391 39IEiliI 1 i sense of events that most teachers and students take for granted and learning vvidi liinited access to vision and hearing Engleroan Ciriffiri Cirifiiii 8 Mtddogt 1999 These students sornetiines have average or ahove averag39e intelli gence as did Helen Keller but they often have cognitive or other disabil39ities How a student with deaf hlindness is educated in any particular school varies consider ahlv Sorne proiessionals paraprofessionals and parents judge that these students E55 c5lii395j39 39iquotEi quoto t el W hen individnais with neurornuscnlar disease as v39ell as parents and teachers of youngsters with these disorders were sendied dirongli the use of focus groups Strong and San doval 1999 found dist they shared concerns about iinproving horneu sehool connnunication establish ing childrenquots sense of comm petence and iosteriiig peer reianonships I Irieleii Keller t188l l968 was an r39iLII39i1 iC1 author and lecturer Born in Al aharna she became deaf and hiind at 19 months of age from an iliness She learned to read and write from her special education teacher finne Sullivan and even ttia iiv gracln a red wi th honors from Radciiffe Coilege She Wrote seven hooks about her life and her disabiiities 156 CHAPTER 5 1 Students with Lowincidence Disabiiities wwwab ongmantomffrienci3e P 39M39a1iy39 stndertts39witi ciisab39ilities 3 quot Isistijve 39technciIo39gy quotto iielipthe1n learn i5issiitive 39ii Iiiquoti11rCiiIg y devices can inc391nde Q aria or Iiive ciothing and togfsi seating sgsstenis I I Pmr tiesiccsi aritii ina g q P n en 3ii39 ii i r quot S5 Ui39Pti1i iudi39iiitSi j 8D 8D 8D 8D 8D 8D 8D kr for assis ifie p i 0 iii t p as 39 into 39tiie3931Ei39 ciaooii distrquotcts3939aite responsiquot39 Iquot quotI bi39efor providirigi siicii 39eqnipnientor39d evices ifa stnd39en1 needs thern nniess insurance39or sotne other39 indingssoiiiiceiszavailaiiiei Togiiieiron asenseofquotZiiioviimanjgrtechnologyquotop u v PjA tions exist the foiiowii1g39are sorrieiternsavailablequot for 39m39iaag5 so39ftwaiie youniar39a39lreadyquoti1ave iit39395r39ot1rci39assw computers A11 of 39theseaiongquotnritii 11It1I1 3 oti39iersa1 e roonr ittisdesignedquotfor stndeiitsw11o cannot 11se a 39 describedquotin more detailatquotthequotwebsite ofquot39D39o11 J 11n 39 39 a 39 PHX F 39 7 39 39 39 I 39 39 5 Z 39 ston Tncorporateci an orgariizcaizion based inVoloIL which isconiniitted to 1nai ing39avai1ab1e computer ac cess protiticts that let students with ciisabiiities use the computer to iearn to read and write Thet also provide criticai interv39ention products for 1iteracjr instruction The website address is httpWwwdonjoi1nstoncorn stiidei39ii ses39 iquotcciinniiiiiiiiia39ti39Ei39ri3939beizii39ttittiquotinte39taiEt39iiniith39 Discoven oard Tiiis ailinone keyboard and tnonse cornbination a1 lows students with disabilities to use the reading and can be successful in inclusive ernrironrnents with extensive supports Giangreco Edeirnan Mac iriaiid ck Lniseiii 199 but they disagree sornewhat on the types and approaches to service delivery In atidition to instmctionai support in genera education settiiigs these students often need extensive training to iearn to connnu nicate through sign language signals and gestures touch cues or other means En gieinan et 211 1999 Engiernan Gri in amp V7heeier 1998 in addition students who are deafeb nci need assistance in social interactions with their peers Teachers can facilitate interactions by doing the following Goet3 8 O Farreii 1999 Arranging the ciassroorn to proinote active participation by students who are ieafblind What Accommodations Can You Make forstudents with Moderate Severe or Muftiple Dfsobifities Pz 393 67 n 0 0K i p s i 8 i q p q t C313 13 39 P Y3 ii 7quotquot quot39quotquotI39113331W15 i P 6 f 5 r pc V i has af1age 39suriace39s39o tiiat studeiits urithi39i391iiited39inot39cir pt l 0 c F 0 U P p I te391iEd39e39dto used quotoil the oor or oiia eibla 39 T I a Stilliii 12139i d39Ei o 39 39 I rum mun mtIrepara 3 395 0h 39 I if softiia5re is a iii1gwoi39d proeesso39r tIi39at 39 pt quot I 0t errts quot39write39 iiiglij39iighztih t th d I rquot studeiirs ph rsi c quot3951 ti39iI39sah39i1i39i 39es P e 0 0 0 it s WTEiteiiiW Jsiiand 39sp39e 3icheckiii39g 39I39l1e39rer a1e esteridifferent ioieequotoptiops39 7r39uaquotIe39female chi1quotc1quot39 Discoverquot Switch This second example of a switch is designed espe cially for students who use their computers to write but who operate there with a switch A11 the keyboard and mouse functioris are in the switch These fuiic tioiis are dispiajeed on the screen with keys that scan the student presses the desired key This device Proiiipting both the students with special needs and the typical learners to i1 teract Wi1quoti391 each other 9 Interpreting for typicai students the behaViors of the student with deaf hlit1d ness for example the pushing and slioving I113 be are iiidication that the ste dent is excited about playing with the other students In other schools a student who is deaf b1ind 1 E13 7iE a irierriher ofjrour class ac compariied hp 21 special education teacher or persoiial assistant only or some eld trips at assemblies in selected class activities or for particular school programs The specialists WO1 iltli1391g with the student can prepare bodi you and your siudents letting you i CW how to approach and greet the student teiliiig you What to expect E63 cuasrts 5 7t t i j Although a few students have guide dogs more adults use thern because of the training and expense involved l E Students with Louelncidence Disabilities wwwabiongmancomfriend3e in terms of behavior and eaplaining why inclusive activities are iniportant for the student and what learning or social objectives are being addressed P er quot3quot fl tr hat Accommodations tan You Maire for Students with Sensory lrnnairrnentslt Students with sensory inipairnients have vision or hearing disabilities so signifi cant that their education is affected Their specialized needs can range irorn slight to complex Because school learning relies so heavily on seeing and hearing stow dents with these disabilities often XpE1quotiEI1CE academic prohlenfis and need both teacher accoinnfiodations and adaptive equipinent Some of the vocabulary used to describe sensory disabilities is included in the Professional Edge Students with visual impairinents cannot see well enough to use vision as a primary channel for learning without signiiicarit assistance Some students are con sidered legally blind which means that the vision in their best eye with correction is 20X200 or less or their visual eld is 20 degrees or less Vi7hat a person with nor rnal vision could see at 200 feet these students can see only at 20 feet Students legally blind because of a limited visual field can see just a 20 percent or less slice of what a person with normal vision would see within his or her range of vision Btitliougii the concept of legal blindness is an important one that helps students access special services throughout their lives a different set of terins is used in schools For educators the term blind is generally reserved to describe the few stu dents who have little useful vision They use touch and hearing for most learning Most students with visual inipairrnents are partially sighted nieaning that they have some useful vision their vision is between 2070 and EOXEUU or they have an other vision probleni that has a serious negative effect on their learning Sn1dents with hearing irnnafirinents cannot hear well enough without sigriiii cant assistance to use hearing as a primary channel for learning Because a huge pto portion of formal and incidental learning occurs through infornial conversations forinal presentations and overheard inforination and relies on understanding lan guagequot many consider hearing iinpairrnents primarily language or coinrnunication irnpairinents A small nurnber of students with hearing irnpairnients are deaf T hey cannot process linguistic inforrnation through hearing with or without hearing aids lvlost students however are hard of hearing rneaning that they have some reside ual hearing that lets them process linguistic inforrnation through hearing usually by using hearing aids or other assistive devices to deterniine the severity of a hearing loss pro fessionals check the loudness of sounds as nieasured in decibels dB and the pitch or tone of the sound as measured in hertz HZ Ntnrrnal speech is usually in the 5560 dll range at quotiO2U0l Ila In contrast a wlnsper is about Il5 2Squot dB and a rock band plays at about 110 dB Stue dents with a hearing loss of 23140 dB are considered to have a mild loss they inight not hear every word in a conversation or niight not distingiish between wordsquot with siinilar sourids lireeiviii2g lareeding Those widi a loss of 5lOol dB have a nioderate loss they typically cannot hear enough of a conversation to follow it auditorily Those with rose dB have a severe loss and those with more than 80 dB have a pro found loss Stutlents with severe and profound hearing losses typically cannot pro What Accommodations Can Vet More for Students with Sensory rnooirments E 169 I a it er B C 4 39J g39 39 1 Aquot IQ 9 so teas 2 D ta 43 5 galiii aft E g mst iii ii ts errquot quotthe Jocahltui1 aesry of Sen soils you impairments To he effective in making adaptations 39f31quotjTDI1IquotS39Ul deiitswith39 sens39oijr inipairntieiits you should er stand39the t39ertI1i39i139ltlfcfii39gjgr39quotused to tiescrihe39 these Recsptcquotte dz39sorde39nt The ahiiity39 to receive and processsignalsfron1 light is itnpaired as inretin al detachinent caused by giaucorna or a blow tothe 39 disahii39ities Tiiefoilowingteriusxarersome you rnay 39 e re encounter in 3rouquotrdeal39in39gs with students who39 shaste s E1 ISOf39 iquot3939iII1p aiirneniis3 and equotspecial39 quote ducato1fswho39 Wo39rlcittiquottl1 tiieiii 39 Heariiag T111pg airnrieut 9 Conductive disorders The way theea39r transmits souudC is i1npaired these disorders are gei1e39rai39i3t correctable througlisurgeryquotorzniedication 339tvi 1395 fi39quot39 35 quot 74 39 ifhi 39W3 quot5113539EY i39f5 u355 E1ghti 939Sensoaiozeatmlz riisostders The auditory nerve by quot539 quot39im39p339i139quotidquot mY39039p3913quotquot39 113rT S39139ghtd1Te53l hiquot gatiiiciifquotsitereceive and process signals 39 39orn sound is P 1 PP1339f3Ff51gi 339d 53i 3 d73St1T 5 3t15 quot 13131quot jmpairedthese tiisorders are generally not cor V151C I1 3939393939 39 39 39 39 39 Ifiictailelttlfit G iJgTl 1II1pli39fii2E139t iOI1E3IF39itE lrii1gquot1i39ClS39 VisuaIi5iinpaiiti1ent339 39 Muskie I a iset disirs Tiie3939to 39control eye quot inovernexitsis39iiiripairetl393939as39iiquoti5 strahisrnus39 39crossedifi e3resJquot 39 9 Mixed lasses A 39co391iihina39tiion of conductive and sensocineural 39irnpairn391ents cess speech even when arnpii cation is used Tl1639 rely on sight as an alternative means of learning Another factor professionals consider in g udging the seriousness of a student s hearing ioss is when the loss occurred Students who have been hearing irnpaired since birth are often at a disadvantage for language learning because they did not go through the natural process of acquiring language These students can speak but because iZl39 397 learned to tail without hearing how they sounded their speech may he diflicult to un derstand They might prefer sign language and an interpreter for cotnrnunicaong with you and others Students who lose their hearing after they learn ianguage after about age 5 sornetiines experience fewer ianguage and speech dif culties Accommodations for Students with Visuai impairments Aithough students with visual inipairrnents have the same range of cogi1itive ability as other students they typicaliy have had fewer opportunities to acquire inforniatioii usually learned vis39ually F or example students generally iearn about reaps by lool ing at dzern Although students who are biind can iearn by feeling a raised map this method is not as efficient as seeing it The same problem can occur with academics Students with visual iiupairnients often experience learning dif culties sin1pljr hem cause they cannot easily use vision to process inforniation 39iquothinllt about how you read this text You p1 l33iij scan the pages focus on words and phrases in boldface print and ViSIl3llj jump between reading the type and looking at a figure or photo if you could read this book only by n1agr1iyiiig it 15 times or by listening to it on nestir four Leoraiinsti What coinrnon classroom arrangenieuts and items might prove hazardous for a student with a visuai impairment 39i CHAPTER 5 Students with Low incEdence Disabilities You can learn more about sensory impairments by accessing the irnerican Foundation for the Blind at http afborg wvvvvablongmancornffriend3e audiotape or by reading it in braille you would find it much more tedious to scan to select important words and phrases and to go hack and forth between compo nents If you rnultiply this dilemma across all the visual learning tasks students lace you can hegin to understand the challenges of learning with a visual inipairrnent As is true for al individuals students with visual impairments vary in their so cial and emotional development Some students encounter little difficulty rnalting friends interacting appropriately with peers and adults and developing a positive selfconcept Other students need support in these areas Barclay i999 Sacks Wol e amp Tierney 1998 For example it is important to teach some students who cannot see to adhere to social norms such as facing a person when talking taking turns and keeping an appropriate social distance Conversely teachers should keep in mind that some students might miss another students or a teacher s puzzled ex pression about something they had said and continue to interact as if they under stood They should also help other students to understand that a student with a visual irnpairrnent cannot help a wiggling eye or that they stand a little too close during interactions because they have dif culty judging distance Acconimodations needed by students with visual iinpairinents depend on many factors First take into account students overall ability level use of learning strate gies and other learning skills and attentional and motivational levels just as you would for any other student Then make accommodations depending on the amount of students residual vision and the nature of their vision problems keeping in mind that these students have many essential life skills to master that other students take for granted and that time must be rnade in their school careers for these skills for ex ample proper eating manners appropriate social distance during interactions key boarding signature writing and pro ciency in using adaptive technology Lueck 1999 Some speci c adaptations you can make and unique needs you must consider for students with visual impairments are covered in the following paragraphs One 39nnportant area of need for students with visual impairments is orientation and mobility that is the sense of where they are in relation to other objects and people in the environment and the ability to move about within a space For exam ple students with visual impairments need to understand where furniture door ways bookshelves and the teachers desk are in the classroom in relation to their location In addition they need to be able to move from the classroom to the audi torium to the cafeteria and out to the nus in a timely manner Your first tasllt in preparing for a student with a visual impairment might be to arrange your classroom care illy leaving adequate space for all students to move about Depending on the amount of sight 1quotlTlE student has you might need to keep furniture and supplies in the same places and make sure the student has an opportunity to learn where every thing is If you decide to rearrange the room or move your supplies alert your stu dent with a visual impairment to the changes and allow opportunities to adapt to them Another orientation and mobility issue is safety Hal open doors or trash cans inadvertently left in aisles can be serious hazards for students with visual irn pairments For lire drills or emergencies pair all students with buddies to assist each other so as to avoid singling out any individual student You might also be asked to modify your teaching slightly to accommodate a stu dent with a visual impairment For example you might need to identify the novels you plan to use in class prior to the start of the school year so they can be ordered in braille largeprint or audiotape format For visual clarity you might need to use a whiteboard with a black ielt tipped marker instead of a traditional Cl121lllO3IquotCl or to Whotiilctommodorfons Can Youlvloke for Students with Sensory impairments n provide the student with paper that has heavy hlaclt lines instead of the traditional light blue ones In addition you should be sure to recite what is written on the chall board call students by name so the student with a visual impairment can learn the sounds of everyone s voices and where tl1ejv are seated allow the student to move close to demonstrations and dispia39ys give specific directions instead of using general words such as here or there and seat the student so as to optimize visual learning for example away from bright light or near the front of the room Usually an itinerant vision specialist or other special educator will alert you to these types of accommo dations and arrange for any classroom modification Some general modifications in vour classroom can also help a student with a vi sual impairment Meet with the itinerant vision specialist or other resource persons to discuss the students needs and the eirtent of assistance required including the im portant matter of problems related to storing students specialized equipment Based on that information some or nianv accommodations might be appropriate Assign a buddy to assist a new student at the beginning of the school year especiallv in dealing with the cafeteria moving from room to room and locating supplies This assistance rnight be discontinued later in the school year to avoid creating un needed dependence Some students with visual impairments need additional time to complete as signments either during class or as homeworlt Mionitor closely to ensure that the student is not spending too much time on a single task this might be a signal that the task needs to be shortened or otherwise modi ed Be alert for a students need for a changeof pace activity A student who is hdgeting or refusing to worlrmight be fa tigued a common problem for students who have to make extraordinary efforts to learn using vision Letting the student talte a break or substitute an alternative activ ity both helps the student and prevents discipline problems Also lteep in mind how to plan alternative learning opportunities for students if you are talking about his torv and using a timeline if you use white glue or some other means of marking points on the timeline a student with a visual impairment can participate meaning fully in the discussion by touching the points in time and feeling the distance between them A vision specialist can help you develop such alternative learning opportuni ties Finallv teachers sometimes worrv about the impact on a student with a visual impairment of words and phrases such as Do you see any paz39nr3 or Thesis quite at sz39gzlrt Generally you should just use the vocabulary you norrnally would avoiding words related to seeing is not necessarv Learning Fools for Students with Visual impairments Students with visual impairments use a wide variery of equipment or devices to fa cilitate their learning Ifthejv have some residual vision their can use devices to help them acquire informauon visually Some use simple devices such as magnifying lenses or bright light to read or do other school work Others might hold their hoolcs close to their eves or at an unusual angle to see the print Many students with vis39ual impairments use computers For example if students use a speech svnthesiaer or test enlarger with a standard word processing program diev may be able to their as signments eitacthv like their peers For students who read braille assignments can be printed on a hraille printer as well as a standard printer so that both the teacher anti student can read them A further sample of the learning tools available for students with visual impairments is included in the Professional Edge on page N2 171 wwwaiE0ngmanremffriend3e 172 CHAPTER 5 ii Students with Lemeincidence Disabiiities Eeemirng 39E39eo sea ss39fdf1Iiesec fm ea eggfer t sdie 0d su lei P E as a 7 a sBrai11ei s iie5j naech39a11icaideiIiee39Ideve0ped39 inthequot 39 I 51930s39faci1ijEates39 efL31cie11t39v I1it39i3sgquotcf 39biai39ii39e W keys an39 spacebarj a 39 carriage1ret11rt13939 aa1dquotapaperad39 x H z O 0 quot rsneequot Tiquotpte6i1ce39b1ai11e the stedenasimuitane 39 3939 L3fg339P3 11t 13t 39315 BOOKS 0139 quot3th 31 m3Tt 31quot1315 I Ij 39bias137pressesd39t ia nasi39eus1E39evce ibiIsati0ns 39 39 are rin39te39dsomewhatquotquotlairsave tha1 I ica1quotquotquot fiaatIquot 39 b 08 39 0 quotI quot 39 1 W 2 39 P quot quot 39 SIate ands1rlus fTh1s39II1ethcJdquot fe1 39produc1ag wh1chss3914 CG18239pG1I1t39fD3quotChI1d1 E1S b0C391ltiS v Yn p 39 0 P 39 bra1ll39e39391s39the01desc39I3hes1ateasafranaegof tquotwo Wquot1Cewvas1es139d39evaces S ec1ai1y 39des1gnec1pp1aea1 fie 39 39 n t1St ipS39 om39i ingbr3i11ampCEES 1Ep0S dQf21 5 V1C39e3393n3513Smdants 5 3 37quotd39E7177 mEnd 39toquot533 d1395 3m33 5 1398Ct 139I1 gie3939Fafj3915lis39i39s39s 11etches393939ii391 t391ie sfeeijc39esn39ers 39an39dI 00J3953f3135i393393m 111E017 l1 11315b 33 i39 j31quot 3 393 39fquot 39 Wes1des7 ihestrl11saspes1taenedmeepress3a1sed 391 211111316 Of 3113l tIfI1111 gEDDI13a39SpE C1111yFi39eS1gaf39Q 0 dbt m ap r539WhidhEiS39 fbe6by S m39dents39 39WiEh visualquot in1pairz11en39tscan bzene t oI11j39 39 39 a Varietyquot ef39l39ea139ni11g toeis andtech11c139egyThe fa139 lowing lastriescribes s 3a1eef thes39eiIe1as s m3 ifYii E sssissszathstquotassteds1itSquot Silids221sr SS3939tfisir quotshes1ate39 quot39 p s a y F 08 as B s L p y s e pQ as L 1 L quot399ctele i39sie 39 3939I1a1ssjIs1eiI1quotased3939ib39 r bmecu1a1 s39b11t1sfor 5est one eye PG1 P P m p p 3 p P i P x itE st1c1en senla1jgesprmt nfqrgmaeea ieeTT1SDI e B iIi b 9 1iess 7 911iarea as s 1 239tquot1139is sti1dfe11t39freads339f l 39e395e I39arg39e39639pIfirat39 Qm aLquot39 Z 39 V ialohsit0rasLsiett rs e aa eslsaccessfiisplasissdes s1Wivlsiieas039Iiquotasiar 39 g1eurd39 epe39sadi3ig 5 c a as C 0 7 V V 0 0 0 V 0 0 0 0 quot 0 With158 i ils LScef5W ai5a nedcseii1s issSlics 1339S e 39 is39 l3ii39ns p p p L p iii iquot1i5seai39att 3ii i39i1fere3ti ri39iiiii isslitadl IEIIEquottli I c screensw pr ia ere1aab39le39quot ie39 assess z0 sfeit1quote11i te 39cease1ff i39nf39I s 39f0ramsi i0se0 5t11s aosssasiveaeaisandsatosee aquot P Pv f393quot quotsseeeni39e391 ar39geraeii1539sdf39carasequotefiat5les a3quots39tiEiefiiE set sSs5cs5Pss s3939es dbssFlt39S V 39W39i39393i 13 1 539311ti39 ht93I35339i11 9Fm3 0 39quot 3 E3quot3 11ZT39H I 0 D 39 K6 D pUF J D 00D 39 39 2 quot 5 5 R 5 quotI 31asedquott335ta1 e391ae39te39s39e39 quotte ecimp seWrit hirailaser1nfiaaia1J A stucf39ent gwth eixfisaai Zimpajrm andequ 39pr h39ent39 39 39 ecemme asimas fee Students with Hearing impairments Students with hearing icasses have the same range of cognitive abilitgz as other stu dents IIewever if intelligence is assessed 113mg 21 test based on language they n1ight have depressed scores AcademicaEiy many students srruggie because their hearingquot less affects tiaeizf E1biiquotyquot to understand ia11guag e and this affects their iearnizag Mar Whut lccommodotions Can You Moire for Students with Sensory fmoor39rments tina the student with a hearing iiripairrnent introduced at the heginnin g of the chap tet nds this prohlein especially frustratirig Students tnight have difficulty learning vocahulary and as a result understanding the inaterials they read and the lessons you present although evidence suggests that students with hearing iinpairinents edu cated in general education settings usuall39y read hetter than their peers educated in special educatiori classrooms Easterhroollts 1999 For example students with hear ing inipairn1ents often miss subtle meanings ofvvords vvhich can affect both their learning and their social intetactions One siinple exarnple can illustrate the corn plerity of learning language Thiiilt of all the tnearrings you l OW for the word am As a noun it refers to a container made of metal for storing food for example a can of peas But it also rneans a container with a lid as in the type of can that tennis balls are paclcaged in Can also has slang rneanings as a synonyin for iaeriaream and prison h a verb it means to be physically able as in I can do that by Tuesday lt also refers to preserving produce front the garden as in l plan to can green beans this year to losing a job as in I just got canned and to the state of being liltelfy as in Can that he true If you thinlt about all the words in the En glish language that have rnultiple and soinetinies contradictory ineanings it becomes easier to understand the difficulties faced by students who are deaf or iiard o39Elieairii1g Socially and emotionally students who are deaf or hard of l1earing are sornetintes innnature This lacl of niaturity occurs for two reasons First rnuch of the etiquette children actpiire conies front listening to others and modeling whatquot they say and do This learning is not available to niany students vvith hearing inipairrnents Second these students can hecorne confused in interactions that involve many people and n1ul uple conversations Because these types of situations are often uncomfortable for them they sornetirnes avoid them and as to develop social skills needed in group in teractions F or eaarnple lirn is a sev39euthgrade student with a moderate hearing loss VVhen students work in lab groups in Mr Georges science class itn tends to tune out because he cannot follovrwhat everyone is saying Soinetiines he tries to participate in the activity but he often does so by rnalting an exaggerated face or drawing a cartoon to show others He does this even when the other students are worlting intently and they become annoyed vvidi his antics When Jini realises his attempts to participate are not being success il he vnthdraws front the group and becomes passive lxLt George and the hearing specialist are vrorlting to address this prohlern Mr George n1alltes sure that he rnonitors the group s worlc and he sornetiines intervenes by asking jini a question that helps hirn participate Mr George rerninds his students that un less every group nieniher understands a science f iXpE139ll39l 1 i 11iE the group is not nished jirn also receives help on his social interactions in a support group that he attends with several other students led by a social WOI l 1 tvnce each vveelt Acconiniodations for students with hearing irnpairnients emphasize lielpirig them use vvliatever residual hearing they may have and accessing language to pro tnote formal and inforrnal learning Although the specific types of accorninodations needed by a student you teach are deterniined by the n1ultidisciplinary team that writes the studentquots IEP following are some conirnon ones Because rnany students with hearing inipairinents get sonic iiiforniation through speech reading or watcliing others lips rnouth and eitpressions teach ers should always face the class vvhen presenting ini39orn1ation and stand where no glare or shadow rnaltes it difficult for a student to see They should also stand in one location instead of moving around the room The student should sit near thern Tliese adjustirients facilitate speech reading but are also necessary if an interpreter 73 Considerahle controversy surrounds the topic of Deaf Culture Wl1at do you ltnow shout this topic Who could you invite to your class to learn more lhfliy might some indivi duals view tleafness as a culture with its oven values niores and language as i Even the heat speech readers get only about 25 percent of a spoken com rnunication iilost individ uals receive only 5ll percent cif spolten cornniu nication using this strategy 174 CHAPTER i E Students with LowIncidence Disabilities wwveabiongrnancomfriend3e is present Teachers should avoid exaggerating sounds or words doing this inaltes it more dif cult for the student not easier Because some students with hearing im pairments do not use speech reading and because even those who do get only part of the message that way teachers should use as many visual aids as possible Impor taut directions can be vvritten on the challtboard either with words or for 7o39unger students pictures Major points in a lecture for older students can be written on an overhead projector or on the chalkboard Vl39l l an overhead projector the teacher can face students while writing thus enabling students with hearing impairments to speech read If teachers tall and write on a challrboard at the same time students vnth hearing impairments can become confused because diet cannot see the teacher s lips or facial expression when the teacher is facing the board to write If a student with a hearingimpair1nen39t spealcs to you and you do not understand What has been said ask the student to repeat the information If you still do not understand or the student becomes frustrated switching to paper and pencil is sometimes appropriate VVhen a student appears confused following directions or answering a question you aslt the difficultv might be vocabulary Try substituting a simpler word or offering a word you think the student might be trying to convey Above all else be patient vvhen cornniunicating with students who are deaf or hard ofhearing As with students vvith visual impairments safety also needs to be kept in mind Assigning a buddy to assist the student during a re tornado or earthquake drill is a simple strategy for addressing this issue For other specific adaptations regarding safety a hearing specialist can assist you If a student with a hearing irupairrnent uses sign language you might consider enrolling in a sign class yourself and inviting a deaf education teacher to your class to teach some signs to the entire group Students generally enjoy this experience and both you and they will be better able to communicate with the student who can not hear The Case in Practice highlights a little more about vvihat it is hire to teach a student who is deaf or hardof l1earing Fiiially you should be aware that the field of deaf education is one facing corn plezr issues about whether oral language sign language or a combination of ap proaches is most appropriate for educating students who are deaf or hard of hearing Easterbrooks 1999 Controversy exists too about Deaf Culture that is individ uals who view deafness as a cultural piienornenon rather than a disability Baker amp Balter 1997 Some individuals believe students who are deaf should be educated in separate schools with specially designed curricula and etperieuces Others believe that all opportunities for using oral language should be erploretl It is unlillteljv that you will be pulled into heated dziscussions concerning these topics but lltnowing about them may help you better understand the range of perspectives among pro fessionals parents and students Adaptive Devices for Students with Hearing impairments Students with some residual hearing are likely to use ampli cation devices such as hearing aids ifyou have a student who wears hearing aids you should be alert for signs of inattention that signal the hearing aid is not turned on or the battery needs to be replaced Other students might use an FM system consisting of a inicropiione worn by the teacher and a receiver worn by the student When the teacher talks the sound is converted into electrical energy carried on a specific radio ll 6C1ll I391 39 Whomccoinnaodurioos Can You Make for Students with Physical or Health Disabilities L nger spelling in which every letter of a word is spelled out F or example finger spelling is needed for naines or technical terms for which no signs exist Students who use sign language are often accouipanied by an interpreter who translates your words and those of classmates into sign language I ones Clarlr 8 Soltz 1997 The interpreter needs to sit facing the student and near you so that the student can both watcli you and follow the interpreter Some older students also use a note taiter who could be a classrnate because they cannot both watch an inter preter and a teacher and take notes Even if a student uses an interpreter however you should speak directly to the student when asking questions giving directions or otherwise conversing Do not speak to the interpreter instead of the student The interpreter will make sure the student understands what you say For eztainple you should say to Paige a student with a profound hearing loss Do the first ve ex amples on the page You should not direct your teinarlcs to the interpreter by say ing Tell Paige to do the first live eraniples on the page Also lteep in mind that interpreters need breaks you might be asked to make small changes in your in structional pattern to ensure that the interpreter can talte a l339tE3921l without negatively afilectirig student learning hatquot Accommodations tan You Maire for Students with Physical or Health Bisabilities Some students receive special education and related services because they have phys ical disorders chronic or acute medical problems or health irnpairrnents that inter fere with their learning In IDEA three categories of disabilities can be loosely grouped in this area orthopedic impairments other health inipairinents and trau matic brain injury Orthopedic inipairrnents are diseases or disorders related to the bones joints or muscles Other health irnpairrnents include medical or health con ditions such as AEDS seizure disorders and asthma Traurnatic brain injury is any insult to the brain caused by an external force and includes injuries sustained in auto accidents and during play Students with these lends of disabilities caused by a wide variety of physical or health pro blenis differ greatly in their level of innate ability and academic achievement and in their needs which can range frorn mild to severe Grthopedit impairments The largest group of students with orthopedic irnpairrnents in public schools are those who have cerebral palsy CF Sirvis 1988 Some 5000 infants and babies and 5UU1500 preschoolers are diagnosed each year as having this condition United Cerebral Palsy Associations nd W elilocti39ir 2000 Cerebral palsy oc curs because of injury to the brain before di1riug or after birth and results in poor motor coordination and abnormal motor patterns These problems can occur in just the arms or legs in both the arms and legs or in a combination of limbs and with varying degrees of severity For some students C also affects other inuscle groups such as those controlling the head and neck Thus some students with cerebral palsy wall on their toes with their lcnees close together Their arms may bepositioned with their elbows bent and their hands near shoulder height Other 1quot Parents of students in your class might have disabili ties including orthopedic irnpairnien ts vision or hearing irnpairrnents or cognitive disabilities Wliar special considera tions do you need to take into account to interact effectively with parents with disabilities Cerebral palsy is the most frequently occurring orthopedic disability among children and youth Students with cerebral palsy often have cogniuve disabilities as Well j I M c e s l information about the causes classification prognosis treatment and psychological aspects of cerebral palsy can be found at the website for the United Cerebral Palsy Association at http wvvw ucpaorg The value placed on independence and self sufficien cy in the United States is not universal in some cultures families may not put as high a pri ority on fostering indepenn deuce in their children as special education staff typi caliy do Concerns about care may predominate I Students with Lovvincidence Disabilities wwwnblongmancomffriend3e students vvitb Cl need braces or a vv39allrer to move about Yet others use vvheel chairs For some students head supports prevent their heads from lolling side to side Cognitively and academically students vvith C can be gifted average or below average or they might have a cognitive disability 39 39 His arms and hands are drawn up close to his body ement He moves around school in a rnotoriaed vrheelchair and Mike his personal assistant helps with personal care going to the physical disabilities sometimes can well es eciallv because his s eech is difficult to understand a P P learned to engage him in class activities by as can respond fairly easily If sheasllts a question requiring a longer answer she gives Don time to form the words needed and does not let other students speak for him Another orthopedic impairment is muscular dystrophy a disease that weakens muscles Students have increasing difficulty vvall ting and othervvise actively moving about Gradually they lose their ability to stand and they require a vvheelchair They also tire more and more easily Students vvidi muscular dystrophy usually die during their late teens Sirvis i988 Franlc vvas a student with muscular dystrophy When he began elementary school he seemed no different from any other student Ilovv ever he began middle school using a Wheelchair when he became tired By the end of that year he was using the vvheelchair all the time By late in his sophomore year Frank vvas too vvealr to attend school and received instruction from an itinerant teacher at his home He died in late September of his iunior year of high school A third orthopedic irnpairment is spinal cord injury As the term implies these injuries eitist when the spinal cord is severely damaged or severed usually resulting in partial or extensive paralysis Kirk Gallagher dc Anastasiovv i997 Spinal cord injuries are most often the result of automobile or other vehicle accidents T he characteristics and needs of students vvith this type of injury are often similar to those of students vvith cerebral palsy judy suffered a spinal cord iriiury in a car ac cident She was hospitalized for nearly half the school year and at the time she re turned to school she could not vvalirz and had the use of only one arm She is as bright and articulate as ever and still gets in trouble when she challenges teachers author ity What has changed is how she moves from place to place Cerebral palsy muscular dystrophy and spinal cord injuries are just a sample of the range of orthopedic impairments students can have You are liltely to teach stu dents wbo have physical disabilities caused by amputatio ns orbirth defects that re suit in the absence of all or part of a limb Lillte1vise you might have a student with spina bitida a birth defect in which an abnormal opening in the spinal column re sults in some degree of paralysis Whatever the has your responsibility is to learn about the students needs and vvorlt Witll special education professionals to ensure those needs are 39 and on the students physical sta tus F or eirainple you need to be alert to changes you niight need to rnalte in the physical environment so that students can comfortably move into our of and around the classroom Such changes include rearranging classroom furniture and adding supports such as handrails to vvalls Other physical adaptations such as ere ating adapted vvorl spaces with large tables and lowering Cl39allbO8i ClS can l acilitate student learning Wont Accommodations Can You Make I39orStudents with Physical or Heomi Disabilities in second area of adaptation to consider for students with orthopedic impairm ments involves their personal needs Kirlc et al 1997 i39lany students become fa tigued and might have difficuliy attending to learning activities late in the school day A fevv take naps or othervvise rest Other students need to stop during the school day to take medication Some students need assistance with personal care such as using the bathroom and eating Students who use vvheelchairs might need to reposiw tion themselves because of circulation prohleins This repositioning can be done readily for young children who can be moved to sit or he on the classroom floor dur ing stories or otlaeractivities Paraprofessionals typically assume personal care re sponsibilities and those related to moving students If you have questions about these areas a special educator can assist or the students parent can eitplain Wl391 1lZiS needed 39 Acadeinically and socially it is not possible to generalize about student needs Some students with orthopedic impairments enjoy school and eztcel in traditional academic areas Some students with cerebral palsy are gifted Others experience problems in learning Some are charming and gregarious students who are class leaders others have a lovv selfconcept and are liitely to have problems interacting with peers If you thinlt about a student like judry the student introduced previously who has a spinal cord injury you can imagine that her reaction to her accident and her need to use a wheelchair is in uenced by many factors inciuding her family support system her self concept and her peers reactions The suggestions throughout this text for worlting with students to help there learn and succeed soy cially are as applicable to this group of students as to any other sher Health impairments Students with health impairments often are not immediately apparent to a casual ob server For example one common group of health impairments is seizure disorders or epilepsy a physical condition in which the brain eitperiences sudden but brief changes in functioning The result is often a lapse of attention or consciousness and uncon trolled motor rnovenients A single seizure is not considered a symptorn of epilepsy but if several seizures occur the disorder is diagnosed About 75008 new cases of epilepsy in children occur each year and for most cases no speci c cause is ever de termined Epilepsy Foundation ofArnerica i986 Overall between 1 and 2 percent of the entire population is affected by epilepsy Speigel Cutler t Yetter 1996 Epilepsy can produce different types of seizures Generalized tonicclonic seizures involve the entire body A student experiencing a generalized tonic clonic seizure falls to the ground unconscious the body stiffens and then begins jerlting Breathing may become shallovv and the student inight lose bladder or bowel Con trol After a minute or two the movements stop and the student regains conscious ness Steps you should talte when a student has a generalized tonicclonic seizure are sunarnarized in the Professional Edge Other seizures do not involve the entire body Absence seizures sometimes called petit real seizures occur when students appear to ternporarily blanlt out for just a few seconds if they are yvalllting or running they might stumble because of their momentary lapse of avvareness Vilhen you observe a student with these symptoms alert the school nurse or another professional who can further assess the student it is not unheard of for students to attend school for several years before someone rev alizes that their inability to pay attention is actually the result of a seizure disorder W9 quotEliet lit to is r 39 i E en the i it is 0 T What acconimodations is a student with orthopedic impairments likely to need Who is responsible for ensuring that the ac commodatins are made i Nationwide some 39il0lU individuals have epilepsy it can occur in anyone of any age sometimes for no apparent reason but also as a result of illness or injury If you are loolcing for more detailed irrfo1 niation about epilepsy you might nd what you need at the site of the University of Wash ington s Regional Epilepsy Center at littpellio hmcwashingtonedu 182 CHAPTER 5 J Students with Lowaricicience Disabilities n iquotjJ wwwabioogmamcomirieod3e Orrhopeait disaoiiities and other health impairments can in ciaae a great variety ofcoriditions iiinesses and i39ojuri es ioriaaiog cerebral palsy seizure disorders asthma aoair51iDS What srieeiai COi39iid 39i CiI39iJi39IS may genera education teachers need to make when working with these studerirs nu health i139npairu1euts your students might hair transmitted disease in which blood does not coagulate properly diabetes a condi tion in which the body does not produce enough insulin to process the carbohydrates eaten and cystic brosis a geueticaliy transmitted disease in which the body pro duces excessive rriucus that eventually damages the lungs and causes heart failure As noted throughout this discussion the adaptations you malze for students with health impairments often reiate to helping them rualte up for work missed be cause of an absence or hospitalization and to iecogniaing their social and einotional needs and iespo1idi1ig to them Lynch Lewis 8 Murpliy 1993b In one study of parents and educators perceptions of problems faced by children with chronic ill riess parents reported that their chiidreri s roost frequent problems were feeliug diiiere11t undergoing constant medical procedures eztperiencing pain and faeiug death Educators iisted absences falling behind in school lack of interactiori with peers schools inability to meet the studeut s needs and social adjusuiuent as the most serious prohierris Lynch Lewis tit Murphy 1993a General strategies for worlring with stud these e include hetnophilia a ger1eticaiiy erits with health iiiipairrrieiits include 1 Find out students roost difiictut prohlerus and help students work through thein Strategies include iiaving students write or draw about th eir concerns or referring39 students to the school counselor or sociai worker as you see a need 2 Provide materials for the students about others who disorder Books yideot apes I11039Vit393S and inforuiatio dents with health insipairrnents understand how others have successfully coped with their illuesses and they can be useful for explaining the needs of these students to peers without disabilities have a sirriilar disease or rial materials can help stu tr hot5ircommodoti39ons Con You Make for Students with Pmsire or Health Disabilities i83 3 Consider inciuding death education in your curriciiiuiri if you have a student with a lifeathreatening condition such as cancer Peciltham 1993 A speciai ft n 5 J Students with tniid forms educator counselor or social worker can probably prepare a unit and help 3heh mF mS in YOU pIquot1393S I139E it which there is no ongoing 4 Work closeiy with families Parents can often be the most inluabie source of MVBTSC effcci 3933 3quotl 33 39339 might receive services through Section 504 Such cases are eapiained further in Chapter 7 inforrnanon concerning their ciiiid s status and needs They can also alert you to upcoming changes in medications anden1ononal problems occurring at home and they can heip their chiidren worit on missed schooi assignments Lynch et al i993b In terms of academic and curricular adaptations you shouid respond to stu dents with heaith irnpairrnents as you would to other students with disabilities Using the IiTCiUDiZ strategy you can identify their needs if modifications in the environment curriculum or instruction are needed you can carry them out using lgiE ya is y th Suggestioiis made througi10139It the remainder of this text y i 393 t ti 5 9 Q 15hat accominodations are were an we 3ttis How do these students needs vary based on the nature and severity of their disorders Tiraumatic brain injury TBI occurs yvlien a student experiences a trauma to the head from an external piiysicai force that results in an injury to the brain often in cluding a temporary ioss of consciousness TEE has many causes including chiid abuse and gnshot wounds Savage dc Wolcott I994 The most common causes of TEL however are fails bicycle and motor yeiiicie accidents sporting accidents and increasingly accidents on piayground equiprnent npprtiirirnately 1 million children and adolescents sustain a TBI each year Wiiereas most of these iiiItiifies are miid some 200000 of these youngsters require hospitaiiztation Clark Russrnan 8quot Orrne 1999 Wliediei TB is the result of a severe injury or a mild one it can have a pervasive and signi cant impact on the students educationai performance IIuit 82 Haciosley 1996 Recovery from a TBI can taite months or even years and some students with sew Vere TBI spend time in rehabilitation after their hospitaliaatioii and before return ing to school Other students with mild or moderate injuries are likeiy to go directiy from the hospital hack to their homes and schools Clark et al 1999 Students with TB often return to school at some point during the recovery process but predict ing their abilities and the point at which they will reach their best outcome is im possible given the iength of recovery time and the yarioius patterns for treatment One of the most perpleing aspects of teaching students with TBI is that they can appear just as they did prior to their injuries and yet have significant learning and social probiems They can aiso seem to he back to normal one day only to seem iethargic and incapahie of learning the next day Because of the eatrerne vari abiiity in needs of students with T131 the information presented in this section gm should he considered illustrative if you teach a student with TBI seeidng input from a speciaiist is essentiai Cognitiyely students yvitl1 TBI might have the same abilities they had before or they might experience a ioss of capacity For example after an autoniobiie accident MiCl13Ei a high school honor student whti used to be a class leader was left strug in medical mchlleio giing to remaster basic math facts His injury affected his school learning Students Many sulde ts who fwd might experience difiiculty initiating and organizing their iearning tasks remember m dig from their ijmI39 ing what they have learned and reasoning or problem solving They might also have new 5u1 rm and f Ij1j39 3 difficulty39 processing yerhal inforrnation and producing spoiten and nrritteii language to school Wtirldn g with sttidents with TEE has become an important topic because of many recent advances 184 CHAPTER 5 E srmMM Students with Low Encidence Disabiiities wwntabiongrnancomXfriend3e p 3 fquoti 39rJ39irl 139he stir ail 0 C n pifieteljf quotn C of quoti39ssi39si5i39 D t Ec B yD fC e to un lersrsnil co g quot39 p jeiee39 tiist1i39etp39oquotliey eoneern ing equipine39ntquot391iseiiiifgtn etfei39stis39s39cl1oo1tneinte ence 39 39 39 stperrnitcustolrtiiegnigfor39the s39triltie quot l7ijr39tlielotgtifes39t techno so ing quotti1quotst high teeiino39l39o Collaborate with I1121F aGCt31I1II1OEli3t quot339Stl1i I1C en enuIteljr different ltegqrbosrcior ceinputer 1112131 nothe neecleci iutionbefore aissurn quot 39si1 iquotrepa39ii9s h zt139equotnot39Cr g3739is neecleti 39filerger1nons39e39 theseereits5quotbei39i1g39ltiioinledgeshi parents 39eiiei l3939 proI 39ierns s 39 etsiqfer39traiiii3 sss esquotgin P other teschers 39Ilteepi39n39g sbreest esp o1tsi39l ii for en39tordetri ces th39atreu3 s u1d39ems 1itiliquot use Yo 139iquot i6quot39tii e prim eryei tesch39erg for e can he39lp39395Io39u ofslli39neW developrnents is an iinpossibletsslcfor one person to 39secornplish39 If grouquotlearn lioutto use a progrsni or device share your others and they can do the Collaborate with the studentquot sntlyou sl139oul1lt39l notreij5onquotthe39 special educatorquot to provide tiliieztpertise 39 5noWEEd Wi E 9 Experirnentwitl139sssistitrequottechno1ogy It is at very Same for Ou young field and everybody is lesrning parents to be sure that technol o gt devices that go horne ere nseti for the purpose intendeti S 390 U R 2 it Adapted from Using Assistive 1quotechnology in the inclusive Cisssrooiu by B Mefoier A Hilda disn St J Ulinsn 1999 Preventing Sfeef Paifi 43 pp 13 117 Reprinted with permission of the Helen Dwight Reid Educational Foundation Puhiishetl 1 Heitiref Pui icstions 3 19 Eighteenth St 1 TVV Wiisiiitigton DC 2003ii82 CoJy139ight 1999 Ensure that devices used by students are age and gender sppropritite For example s high school student using 21 talking word processor should use the adult voice option not the child voice Students with TBI also 11 iniur and the extent of recon eve plursicsl needs Depending on the seveiquotitjr ofthe legs Others have problems in ery some students lisve 1in391ited use of their zirrns and tine rnotor niovernents such as those needed to grasp 1 pencil or turn the pages of 3951 book Yet others lisve lirnitetl strength and starnins Students with these needs sonietirnes attend school only part of the use Socislljgr and emotionally stucients with TBI experience nisnfy tlifiiculties One continent Irnide about stutlents with TEE is that they sotnetirnes l1E1V changes in their personalities that they are not who they usetl to he Kehle Clark lt5jJ 3I1Sf11 19 For eennple they often reinernbe139wl1et they were shle to do prior to their injuries sndso1netiines become depressed as the recognize their current limitations totem sto 8quot Rotl1lisberg 1996 B eceuse tl1ej7riften need 3 hi glts degree of structure and do not respond weli to change they can displsj behavior problems when a su clisiige in schedule occurs as when an sssernbly interrupts an Some students lose their ability to it I rleen sccustoineti routine nierpret anti to respond sppropri3telj239 to social Whot lccommodutions Con You Moire r39orStudents with Physical or Health Disabilities pv cues As a result they inight la39ugli at inappropriate times speak lourlly vvihen everyquot one else has realized a vrhisper is needed or Wander off when distracted by some thing Their behaviors can be puaaling39 or irustrating unless you understand how to respond to them Some of the most cornnion characteristics and related hehaviors of strudents with TlEli along with potential responses teachers can naalte are included in Table 53 it is especialhi irnportant to nriention families as part of considerations about TBI Often parents or sihlings have Wi ci itSSfCl the student in a totally unrcsponsi39ve state and they have psychologically prepared for the possi39hilitv of death They inight he treniendouslv relieved that the student survived but at the same time traurnatized by the an39iount of physical care the student needs and la the drain on nancial and psvciiological familj resources Depending on the amount of uncertainty about the extent to which the student can eventuallr recover the impact of the Till on the stu dentls intellect and peirsonalitjr and the familjfs ahility to provide for the srutlent s needs families can experience a range of emotions including shoclt denial sorrow and anger VVatle Tajgrlor Drotar Stancin Pg Yeates 1996 Eventually mans adapt You need to he sensitive to the faniilv s stress and their changing capacity to follow up on l391CT16 iVOI lC as well as schoolvvorl to support vour efforts If vou teach a student vrith TEE you rnigl1t attend at least one planning meet ing to discuss the details of the students ahilities and needs and to prepare you for helping the student in the classroorn This transition planning which typically oc curs when a student is moving frorn the hospital or rehabilitation center back to school is essential to ensure that appropriate expectations are set for the student procedures are estahlished for responding to changes in the student s condition and all services are coordinated Clarlt i996 In your classroom adaptations relate to plrrsical needs instructional and orga nizational routines acatlernic content and the social environment Because students with Tlifl need structure and routine you should follow the same pattern in class room activities expect the same types cif student responses and lceep supplies and materials in the same place in the classrootn If a brealt in routine is necessary you can prepare the student by alerting hirn or her assigning a lniddv and staying in close pl39DXiI11ltV rlou inay need to inake changes in the academic expectations for a student vvith TBI Because students ruight l110W iriformation one day but forget it the next or learn witli ease sometimes but struggle to learn at other times the need for ileiiliil its is ongoing Students are also likelyquot to become frustrated with their i1iability to learn the W flil391Ejv did in the past so your patience in reteaching inforrnatiori pro viding additional examples and exercises and using strateg39ies to help diern focus at tention can be essential Socially en1otionalli 39 and behaviorally students with TBI rely on you to set clear eapectatious but to he supportive and responsive to their changing needs One stu dent Gary had been in a coma but g39i adrallv regained enough ahilitv to funciion to return to his middle school at first for onl39v an hour or tvro each day and eventuall39v for the entire day However he continued to iiorget cornmon words and grew in ciquoteasinglv frustrated when he could not convey his message His teachers hogan pro viding the words he needed Because many students with T81 seem unable to form a realistic picture of how tliev are iiii1ctioni11ri you iniglit need to confront thern gen tlv about socialljv inappropriate helrav39ior Frustrated With his language sltills Gary yelled at friends quotyet his sentences rerriained unclear Teachers intervened to help iiitn E85 ecit to u 3 Learning What characteristics of students with Tl3i create challenges for teachers working with them I1f39I39Hl lifiOI1 OH CI111I11li39l eating with families was emphasized in Chapter 3 Review the strategies that prornote positive iuterac tions with families i39iei3quots o39iia39irc e s 1 The Brain injury isst ciatiou Inc website at http XWwwl3iausaorg in cludes information about causes cost prevention and treattnent of TBI it even has a lltid s corner gee or Classroom Biamplt393Vi i 539 of Students with ire Characteristics Overestirnates abilities Lowered social inhibition and judgment Lowered impulse control Faulty reasoning Lowered initiative Depression Fatigue r tctlngout behavior impuislvity Rigidity Flat affect Low motivation Agitation and irritability S o u n c E From Traumatic Brain injury An Coison 1992 intervention in Schooiond Clinic 2i4i Reprinted by permission CHAPTER Students with Low u sc Behavior scuc Student brags to friends that he or she is stiii the fastest runner or will win the spelling bee Student tries to touch and hug everyone Student interrupts teachers and peers at inappropriate times Student confronts peers and teachers with unfair accusations Student will not begin a task without a reminder or assistance Student appears uninterested and passive even in activities once considered highly enjoyable The emotional stress ofthe injury may be prolonged and can be overwhelming Student may be fatigued as a result of both the injury and the medication Sleep disorders are common Student may yelior curse about being asked to do a tasit he or she does not want to do He or sh e may walk out of class or knock over a desk Student may be unable to wait his or her turn at a drinking fountain or in the cafeteria He or she may talk out during a test o Student may be unable to adapt to changes in schedule or routine Student may be unwilling to go to an assembly if it is scheduled during regular academic subjects Student seems to have no voice inflections Face seems expressionless eyes seem vacant he or she does not laugh or smile appropriately What appears as low motivation may actually be confusion and inability to conceptualize and plan how to do the tas Varying degrees of agitation and irritability may manifest Student may become annoyed over picky things or become aggressive toward sel incidence Disabilities r speak before being called on for teachers wwwabiongmancomfriendiie umatic Braininjury Solutions cHuccssse Do not challenge the student Fieassure him or her that individuals change after a head injury Redirect students atte behavior Model corre student ntion to an appropriate ct or alternative behavior for Verbally remind student of rules Provide alternative ways to have his or her needs met raises hand or other private signal Do not feel obligated to respond immediately Reassure student and move on Return later to resolve the problem Be proactive and impose organization before assigning tasks Cognitive behavior modi cation techniques may be beneficial involve the student directly in the activity Assign a specific role to hook the students interest individual counseling or support group participation can be beneficial Review medical information regarding physical limitations Provide variety by changing tasks often and giving frequent breaks Consider a shortened school day First protect other students and yourself from physical injury The student may need to be removed to another location with adult supervision in the school Fiestate the classroom rules or limits Reassure the student that there is plenty oftime for the activity Alert the student in advance to antici pared changes in each day s accustomed routine havior is characteristic y and not necessarily vation or apathy Use novel or stimulating learning activities that are relevant to the students interests and goals Ask the student to verbalize the first step toward completing the tasic Ask for succeeding steps if necessary Try to redirect the students attention away from the source of agitation offer an alternative activity or move him or her to another area or room where it is quiet and he or she can regain control Overview of School Re Entry by B FTucilter and S E pp l98206 Copyright 1992 by PRCLEQ inc Whotaccommodotions Can You Make for Students with Autism learn to control his anger and to assist friends to understand him Students with TBI niight also ovei39es39iin39iate their abilities lnfoirmally you can assist in this area by dis cussing realistic options for the near future and with older srudents for career choices In general the adaptations needed by students with TBI are much the same as those needed bv students with piivsical or health disabilities learning disabilities and emotional disaiiiities Adams et ai 199i The uniqueness of students with quotFBI and the reason they are grouped as a separate category in IDEA is that their needs are difficult to predict cliaiige either slowlv or rapidly and vary in intensit3r With patience and a wi iiigness by teachers to meet the student wherever he or she is and work forward from there students with T131 can achieve school success a r as 39 v x 1 as 39 39u H hat Accommodations ian You Maire tor Students with autism rquot S J Autism was lirst identified as a disorder in 1943 by Dr Leo Kanner Since then it has been the source of much research and ongoing professional debate Autism has been considered part of various emotional disabilities including schizophrenia and has heen addressed as a form of mental retardation Currently however autism is considered a unique disorder that affects bovs more than girls in a ratio of approri mateiv 41 Between 3995 and 1999 the number of children identi ed with autism has climbed 120 percent Sack 1999 Autisni frequently occurs with other disor ders in particular it is estimated that 70 percent of individuals with autism also have mental retardation but that number could he an overestimate because of the corriniunication difficulties that accornpanv the disahiiitv and the resulting prob lerns in obtaining accurate estimates of ability Freeman 1994 At least some of the 30 percent of individuals with autism who do not have cognitive disabilities are gifted or talented Cash 1999 if you teach a student with autism you will nd that it is both rewarding and chailenging that sornetitnes the student is a frustrat irig enigma and others times the student39s progress in learning and contributions to the school community are exciting i slthoug39li autism is like most of the other low incidence disabilities in that it can exist in many forms from rnild to severe and cannot be treated as a single disorder with a singquotle set oi atlaptations it does have speci c characteristics First students with autism have seriously impaired social relationships ikiariv students with autism resist human contact and social interactions from a very early age and they have dif iicultv learning the subtleties of social interactions Doneilan 1999 Thev often do not malre eye contact with others and they can seem uninterested in developing so cial relationships or eirarnple young children often aslt teachers to watch them do something Look at mel and they bring interesting items to share with the teacher and their classmates A voungchild with autism would not seelt out such op portunities ior social interactions Albert a l3 39vearold with autism discussed his problems in the social domain He maintained that others viewed him as extrerneiv ugly but he did not understand whyquot he did not have friends VVl1en an interviewer SlE l him what he talked about widi others the two topics he inentioned were wind and smells in the environrnent Cesaroni 8t Garber 1991 He did not take on the perspective of others and he did not uiiderstand that others interests so differeut iaa isze r e n iss39s J Children with low inci deuce disabilities includ ing TEE who live in rural areas have advantages and disa dvanta ges B ecause of a strong sense of corn rnunitv 1l 1E are likelyquot to be welcomed in classrooms and strongly supported in their communities How ever s39pecialiaed services such as special transpor tation and advanced tech nologv options may be difficult to arrange and the turnover rate among special educators and other support staff tends to be quite high l33 CHtarts Students with iowEncidence Disabilities wwwtablongrnancornfriend3e Erorn his own are also part of social interaction Ideas for teaching social sltills to students with autisrn are included in the Professional Edge on pages 19U 19l Students with aiitisin also experience problems in both verbal and nonverbal cotnniunication Paneri l39errante Caputo St l111pt3lliZZt31 l 1998 They often have significantly delayed language development and if they have language skills they struggle to rnaintain a conversation with another person ln writing about her ei perieuces of being autistic Tern l ear f I tI39I1pl of her corn e Grandin provides a cl rnnriication prohlenis Graridin E984 She explains that once when her rnother wanted her to wear a hat while riding in the car she didn t have the words to iefri39se Instead she screanied and threw the hat out the window causing her rnotlier to hit another car Unlilte Ternpl 39 s with autisrn c otherwise clearly corrunun39 39 i words to convey alternative behaviors they n1ight hit a peer as a w classroom instead of saying they do not l dents with autism have ecliolalic speech of producing original conirnunication Ai1otlier characteristic of students w est such as a student who is quotfascinated with radios to thing else Wheri students with autism have such an interest they can spend literally hours and hours ahsorbed in a private wo rld of eiiploration They rnight act bored with every topic and every activity unless it relates to their special interest Such a narrow range of interest often has a negative irnpact on social relationships with peers and adults because the stu ent does not discern that others are not as inter esred in the preferred topic Students with autism have a low threshold for and dif cul stress Grandin 1984 A change in a class schedule could be difficult for a student with audsro as could he the introduction of a new route froin the classroorn to a bus or an alternative order for the day s activities larticular noises or odors or a noisy environrnent also can be stressful lvlaiiy students with autism respond to stress with stereotypic behaviors T hey co iplete the same action or motion again and again For eiraniple they inay roclt rapidly in their ect repeatedly or twirl theniselves or ill 39 quot might develop a ritual to prepare to complete o arrange paper and pencil on the deslr in a pre l books in the deslt are also stored in a speci c order and s aligned precisely at the intersection of tiles on the classrooin oni you should be aw ay of saying hello or run from a ilre the assignrnent just given Some stu quotlquothey repeat what others have said instead ith autism is a very lirnited range of inter the exclusion of nearly every ti ty in dealing with cise pattern checllt that al II i21lE393 sure their deslti lloor ln your classro student dentls response to stre 39 havior you should worl closely with a ly disruptive bee special educator hehavio other specialist to address the prob r consultant or ern In some instances the student rnight need to spend part of the school day in a more structured l ess stressful environinenr such as the school library or learning center In the past nearly all students identified as autistic had noticeable liehaviors and serious prohlerns in social relationships and conin1unication lvleceiitly how Whatrcomniodotr39ons Can You Make for Students with Autism ever professional attention has turned to students with inilder forms of asutisin in cluding Aspergerh svnd139orne These students sometimes seem iilE perfect stu dents Coppola 198 sonievvhat lilte Carter the middle schooi student described at the beginning of the chapter These students usuallyquot develop speech at a normal age but they sornetinies have problems ltnovving vvhether to use a rstwperson see ond person or third person pronoun Their have iirnited facial expression seem inept at interpreting others nonverbai con1munication and are avvltvvard in social situations as though their do not quite tuiderstand the unspolzen rules for social in teractions Tliey sornetirnes have problenis in gross motor coordination but are highly intelligent with intense interest in one or two topics Atwood 1993 Be cause these students may be quiet and do not seelt out interactions vvith oth ers they often have trouble forming iendsl1ips gupporting Appropriate Eehauior Students with autisrn often have behaviors that are unusual and can be disturbing to teachers and students who do not understand this disorder However rnanv of the behaviors can be corrected with highly structured behavior support programs and some can be ignored Mam students vvith autisrn can receive some or all of their ed ucation in a general education classroom provided that needed supports are in place for them Pratt 5C Moieno 1994 Simpson 1995 Generally the adaptations you rnale for students with autism involve creating a structured and predietabie environrnent and encouraging appropriate social inter actions Clark St Smith 1999 To create a positive learning environment establish clear procedures and routines for ciassrooin tasks and follow th em consistently For eiarnple in an elementary classroom you can create procedures for students to re trieve their coats at ltinclitirne or begin each day with the same activities in the same order For secondargt students you can set a clear pattern in jtour instruction by beginning each class witli a 3minute revievv followed by a 20minute lecture fol lowed by a 15minute individual or small group vvorlt session In addition to providing strucnue students with autism may need opportunities during the day to work alone and be alone Chiistof amp Kane 1991 This time serves as a break from the stresses of the classroom and the social and cornmunication demands of that setting A special education teacher can probably advise jvou about vviiether this is necessary for a particular student and assist in making arrangements for a quiet place for the student to work To help students with social interactions and communication you can observe student behavior to understand its purpose from the students perspective Ciiiistoi398t lslane 1991 For eitarnpie if a student with autism withdravvs from ciassroorn activi ties and begins rcciting every day at about 1 100 a v it could be a signal that the stu dent is too hungry to work until a i2l5 R vi lunchtime Providing a snaclt in a quiet corner of the classroom couid reduce the probiern If a student has been vvorlting in a small group but suddenlit leaves the group and runs to the room nett door it could be a signal that the student has reached the limits of his or her tolerance for social inter actions It rniglit be appropriate to W1 l vvith another teacher to provide a safe and isolated iocation vvhere the student can take a brealt from classroom sociai demands Vi tli these understandings you can coinrnunicate to a special educator or parapro fessionai the behaviors of concern and possible eitplanations for them thus setting up a osiuvea roach for roblem solvin 39 Other social areas in vvhich eneral education P P 3 E L F39 39 39 i39quottietit to is r Learning Vlfhat alternative cornniu nication approaches have you learned about in this chapter that students with autism might use What augnientanve con1niuni cation devices might the use r 198 mAP139ER5J Students with Low incidence Disabiiities wwwabiongmamzcmffriend3e 39 39 acii ngaS39oc aE VLSWHESm3iS udemswii ea sm A 39391lCh3I1L S E7 I39tl1 a tism h39 VEE393 grealt need to deveihp I 39sltho0l392e1 1d t391r1r 11gi13901t 1h ir i app1 pria1e 3013 s1 jIls iatwiil S 1 39fEquot 1hem well in ives These are acme 39u5e 2I 91ltiKs and ideas frr 2 1 dr easingquot r 39e11391 Bezha inr Ec39ampie5 39 39 39 39tratlegies39fbrTeach39ing U quot Waitingquot Estabiis cEear39rLii assu39chas 39 39 caii5yorriameTquotquot39 p O 39 W itingfbrquotsomeoneelse T aiiquotfh student tquoto occu gzriyewait time c ng39afavorite toanswerquot actEv39tr03 mi39ce7 S quot I 39 quot quot nquot quot 39 Fy39toc39e p39w it 39tEm 39as39 h39o39rtquotjas39 Waitihgin line quot Sta nquotci up whentii39equott ci er 39WaHi g for a purogramto start c393quot i39E ai39ai39e39t 391quoti33c39j rltiJ39ara rdquot ri estudent3939ftar39sL 39ces5ij i3393waiting39 0 1 6 p 6 39 39C39re39afe a C 39139 Ell t tE3939 39Fiquottu J39h39oEs iggabe1 i39r5tiiiin 39 ach day 5 1 a nd putm39arl 50m tf139 3 rt ra 5quota g L1i1Tef i1 39jn eatij 3d 39 K quot p 39 q m N tru39I 3393 b5u39ti39 39i ifL L i gquot539rjLi es icE5jfamprLelt39ai39Iilt3ieIfhe I 5tLd jf39can j39e39tquothe39firigto39 39nswerg i rgsryg5Exdh39jtime O39ni39 quot Stopl iii139g39befamp eaIwofklgnoolrg Q T39a lt39i39ngturnquot Beingfirs39ciiraiin39e being rst quot 39 Beingfi39r39st39to39 139nswetj 39 Tra39hsiti 3hih39gquot b fo ye cam pjleti hg something 39 39ITrY393039 39G 5 fh 5quot33 b m39395 39aH39C5 5quot quotquot 539Q1quot E9110lQh 39E fe fo39r39f1e39 39 39 3 ljge3i5foe39m39 3i te39d1quot3939 G 2srLdeh39t39rt39afini39sH39aQ m 139 39aE Eiquot f 39739y39quot quot 39 39 T Leavirzgzfh39e39 o39mputer 397quotG39iket1f1 estudeht3939mJ quot riquot 39ngjs39wh nir 39eis39abc1ttoruirmut inth39e middi iczf a game397 g Forgxam 3 ea aie39rtthequotst39udeat5quotrmn39juftes3939be 3r 39thequotend3939 1 U 39 7 cifthe39timeperiiJd39andagainat39239minutesquotandi1quotminute 39b forie tlwequot mfusingquotquotgfis ai3939cL1es39 I 2 C iangi top 5 39Askilnlgquotendessquesti39d sab39dJt39 39 39 wh39atisgo ngtohappen39 D j39aquotbQut39 aiQp39icf3se 2Esu39 ailj3ii39njer39 quotTalking hdies39 Iy39aboLitquotT 39 v Giw 3939fh ftult i ri fi39reLe 3 faucbritetopics39 39 topics Z 1 p0 39 3939S tquotiatirIy jif intof Y h39ea 39CE f39i39fIC39f39 1iIT 3E39a s u ieh39t39c 1n tai3939 r391quot39lt2393939f39 ct39re3939Cards of a39i39 ernatixe p Repei1i39igth39at39othersdonott i 39 I quotiik hi norher 39 39 39 39 L create51 xiL1ieLIab u E ham39bLe r Li m syouw Izrespo39nd to L 39thesamg39q39gestirns Earexample after tvaoquottime39s say You 39knQw39th39e39quotansweE2to tHatiquotquot Write391he39answer f 3r39t jge395tampd 3i1 I 3 39Wrlit stzilt39T339 39rsci39i tquotcrcIgive spiefifuichinnforhnai oiiu teachers C take trums to Sta nish an activity 211quot acc0z11rm39Jdate s111deI1ts with autism inciucle teahi1391g them to wait to p 211 activity before it is complete to 11eglt1t3Iate to cI1a11ge topics to to be more quotfirXibIlt3 to be quiet and to m11it01 their own behavior ammamicatirag with Smdems with Autism Comxnunicaticm with stude3911rs with 2utj11 is 3cc0111ph39sl1ed th139039ug3911 3 wide variety of strategies Brom1 994 S0I11e smdentts with 2auti513911 can cc3n1municata 2uie qL1atelj1r with spemh especia y when thlt339 39 do not feel presssured W39 th 7o39L391ng39 chii 192 CHAPTER 5 p 3 Students with Lowincidehce Disabifities MMM wwwablongmancomff39Eend3e Students with autism have 0 range efcognftfve abiiitfes and some are gifted What strategies help students with autism succeed in general education cfessrooms Some students now use a widely pubiicied and faeiiitated cenununicatien Biklezi nstead to provide steadiness ancl e foimcl this technique helpful in o11mu11icate often for the first time quot39uc1e139nts who previousl significant cognitive disabilities who through facilitated cotttmunication now can type sometitiles mdepeiidetitly and share their thoughts feelings and needs Beitr1e S1t1iIh Patton 8 Ittenhach 1994 Others question Whether the written work ptodttced represents the stt1dent s thirtltihg or that of the facilitator The best cott1iI1t1I1icatjot1 strategies for a student with autism are geitetaliy determined by the mtiltidiscipiiharjt team A special iI1fo1ms you about a educator or paraprofessior1a1 se1det1t s cotrimunication needs and strategies and helps you deveiop an effective comtt1uI1icatioti system in their lives 3 had been thought to have Students with 10Wi1 CIi39it31CE ciisahiiit39ies comprise t i1y ab dents with clisahilities hut thej39 account for eight of abilities and part of the ntehtai retardation category ottt 10 percent of all stem the federal categories of dis Togetitet these students have Apolicat39ions in Teaching Practice tremendously diverse abilities challenges and needs Many of thern can succeed in your classroom if you take into account that you will teach only one or two students with these disabihties at any single time and that they are students rst and have dis abilities second Many teaching strategies you have already learned are effective in teaching these students and other professionals and parents are avaiiable to assist you in creating successful learning experiences for there One group of students with lovvincidence disabilities is composed of those with nioderate or severe cognitive disabilities multiple disabilities and deai39blindness These students learn slovvly and they usually need assistance to inaintain and gen eralize their sirills and to cotr1i3ine skills to complete complex activities They need a functionai and con1niunitybased education that can be accomplished in generai education settings with appropriate supports and a cotnn1itn1ent to effective teach ing and learning practices such as niuitiple levels of instruction occurring in one classroom heterogeneous student groupings natural support systems and devel oprnent of paruierships with families Students vvith sensory irnpairinents are those with signi cant liniitations for pro cessing information using visual or auditory channels The irnpact of these students disabilities on their education can be slight or signi cant They often have needs re lated to acadenuc learning social and emotional slcills and slcllls for living in their en vironinents They also use adaptive equiprnent or materials to heip them learn Some students have orthopedic impairments or other health inipairnients in cluding trauuiatic brain injury Their special supports and services are determined by their needs Students in these groups often have medical needs that directly or in directly affect their learning Their cognitive levels can inciude an entire range Most students in this group have social and eniotional needs because of their ill nesses and accornniodations in these areas are lilltely to be necessary Autism is another lcnv incidence disability Students with autisni have a wide range of cognitive and other abilities and they have irnpairinents in their social re lationships coinrnunication range of interests and capacity to respond to stressful events They need highiy structured learning environments with clear procedures and routines Recently more attention is being paid to students with mild forms of autism including Aspergers syndronie 0 J Eire tin its in i g rnctice I i E93 Pianning Adaptationsfor tudients with LowEracideuceDieshiiitias Mr Guidroz teaches Engiish to ninthgraders This year he hasseveral students with learning disabilities and ernotionaldisabilities2in39his39ciass ibutfliisprirnarycon 39 cern is Viral a young rnan who hascerebral palsy39and liInited vision39339lf139Ciuidiioa has been told that Viral has averageintelligenceand is quitecapableo 39follovv39ing39th39e standard course of studyior English but vvidi a39ccorn39uiodau39ons Mr Gt1idrojai39s meeting with Ms Biclcel from the special education departmentto ask questions 39 about Viral E94 I CHAPTER 5 m HnW J Students with Lowwlmzicience Disab fities wwwuabEongrnancomfriend3e fifr Gzn39cfiroe I need more information about Vi1s39Cs3911 he re How much can he see How is he snpposed to be doing Am I so r 0 ing eless Isit likely tI1st will iiappei I 39he3139 that39 Vira1h39s39s31 sorts J I3 I139Ier C1L1iPI nent and 21 rnotorized wneee11ai1 ZhnI39e393392quot OthSrquoti 5Flli1e1F39 5311 that class period and Fin concerned 2iben39Iquotjnstfittingeveifyone in b 514 Bz39rieeZ39 It sounds like you haven quot1 gotre1itiiequotinforrns1ion v dionghfijzon p Let me try to clarify Viral is quite3gOt d 39S 11dE11t39HE ii snslijzg39etsEs his sore academic classes and hequotisquothigli1jquotrnoijveted5tolearn H39e391iquotz1squot if tention of going 1 I in es1o belkiri39editon39Beeanse 393he393973939 esnquot39t use his voice he talks nsinghiseonnrnnries oii P w p y 39 39 quot 39 ey wor dssyon 15s39re idtaiii do is point hisliesd39tei e2irdiheiai1swier 1 13939 quot quotiixf3921quot31 iii d i i iif139 1S i quot39 hiehz 39 jssys v It1i39e 39answer2 39C E 1iquotquot10li39 1i39 h lbri13 5n 3939 gp srsr tiineio Is39nswer391ie 39re39ai 5 P j en si q quot f r er thein ser39bea1nfo eiisejd539 on requot3ai1sf ee39r39fii39e3iiifaiitsquot 39 39E395 sdsptedf1o1slrieintoseleo ntquothisliniiiged39Tgtisi on vd 1In Gn139drse I 11 havequot to seefhow39 EVEr Bideei M1 Owen is respo39nsii el Iquot c GZ e Pvb quot I quotI sure he gets froII1 classioeisssEjHe39I 4b H swers Viral gives onhis eoizininniEsti39of139 ep z there s 3 chance bus Vira needshisquotstrtei39itioii3939En iiieifdf39 fie Y Mn Gmdiroz OhI P thiswi11be likequot Izneedm1 extrspIseeffon39 I I P n Mr snnz39reshe1 i i i Z 111E39 3dt0S139t rightnestquotto p X lV quot X 0nX quotI The teachers eon1irrned tell ingfor ai4t39n 439539lniinnies b the space issue end tryingquotto ensnire111a1 V rsiwonId eirperieneesneeessir139d39rhrrt quot 0 Guidroz understood V1r21I s needs3939 The next v if Bic cei eon have behavior problems Questions 1 Wlist type of disability does Viia1 have English class 2 Wl1st seeornniodsU39ons slionidISI1quotGnid139o strnetion to address Vir21I s special needs 3 IfxfO1l were rneeting wiiii Ms Biekei what About Viral 4 What Viral Why is Mr Cni dr39oz7s39 1 39 P z inake in his eIsssioo1iiziridquot his in additional questions would you ask About needed seeomniodsLions p 39 39 assistance would you need quotfrom Ms B39ieiei to feel eonifortable 1eachingquot Appficafions in Teciching Practice E95 5 Vi iat would your eipectaIi gtii39 be for wivorlciiig 8 yoii 1r3i139I1 fromthem that wouldiquot11eip yoube 11i03i39efflt31i sfe39in1g h39ii1g7 ifal3939 f39f What expectgations P J 6 Review the entire cliapter and iii the ii1for1Ii2itioi1quot L2bout39 st39ud i1391s39 iiicider1ce disabilities pI E3S 11I2Edil it arc2 t1 P eifi 15sia1quotiifiifi39i391siiI 39 rizlatedVto students in thiiii g1 oupquotWiataiquote the39coiici ri5i aiid53939Tqi39 s39ijiiiifisgic5ii3939s1iH1 39 haif ifbr w0rldng39wi 1stiudents wiih lt3wi1ci 43 1 rt F1 5 if Q in heather After you read this chapter you vvill he ahie to Explain what is meant luv 39zgEJ239nt39zriea2re quotiiriaZiiirier including their prevalence quot39aiidquot39tl1e l393quot elements of the federal dei ioiIions for each of the i1ig l1 iI1Cil 11CE categories Describe the characteristics anti needs of students v ith CUI11ITHJI1lCEll39iO tiisor tiers and eirplain how you can rnalte classroom adaptations for them using the INCLUDE strategy Describe the characteristics and needs of students with cognitive learning and eiuotional disabilities and the adap tations you can rnalte for them using the ENCLUDE strategy tioiicants Academic survival skills p 215 attribution retraining in 22 Emotional disturbance p 285 Expressive language is 20 Highincidence disabilities pi 98 Learned helplessness n 222 Learning disabilities n 285 we csgniiaie aisaeiiaiss is ass Receptive language p 200 Selfeontroi training p 226 Social sitiils training in 224 Speech articulation p 198 Stuttering p see 0 Seth is an eightlngrade student at King Middle School Mostquot people who lrnow Seth outside of school would never gaess that he has a learning disability Iie converses easiljrwitli children and adults has a great sense of hurnor andis renowned among his peers for his street smarts T39hii1gs don t go as well for Seth in school basic acadeniic slrills are particularly prohleinatic He reads slowly strug glii1g39tvith each word and as a result he often cannot tell vou what he has read Setlfs written language is also a proh lE31quot 139 His iiandvvriting is illegible his spelling is inconsistent and his written essays laclr organization In math Seth still doesn t know basic math facts and when faced with ansvver ing word prohleins he simply gives up mlilt disability does I S39etli39l1 avePquot Wliat factors do you think inajr have contributed to Seth s39 acaclen139ic pifoblerns What i inltls of adaptations 9 should Seth s39 teacher rnalre for him What other kinds of support do Seth andhis teacher need3 Rickis heading tovvard his 15th birthday and major t39ro39uhle in and out of school Ricilt s hehavior in school has i never39been39easy39toinanage In the priinarv grades he was disruptive in class but responded well when his parents gave hini139evvarcls at home for good behavior in school VVhen 39Ri5clrviras in fifthgracle his parents ciivorced and behavior problems inschool begaii to worsen Rick began to talk ahu sively to peers inclass and to refuse loudly to do any work He hegan to bully other students pE1I39l39iC L1l2lI39lF those least lilrelj39r tohe able to defend the1nselves In seventh and eighth lquot39g1aii39es39ii39eli atten39deti an alternative school Althougli his siili39oolih39eliavi39oi irnproved somewhat he became involved in gangacti39vities ineighth grade This great Riel3 is a hfeshman 39 iiahiquot in schoolquot and is attendin all reneral education classes 3 is in atl39tli39tioii toseeing a special education teacher once a day 39itithe resource rooni His school and class attendance has beenspotty and he occasionally engages in disruptive behav ior in his classes What is Riclt s disability How do you think his generai education teacher can acconnnorlate his he havior39W ha1 kinds of support do Rick and his teacher neeti E9 p t 5 I arca Cornpare li1ble 61 with Table 51 on page E35 How do these tables support the concept of i1ig h incidence and low incidence disabilities 3 How do the concepts of rnild nioderate and severe disabilities also contribute to a crossscategoricai View of students with special needs l BW 3 i quot5 iiili3939tTE 39i39iquot39 i Students with mild cognitive disabilities comprise twothirds of the federal category of mental retardation The quotfederal definition of rnental retardation is in quotEable 51 on page 135 P ta l n u m m u 1 Stuttering is the most cornrnon ltind of speech problern involving Iilll ll ly Snrr39erz39ng is a speech ini pairinent in which an indi vidual l11VOlE1E1t33 il repeats fV sotuid or worti res39uiting in a loss of speech fhiency 198 Students like Seth and Ricit have l1ighincidence disabilities These students dis abilities affect their languzige learning and behavior You probably will teach stu dents with highincidence disabilities in your classroorn These students can benefit lirotn being in a general education setting but they require support from general and special education professionals Seth is learning word processing skills to help hiin overcorne his problems with spellirig and l13 Cl W339iEl1quottg He is also using texts on tape in his science and social studies classes wliich are sornetirnes co taught Ricit and his teachers have developed an individ39ualiaed behav39iot contract in which Riclt is allowed extra access to the auto mechanics shop for attending class and cornpl ing with teachers requests This chapter covers characteristics and needs of stu dents with high incidence disahilities and classroom accoinniodations that enable these students to learn EE I We iidbat are High incidence msabilities Students with high incidence disabilities hate speech or language disabilities learning disabilities eniotional disturbance or mild cognitive disalilities T he fed eral terrns for hig hincidence disabilities and the proportion of son disabilities served through IDEAL are stunni1aried in Table 61 Stu incidence disabilities share a number of iniportant characteristics These students are often hard to distinguish iroin peers without disabilities particularly in non school settings In addition students with high incidence disabilities often exhibit a combination of behavioral social and acadernic problems Finally students with hipliincicle11ce disabilities benefit from sjesteniatic highly structured insnuctional interVentions such as those discussed in this chapter and throughout the reniainder of this book dents with these dents with high X hat accommodations Can You Make for Students with Eorntnunitetion Disorders Malcolm and Clarissa are part of a large group of students who have cornniunication disorders C39II1I I1 1quotlC311lO1 1 is the eaciiange of ideas opinions or facts between peo age that a receiver can have problems with speech andor language that interfere with CJ 1II1L1I1lC3 ElOIl Their need ac language oral lar1guage Hal iahan c lsiaufiitian 2000 One coinnion speech problem is speech articulation or the inability to pronounce sounds correctly at and after the develtiprnentall3i appro priate age For iX3I Ipic Stacejr39 is in second grade but cannot pronounce the i sound a sound most students rnaster by age 5 Other speech tlifficulties involve voice and uency Eaaniiples of these speech pr obierns are shown in Figaire 61 39 i Ei iCifx 139CCCr1ii iCiCiCifiOii5 Can roa iiiaire for Students with Communication Disorders W9 L 0 Proportion oi Students withiiigireincidence Bisaoiiities Receiving Speciai Edecation quot quotservices in r earn ease Percentage ofnii Federai Disahiiity Totai Number Students Receiving Category Beiining Characteristics of Students EDEA Services Learning disabiiities Generai inteiiectuai functioning within the normai 2748497 Si 0 range Significant difference between aioiiity and schooi achievement Difference in aoiiityiachievement not due to air a visuai hearing or motor handicap bi mentai retardation c emotionai disturbance and id environmentaicuiturai or economic ciisad vantage Emotionai disturbance inabiiity to iearn that cannot be expiained by intei 454363 84 iectuai sensory or neaitn factors inaioiiity to boiid or maintain satisfactory interperv sonai reiationships with peers and teachers inappropriate types of behavior or ieeiings under norrnai circumstances Generai pervasive mood of unhappiness or depres sion or tendency to deveiop pnysicai symptoms or fears associated with personai or schooi probierns Speech or ianguage Speech is disordered when it deviates so farirom 1065074 i98 impairments the speech of other peopie that it caiis attention to itseif interferes with communication or causes the speaker or iisteners distress Three kinds of speech disorders are articoiation iabnormai production of speech sounds voice absence of or aonorrnai production of voice dual ity pitch ioodness resonance andior duration and uency impaired rate and rhythm otspeech for exarnpie stuttering Language is disordered when comprehension andfor use ota spoken written andior other syrniaoi system is impaired or does not deveiop normaiiy Language disorders may involve iorrn word order word parts word usage content word meaning and function words that communicate meaningfoiiy afatudents age 62i receiving services through IDEA Part E US Department of Education 1996 iiddi tionai students receive services under Part H of the same iaw and under Chapter 1 From de nitions deveioped by Van iiiper and Ernerick H984 From definitions deveioped by the American Speech LanguageHearing Association 1 982 S o Li R c e From TwentFirst innaai Report to Congress on tiieirnoiernentatioo oithe Education oirne Handicapped Act 1999 Washington DC US Department of Education zen citastes is J nnc u r Q e iir39i e s i For i1quot1Dlquot6 inforni a ti on about stuttering visit the National Center for S uttering at WW WSEutt 1 in gjCt39t I1 Learning Eiiglish is par ticularly ci1alienging for students with learning disa cilities wiiose naiive language is not linglisli lernet 2000 For tliese students teachers need to draw on instructional inetliods from lTOEi1 bilin gual education and special education Students with Highincidence Disabilities wwutaiaiongnnancornirienci e 3 i 4 r FigIi 339 si SpeechProblems Articulation 1 Difficulty pronouncing sounds correctiy at and after the deveio age Frequent articuiation errors include r V lz g r 1 s 2 sh ch a torted or omitted or one sound may bei 2 Speech may be slurred prnentaliy appropriate ndj Sounds may be dis nappropriately substituted for another Voice 1 Speech is excessively hoarse May use excessive volume or too Eittie volume Speech has too much nasality 5uI aJ Speech iacllt5 inflection Fiuencir T Stutters when speaking 2 May have excessively slow rate of speech 3 May exhibit unevenjerilty rate of speech 5 o u R c s Adapting fn5trucriori in General Education forsiu dents with Comrnunr39cation Disorders by D Barad T985 unpublished manuscriptDeiltalblLNortl1e rn lilinois University Because coininunicacion is social students aritli speech disorciers such as stut tering often experience social pifolaleins Students who can clearly coinrnunicate draw positive attention from peer relationsl1ips l393 LJt students who cannot are often avoided bit their peers and sotnetiines ridiculed The eitperience of peer rejection can be dewistating leading to a lack of confidence a poor self iinage social with drawal and ernotional pI39l3l I 1i3 later in life Cowen Pederson Baiiijian lazo 8 Trost 1W3 For eitainple after 39jrears of being ridiculed by peers a high school freshinan who srutters spealcs infrequeiitlr and has no triends He would like to aslc a girl in his math class to a dance but is petrified that lie will not be able to do so without stuttering understanding Language Wonieins Language is a system ofsyn1l3ols that we use to con1niunicate feelings tliouglits cie sires and actions Language is the message contained in speech Language can exist without speech such as sign language for people who are deaf and speech without language sucli as birds that are trained to call Hardinan Drew Egan 8 Wfinston 1999 Studer39its Wi391D lnave language prolJlen1s have trouble with either or both of two lcey parts of language receptive language and eipressive language Receptive lan guage involves understancling what people niean when tl 7 speallt to you Expres sisre language concerns spealcing in such a wait that others understand you Receptive language piquotl3llt393I1 1S occur when students are unable to understand wliat their teacliers and peers are sa39 ring For eaiupie students Witl1 receptive language clif culties niagir not understand questions nia39J have troubl e following directions and What Accommodations Con You Moire for Students with Communication Disorders iris not he ahle to retain iiuioiquotinatioi1 presented vethallj7 Students with expressive language prohleins are unable to connnunicate cleaily their spoicen l21i1guage11ia3 in clnde incorrect grarnrnar a liroited use O1CVJC21l J1El1I39 and frequent hesitations Sotne connnon receptive and t3Xp1quot SE5iV language probleins are listed in Figtire 62 Stud ents with iaiiguage ptohlenis 11121 also have diiquot39 cuitjr using laiiguage in so cial situations I7 or eaainpie tiT1ti y 1Ia be unable to vary their conversation to match the person with whom thejr are taliring or the conteitt in which it is occurring to maintain a topic during conversation to take turns during a conversation to rec ogniae when a listener is not understandi11g and take action to ciarify and to he a considerate speaker and listener lrios St Vaughn 1998 As with prohleins in conim rrinnicating clearly problems in usii1g39lingnage appropriately can seriously irnpede students social deveioprnent an d peer relationships General education teachers can intervene in the classroom to help such students sticiaihr E3139l397l31g39U3g tievelopn1entforins the underpinning for inuch of the academic leariiing that comes when students go to school It is not su1quotprising then that stu dents with speech and language disorders are liltelfr to have trouble with acadernics as well Problems with sounds can result in students having difficulties acquiring word analysis and spellingquot sltiils Receptive laiiguage pIquotl3iE1TlS can rnake cornpre hension very difficult and can resnlt in trouble understanding niathernatical terrns such as mines iegi oap and eddenrf and confusion sorting out words with rnultiple ineanings such as carry and riiwet Mercer P997 isanguage disabilities can seri ously impede the contentwarea learning stressed in middle junior high and high school In these settings rnuch inforination is provided orailjrusinglec1ure fotinats the lttocahuiar39t and concepts covered are much n ore abstract and students are pected to learn with less support irorn the teacher These task dernands are difiicuit for students with language disorders Aiio139her part of learning independentlr is soiving prohlerns Students with lan guage disorders may have difficult werhaliaing the steps to solve a problem For ex ample when a langnage proiicient student solves story problems she talks to herself as foliows First I need to quotfind the liffjquot words Okay here they are Now do these lrejr words tell me to add or subtract I think they tell me to subtract because the problem asks ine how manyquot are left A student with langt1age prohlerns cannot tail herself through prohlerns httotninodetions for Students with ornrnunitetion Bsorders As discussed in Chapter 4 the INCLUDE strategy stiggests that before ytiti nialte adaptations you care ilijr consider potential student prohienis in view of your in structional dernands F or students with speech and Language prohierns note espe cialhr any areas in which students are required to understagnd oral litiigtiage for eaanripie iistening to a lecture or a set of verbal directions or to communicate orallv for erarnple respondiiig to teacher questions or interacting with classmates when worllting in coopei39ative groups The fciilowing discussion highiights specific swag gestions for worlnng with students with speech and language disorders Create an atmosphere of acceptance You need to help students who have diffi cult eapressirig theniselves believe they can co1nrn39unicate without WCJI39I 7i g about 291 in renieinhering the dis tinction between receptive and expressive cornrnunim cation disorders thinlr of the root words rcceitie and exorest it is incorrect to view stuw dents as haviiig coinn1u I nication disorders when tire use ethnic or re gionai dialects speak a form of nonstandard Eng lish iearned at home or are native speakers of lampIl guages other than English and have limited English p139gtiiciei1cjt 262 CHA PTE R 6 Students with iiigieincidence Disaioiiities wwwabiongmancornXfrienci3e 039 rm iii Equot sg LanguageProblems Expressive Language Proiaiems 1 Uses incorrect grammar or syntax quotThey waik down together the hiii I go not to schooif i iquot Lacks specificity it s over there by the place over therequot 9 Freguentiy hesitates quotYou know uhm I would uhrn weii 4 Jumps from topic to topic quotWhat are feathers Weii i uncie er iike a er Coke like to go hunting with my 5 Has iirniteci use otvocabuiary 6 Has troubie finding the right word to communicate meaning word finding Uses sociai ianguage pooriy inabiiity to change communication st ations to repair communication breakdowns and to maintain the conversation O yie to fit specific situ topic during a to ask a question Repeats same information again and again in a conversation in it Has difiicuity discussing abstract ternporai or spatiai concepts Oftenquot does not provide enough information to the iistener saying We had a big fight with rhern when we and them were not expiained Receptive Language Proiaienss i Does not respond to questions appropriateiy 2 Cannot think aiostractiy or comprehend abstractions as idioms quotrnind sharp as a tacitquot quoteyes dancing in the ciarilt Cannot retain information presented verbaiiy Has dii cuity ioiiowing orai directions Cannot detect breakdowns in communication mmnit Misses parts of rnateriai presented verioaiiy particuiar cies the book ct book and auxiiiary verbs and tense going iy iess concrete words such as arti rnarkers He was going She is 2 Cannot recall sequences of ideas presented oraiiy 3 May confuse the sounds or ietters that are sirniiari sounds and syiiapies in words was saw 9 Has ciifficuity understanding humor or figurative h oi rn n or reverse the order of nnguage 16 quotHas difficulty comprehending concepts showing quantity function comparative size and temporal and spatiai reiationships E1 an1 Has difficuity comprehending compound and cornpiex sentences Communication Disorders by D ersity and Strategies for Teaching by C S Boss and S Vaughn 3994 Copyright S o u R c E s Adopting instruction in Genera Education for Students with Barad 1985 unpuiaiished manuscript Dei aib EL Northern iiiinois Univ Etudents with Learning and Behavior Prohiems 3rd ed to 1994 by Aiiyn and Bacon Reprinted by permission Whomccommodotioos Can You Moire for Students with Commurncorfon Di39sorders l rnalting mistakes You can foster this nonjudgrnental atmosphere in several ways First when students rnalre an error model the correct form instead of correcting their mistakes directly Ilizarhsr Kareern what did Jules do with the frog Kareevr39 Put pocltet 3 zol2er39 Oh He put it in his pocket Kareem Yes Second try to allow students who stutter or have other uency problems more time to spealt and do not interrupt themor supply words that are dif cult for them to pronounce Offering praise or other reinforcernent for successful efforts to communicate as you would for your other students is also helpful Sometimes you should praise even an attempt 39satfier Anthony what did you do when you went home yesterday Alnrfaaay Television 2393arl2sr Great you told me one thing you did You watched television Finally try to rninirnize peer pressure One effective way to do this is to model and reinforce tolerance of individual differences in your classroom Entourage listening and tenth listening skills Even though students spend more time listening than doing any other school activity very little time is devoted to teachinglistening skills Mancilebaurn c3 VVilson 198939 Stressing listening is partic ularly important for students with receptive language disorders First listen carefully yourself and praise listening among your students For example when Ms Hernan dez listens to a student speak she leans forward and nods Many of her students copy these listening actions Second he sure to engage your students attention before you begin spealting by increasing your proximity to the listeners by giving direct in struction such as Listen to what I m going to say and by reducing competing stimuli have only one activity going on at one time or have only one person speak at a time You can also use verbal pictorial or vrrittenadvaiice organizers to cue stu dents vvhen to listen for example quot VVl1en we get toiiuurnber 3 on this list Want you to listen extra carefully for an error I am going to maize Lena Alley 8 Scliurnaker 1987 Robinson 8 Smith 1981 Third make oral material easier to understand and to remember by simplifying vocabulary simplifying syntax using higli frequency Words repeating important information giving inforrnation in short segznents using visual aids for emphasis having students rehearse and sumrnarize information and using cues that signal when you are going to say something important Mandlebaurn amp39VVlson 1989 Finally teach listening skills directly Provide practice on sltills such as predicting What inight be heard followiu g directions appreciating language iden tifying main ideas and supporting details drawing inferences differentiating fact from fiction and analyzing information critically Brent lit Anderson 1993 When you spealt you can also enhance your students listening skills by stress ing vvords that are important to meaning For example say He hit the frail or He hit the ball depending on What you ivant to emphasize Stressing inflectional pats terns such as using an upward inflection when aslting a question also helps stu dents better understand what you are saying 2amp3 1j o in39s a Using modeling providing rneaningliil leariiing con teitts and developing other instructional nietliods are discussed in greater detail in Cliapters 9 1 1 CHAPTER Q i Teaching language in meaniiigful contexts is also an effective strategy for students with liinited Engiisli pi39oficieucy Strategies for building liacltground in arination help all students coinpre iiend what El1 jxquot E 2lCl To help students develop communication sicills pro vide many quotsale nnci mean ingful contexts for students to learn and practice listen ing slltills speaking skills in teraction slciils and selfexpression skills What are some specific si39nategi39es for teaching students with communication disorders Students with Hignlncicience Disabilities wwwab ongmsncomffriencl3e isle rnodeiing to expand stuu39ents lunguage You can expand the laiiguage of sta dents witli eitpi39essisie languag39e problenis by addi1igrelevant inforniation to student statements Snaicnt john is nice quotincisci quotYes iie M very nice and polite too You can also expand lang39aage by liroacle11ii1g39 a nuninial statement sitleiir iiy shoe Ylsriclaeis Your siioe is pretty Modeling to expand students language is most effective when it is done as an on going part of 370111 everiidauy con1niiunications with stud euts ntexts for practicing speech and in The goal of successiiul ianguage prograins is to teach students to language in a variety of social and academic situations botli in and o can help students with aii types cit speech and l providing as niany OppO1 iL39L1I1i1 i es as ingful conticitts Hardnian Dr re ne language sicilis and nia practice in many different contexts eitaniple Ms Cruin just taught her class t liealtli class the students discussed the ir against fat consurnption and then i u11din ing a trip to the tnuseuni Ms Crusn pointed out to be quiet when he was Weariiig shoes tli nguuge sicilis use app139opriate in of school You aiiguag39e problerns meet that goal ls possible to practice language skills within niean cw Egan amp 39VVinson 1999 Practice helps students kc theni more natural and autoinatic Vvllien students they can apply what they learn more 1 E321Clll For of the Word z39rari239r During onr of the governrnent warning people g school lunciies that are liigh in fat Dur tiie irony of the guard telling them at sqtieaked loudly when he Walked he meaning Whot ire the Learning Needs ofstuden is with Learning nod Behomior Disobi ties it is also lielptul to encourage students with cornrnunication disorders to tallt about events and eiperiences in their environment describing them in as much de tail as possible Iiardmaii et al I39999 F or example Ms Cusalt a rstmgrade teacher starts every Monday by having two students tell about something they did over the W El 1El Mr Drake a sixthgrade teacher uses a Saturday Night Live format whereby students in his class act out something funny that happened to them over the vveeltend Finally whenever possible insn39uction should be embedded in the contest offunctional areas For example in ixis Taylor s consumer math class she has students go out to appliance stores tallt to salespeople about service contracts and then de scribe and compare the various service contracts that are available In Ms Eilens sec ond grade class students invite and converse with classroom visitors hat Are the Learning Needs of Students with Learning and Behavior msubilities Students with learning and behavior disabilities have learning disabilities emononal disturbance and mild cognitive disabilities These are me students who are most liltely to be included in your classroom because they comprise more than 80 percent of all students with disabilities in the United States US Department of Education 1999 Students vvith learning disabilities are students vino achieve less academically because they have trouble with processing organizing and applying academic infor mation Students vvith learning disabilities are of normal intelligence have presum ably received adequate instruction and have not been shovvn to be sensory impaired emotionally disturbed or environmentally disadvantagedquot Students with mild cog nitive disabilities are students vvho have some difficulty meeting the academic and social demands of general education classrooms due in large part to belovvmaverage intellectual functioning ie 5 S70 on an IQ test Students with mild cognitive dis abilities can meet at least some of the academic and social deniiands of general edu cation classrooms Students with ernotional disturbance are of average intelligence but have prohlerns learning primarily because of external acting out poor interper sonal sltills andor internal anxiety depression behavioral adjustment problems Students with learning disabilities mild cognitive disabilities and emotional disturbances differ in a number of ways Hallahan 8 Kauflman 2000 T he behav ior problems ofstudents with emotional disturbance are more severe and students with mild cognitive disabilities have lower levels of measured intelligence Students vvith learning disabilities may have more pronounced learning strengths and weak nesses than students with mild cognitive disabilities vvho are liltely to show lovver performance in all areas Still the academic and social characteristics of students with these disabilities overlap considerably All three groups may experience signif icant problems in academic achievernent classroom behavior and peer relations The causes of these disabilities are largely uiiluiovm because learning and be bavior result from a complex interaction betvveen students individual characteris tics the various settings in which they learn and the tasks or other demands they face in those settings Ysseidylte Algoaaine 8 Tburloiv 2000 It is often difficult to identify the primary cause of a learning or behavior problem For example 2 5 I 39quot l139ecquotit vs a r E39e39a rnirig i What are the differences between language disor ders and speech disorders lriow can you modify in struction to promote suc cess among students with communication disorders 05 J Students with emotional disturbance often are I referred to as behavior disordered BB Another term for students with inild cognitive disabilities is educable mentally handicapped EMH nd Mattison 1999 studied a sample of 23 3 students aged 6 l39fi years who were newly identi ed with behavior disorders to see how many of them also had learning disabilities Over39 all they found that 53 perquot cent of the students had a learning disability based on criteria for at least one of four accepted deidninons for learning disabilities 38 t l Some advocacy groups prefer the term speci c leeriiiisg dii39oiiility because it emphasizes that only certain learning processes are affected 286 Q 1e n e39sis J African American students especially those in urban middle schools are at risk of being overidentified for behavior disorders children from Hispanic or Asian American fainilies are at rislt of underidenti cation Peterson 8 lshi jordan 1994 W39lrv do you fl391lI1l this is so ollliliis39i39c39e s The Learning Disabilities Association LDA is a helpful support group for parents of students with learning disabilin es Valuable information on parental rights and tips for parenting are avail able on their Website at http r39wivwldanatloi39g Research from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has shown that reading dis abilities affect boys and girls at roughly the same rate Boys however are more liltelv to be referred for treatment as they are more liltelv to get teacher s attention bvmisbehaviiig Girls niav escape the teacher s attention as they may withdraw into quiet davdrearning B oclt i999 CHAPTER 6 P Students with Highdncidence Disabilities wwvaablongmartcomfriend3e Thomas is lagging behind his classmates in acquiring a sightwvvord vocabulary in reading Learning disabilities tend to run in his family hut Tho1nas s school district also changed from a basal to a litera1urebased reading program last year in addi tion Thon1as s parents separated in the inidclle of the school year and divorced sev eral months later Viliv was Thomas behind in reading Was it lieiedity Was it the nevv reading program Was it his parents marital problems All these factors may have contributed to Thomas s problein quotThe most important reason students with high incidence disabilities are grouped together for discussion is that whatever behaviors they exhibit and Whatever the possible causes of these behaviors students bene t from the same instructional practices Algoaaine Ysseldyllte St Campbell 199 Christensen Ysseldvlte 82 Thurlow 1989 These practices are introduced in this chapter and covered in con siderable depth throughout the rest of this boolt For example Raeanna has a mild cognitive disability She has dir culty reading her classmates social cues As a result she does not recognize when she is acting too aggressively vvith her classmates and often is rejected by many of them Del is a student with learning disabilities He also has trouble reading the social cues of his peers Although Raeanna and Del may learn new social sldlls at different rates both can bene t from social skills training that provides considerable guided practice and feedback on how to read social cues The point to remember is that categorical labels are not particularly useful in describing speci c students or developing instructional programs for them Hard man et al 1999 For example both Damon and Aretha have learning disabilities jvet their areas of difficulty differ Damon has a severe reading probleni but excels in niatherriatics and various computer applications Aretha on the other hand is read ing at grade level but has signi cant problems with math Though both students are categorized as having learning disabilities they have very different needs You must analyze each individual studentquots needs and then rnalte adaptations as necessary This individualiation is at the heart of the INCLUDE strategy introduced in Chapter 4 Students with learning and behavior disabilities have many learning needs The have dif cultv acquiring basic skills in the areas of reading math and written language They also may lack SllllS necessary for efficient learning such as attend ing to task u1enior r independent learning skills language sltills reasoning con ceptualization and generalisation motor and school survival slrills Reading Skills Students vvith learning and behavior disabilities have two major types of reading problems decoding and comprehension Decoding problerns involve the slcills of ide11tifyii1g39 vrords accurately and fltieritlv Thev are most readily observed vvh en stu dents read o139allv mispronouncing words substituting one word for another or ornitting words Lerner 2000 Students vrith reading fluencv problems can read words accurately but do not recognize them quicldjv enough They read slcnwly in a vvordlry vvord fashion without grouping words together meaningfullv lerner 2000 Nlaiiv of these reading decoding problems are e emplilied in the follovving oral reading sample by a student with a learning disability Then Ford had uh other i a better idea Talte the worrrlt to the men He deee A long rope was hoolted onto the car vvheels There s no rope on there The rope pulled the car auto the white Wheels What Are the teaming Needs of Students with Learning and Behavior Disabilities along pulled the car all along the way i39v le31 stood still Putting on car parts Everybody rnan put on on a few parts Down the assembly line went the car The assembly line saved time Cars costed still less to huh bull Ci build Ford cuts their prices on the Model T again Hallaliaii Kaufliniaii 8 Lloyd 1985 p 203 Here is the actual passage the student was to read Then Ford had another idea Take the work to the men he decided A long rope was hoollted onto a car axle and wheels The rope pulled the axle and wheels along All along the way rnen stood still putting on car parts Down the assembly line went the car Tlie assembly line saved more tirne Cars cost still less to build Ford cut the price on the Model T again Hallahan et al l935p2G3 Students who have serious difficulties decoding written words are sornetirnes referred to as having dys axia The Professional Edge on page 208 discusses the meaning of this term and suggests instructional approaches Students with learning and behavior disabiljues often have prohleins cornprew hending stories in the elernentaifgr grades and contentarea textbooks and advanced literature in the upper grades Although these difficulties result in part from poor decoding slcills tlztev may also occur because these students lack strategies for iden tifying the key elements of stories and contentarea tests For example Todd s teacher asked him questions about a book he had just read as part of his classroom literature prograrn Todd was unable to tell her where the story ECDii place setting or the lesson of the story moral because the answers to these questions were not directly stated in the story and Todd lacked the necessary inference strategies to fig ure thern out Patsy was unable to answer a study question cornparing the causes of World Wars I and quotII because she could not locate key words such as dtffeiteiices and sz milaritz39es In addition students may not be able to adjust their reading rate to allow for slriinining a section of text for ltev information or for reading more slowly and intensiv39el3r to answer speci c questions For example Dennis taltes a lot of time to locate key dates in his history book because he thinlrs he needs to read every word in the chapter while he is looking for the dates Written Language Skills The written language dif culties of students with learning and behavior disabili ties include handwriting spelling and written expression Handwriting probleins can be caused by a lack of fine inotor coordination failure to attend to task inabil ity to perceive and or retneinher visual images accuratel37ISn1itl1 1997 and inade quate handwriting instruction in the classroorn Grahani 1999 Students niarv have problems in the areas of letter iorrnation is the letter recog1iizable size align rnent slant line quality heaviness or lightness of lines straightness and spacing too little or too much between letters words and lines Students with learning and behavior disabilities also have trouble with spelling The English language consists largely of three types of words those that can be spelled phonetically those that can be spelled by following certain linguistic rules and those that are irregular For example the words cars sranstraction and retell can be spelled 0Iquot139ampCtl l7 by applying phonics generalizations related to consonants consonant 2 than one child in eight who is hailing to read by the end of first grade ever catches up to grade level Ouel i988 lvianv at tisllt readers bene t from early intervention that includes the explicit teaching of our lettersound svstein often referred to as pfraeiier Lyon 1998 I l Assessrnent strategies to identify atrisllt readers in lzindergarten and first grade are described in the Professional Edge in Chapter 8 on page 292 i Err Graharn G999 suggests that you can make spelling engaging hv including student choice as part of the selection and study of words allowing peers to study and work together helping students discover patterns in the spelling of words and using games to learn and practice spelling skill approaches u r can s the 3939 The website for Li in Depth Individualized Education lJI 0g391393I11 www idonlineorgquotidindepthx iepiephttnl provides many links to help parents and teachers develop IEPs Un erstataditagss ys ext a The term feaizr is used 2 let these ds39j7s Yiiti hear tlfiatlta f139ieI1r39l s e 1iid has tiyslexia or 3311 see 139pe139son wI1390isdsIe39sie cm teiev139sioI1 Q1 youread that Aibe1t Einstein and T11cJ111ss 39Edis01 1 hac1djzsiexisTheword dyZexiz which re es 115 deVeL3pn1e11tai word hli nti1ess has 3 meiiesl S3939L391I1t39i to it so yr11may392mttm1stie2i1ir 35S39tiI J 3 that it is 39 1t3Lii39Cfe1ii39yiib21Std Yetwe39re1 iy39 do t1390t imtaw whitt dy39siesie is Stime 39ert e believe dyslexia is 1 iiarttiri tiis 39Jtdet tiiatapeopie with djI39sieXia have 1 different i iI1 St1quot1C39 iillquotE5 t11atie21ds te tiif cuiw 39 ties in pmeessin 39 1391i 11139i ViS lI3i iingtistie inf0r111s tie11 and that this fauitj iI 3il1 st39t139etu17e is ge1391etieaII3f shsseci Ftwei39s 1993 39UtI1ltt1gh teses1eI391 using I11039re s39Jphistiest39ed teei111tIgquot 39sI39wgtviti some S11ppO1 1 f39iT 1 genetic 11euIfc gquotiesl itissis fe139 resciingf problems Ii39iipel 9539 Penz1ing39tltJn 59 5 Sl1139rwitz Pugla Jemteiquot Put3right Fietehet Glt39re B S111j vrit 2000 the ev39iie1ee is stiii is1 g eIj2quot ei139e1ms13921ntiai Kentie1quot39IIamp Keliciezr 1998 In zany ease 1mcwingj the esuse of se 1were 1estiing1iteiiilems is me thing39 ir1caurir1g Wi1 i39tI39J39 tie to help sttidents who he ve these pmbiems is 311 39 other slt0g ethet Pe1hsps the best iquotsf EE ciese139ibe Ciji itf i3 st this p0it1t is E0 say that it is 3 term used to tiesetihe sn se17ic11s resdirigquot ltiiffieuitp39 I311 veerquot SiII1i f smden ts witl1 i Sif3Xi21 Em39e serieus 13mhien1s esmin to read cIespite normai it1te ligenee normzii tgtip391391t11I1339ties to ieam ITIH t39i 1 i 21nlti an stietjuste 110111 e eIwi1nme1itt39 39 xlIi1c39139gh th b nretise iI gf3I1iY C1 39l39iSE3 Of ci39sexi1 is 11Iilquot1DWI C39 1Sidt3 F c1blt3 evidence stigggests that restiing problems sssoeiatieti vs39it39h iiquotFii2XizT are plfitmt31gieai39y based 391 1 19 39E t in0vieh Siegei 19 739ii Stude11ts39 with i1s1eia iiisie t liffieuiti3 tiet39ei39 jJpi1g phenemi sw39sreness the tmdetstsnt39ii1g39 that s139J0ilten wottis are 39to39I1gt1 isttti if Si5t1I1t39i39f Pia iIquot33I1 1iC 1wste1ess prebiems Ins139e it hard for them to link speech stziutstis te 139ette239s 11ltii11st39eij e11ingr to sim39 isr ificnteti teaciingf eI111faete139i2eci by ftec11ent ststts Eillfii sttsps fLi m1tiple InispirtiJ13u391eistiens Eittidents with 39137sIe3e39js slser iasve eltI ptel e1sitm prJ 391 ei3911s l1rgjey i39Je 33 use the stniggle zz i1i1393i39IZ1 to identi WI1 39i5ii39 iesves iit tle e11ergg39 fiat 139I11i39it1 St EI1iiI1g39 what 111 teatii iitL1lt39ients w39iai1 lti39sIe3i1 iS39 heave t391 quotJ139ii1F39 Pith the basic eleri1ents tfw39139itten 1mgusgfe such ss39s3elling st1 S iI11TEEIC 39 s13939139 ps1 ag1rsph erms1quott1eticm Fii3911iij students wiith f139 Sif3i39iE1 I f1quot 1131e t39iiiifiLt11t Lmietu stamiing 1ep1ltese11tstisttsl systems s11e39 as teilirtg time direetioris and seasons Ba39ra11 8 Bj7111391 385 Dyslexia e0n11110n1yis considered 2 type of 139e2tr11ing dissbi1ity and students with ti7sexis sire serv39ed39u11ti39ei the les13911139t1g disability elsssi csti0139 of IDEA It is i1quotr11amts11t to itie11tify students with dyslexia e1 tiffSEVii1 B readin tiisa39iiiti39es es y bef0re39t11ey fsli far13ehi11ti their peers in w39o27d139eet3gniti011 139sc1i1g sicilis Stueie1tts who a39ppea1quotte belesrnii1gi39et1e1 hsetes s11I1ds39 mad sigglnt w0t39is at s sig1ai es ntly quotsiltJwe1 rate th211391their f iaSS13913 Zt3S are at ris ft1 ieVe39lopiJ1g ister 139e1c i11g39pzrcrbems I A lsrgje it3933939ij Qt 139eseateh E lai1 1 1nix 3390 Csklsm391 Baclc39Stz1nf rd Niussiiszmm Esilise 19 gtEi Sn0w39 Burns P Ciiriffin 399398 39SW391quot139S39JIL 23quotJquotsi1t39ws that 1113213 stucientis Vquotith severe 1quot stiing tiissb39iiities i3e11e39 39 tit 1 i iJ1 1391 1 l393egi131ing 1esdinggf pr39 ff139sm tI1sti11eiuties th e 11311wing eiei39t1etts 1 Direct instt3911etieot1 in language msiysis Fr39t es amiaie students need ts i39lt ta11 1t ski19 insmmd seg3r1ientticgt11 er in Crsi39i393 lresiing 39 wn wottis i13te their eempciment se39uz1is 2 A hifgh 39 structured phmies prtigratn Ti1 s pifogfritnza size1iti te1 eh the siphsbeir eecie ZiiI iCti 39quot a11ni sjyquotste1 nstieslljg 11si11g 3 isimp1e te ecrnple se gtiemgre if sitiiiis tesething z39eg trIls1fi before it39i egt1 I3rit39 and tiistttin11rigi39J39ag guessing I I 3 W riting and readixag i11str39uetieni11 c0n1i i39ina 39titan Students 3eei to he v39titing39 the wtmis they39 are zresdim Intetasive instruetim1 R39eatiiig39 i11stru39cti0t1 fer strisLstt1tients shtimiti i11cl11tie i 1139ge 111339r1t1i1tsefquotquot39 ptsct39ie5 in n391ste1i21ls thatquot ecmt1i11 words theyquotste sbie ti deecintie 39 Teaehiiig fez autm139393tieity39 S39t1deiits Imistquot quotiie fi i Iquot e1mL1gl1 prsetiee so timtt11e a17e393ijie icorrestl hath 39CTfZ 139IIquot ttt iiquotf s11i tenti1y39 39 Ft St39t1L39it3 l ts when 1 re i39Silt3 iC visit Dy39lsexia The Gifti at wematijgrslexise0139I1 tijr c39usriti1itm 1i ds 1 quothttgt1ltst0re dislt1ssi cm Irlt39n1139tl smi ii11iiEi tt further infer11stit11 298 Whot we the Learning Needs of Students with teeming and Behavior Ofsob39h39t39e52 blentls mi vEWj 35 1gm 39wtnquottis 3533 prefixes ice and stsf xes Ems a Th6 Wr1d g mE15 can he so erI by sppJ39yi1391 the Ei11gtistic role tn ehsngi11g3r to if and stitii1quotg es Whtfds Erich as jm Q31 EL3qj gmci I39E 39f are i3 1quoteg39L1lst and can be spe ed I1391TJ39j te113en1l39e1Ting W11st them look hice SLit1t1e1a ts veith Iestxnng and behavior dissbi1ities znsy have tto39t1bEe wit1 3 ti1 f t1Jpes tf7wc 1 ds Smde1391t8 with Ie11quotai392g and laehsviozf clisseiities have two 1112111quot tjmes of writ ten eepttssin t1 lt3hEe111s prcJti139ct ptobEen1s and process ptobletns 1ssscson 987 Ems M Cgh t J3 Theizr written products are often verquotb tigtjettt sentences Cm1CEmZ d 133 few words it1on1pIete sentences overuse of snnpie snisject Vefb const1tsetions iepetitions use of 1n39gh f1 eqt1ency39 words 1 dis39eganti for szttdience poor 39ygs139iZ3 i31 end sttt1ct39o1fe and nmny n391eehsnics1 ettors such as misspeIii11gs 39ncrreet use of pt1nltt39L1st on and capital iettets and faulty st1 ojeetverb sgtee1nents ant r39h5ce of3 om391111s ifssscson 1987 These students also llasre ttonh1e with the tnretali process of written CiI111391quotifL131i uim Tei1quot t1p1 02JtT1 to Writing shows little systematic lsnning great dit39Eict1 t putting ideas on paper beesuse of 21 pteocct1pation with 1nechsnies faiinte to 1non it1fw39I jti1g and iittie ttsefui tevision E1iis 82 Colvert 19 Issscson 198 A w139i1i ing sample from 3 sttttienti who has 21 dis2biiity is shown in ig39t11e 63 KVl 11t types of ptrdue1i nfo 39letns do you see in this sample Wquoth 1t p139oeess p139oben1s do you th339nl 1i139igl3t39 i1sve led to these problems Mesh s s R I39 J139i39rltt239cgtamp393equotet91Iquot 39J 5jt39EiJ39i1 lJI u 1 39gt39 a1I1 Mst11 sso can be problemstie for stetients with 1e1tni11g and Iehavir3r dssbiIities Their probietns tend to occur in eigltt kejs areas CaWquotlEjf Pstmst 211 P Mil1et 1998I1jth 1997 St1 sng amp Rott139ke 1985 pstisf otgenmetioss Students 1t13y be unable to align numbers in eoltltnns ole reverse nn1noers write 3 9 bsciomrds te1d 52 as 25 or tnaje subtract the top oun1ber rotn the bottom nnn1bet in 3 st1b39t1 sctiron probletn such as quotF5 3o 44 24 sletteess to visnad detail Stet1ents misread n1athe1nsticsE signs or forget to use dollar signs and deeittlsls when necesssty39 3 Procedural errors Stutlents miss 1 step in solving 3 ptolniersa For e2ts1np1e the 11333 forget to add the csttied nun1bet in an addition ptobe1in or stthtract from the regrouped tmtrtber in s sttbt1 sctitn1 problem 29 41 53 28 712 23 934 Fs nse to shift mine set from one ptobiem type to another Students solve ptoble139ns of one type but when required to solve another type of prob Eem inapp1quottp1istey39 solve them in the we the did the first type For essn1 pie 1 t styj1391st compieted seversi word problems that reqti1ed 1ddition The next pro39ole139n tequi1quoted s39ebtrsetion but she eentittned to use sdtI139t on t s tr E V 0 M ieachets Often Ia staite 391Il1I 1 stages t ttitiicx 391nr 391f3OI SCent eve1cpn393e11t for 51C115 01 the pteseme of Iea111ing ciissbilities or en1otions1 p39o o1e1ns Re v39etsing letters or ct11fnsint 2 and ta for exstnpie is connnon among chiitiren first iestm39ng39 to write Tergsneet ens 0CS rmr Specific strategies for teaching Written 1an gtIsge sicills are given in Chapter E0 es 4 sdsptt stio1 1s of t11ste17isis and ftrtns ts for ninth in stttlction incIt1t391e keeping n1oieis on the board prom vitiing gtstph paper to siign ptobiezns end using visnsi enes such as coioteoded or boidfacetl signs snd arrows as reminders of ditet391on and fssmesg to set off probiezns and answers 2amp9 210 CHAPTER 5 Students with Highnincidence Dtsabilities wwanabiongmancomXfriend3e U 3 WrittenExpression Sample of a M YearOld Student 39 with39a Learning Disability 0 Jame 5 xzm9 Lew euLJlt3 Ls l7 Uil 5 a5 12c11 7 757ltgtrat 5 am W era a1 t9 em ace sexyas er3939cJ 5r quot Burc1cr W fit 5iLltc7 v2cf c l 53 543 quot50 4lt quot quotquot J3 w4w Jrca 45 r gJ1 wquot4 2 1 cu 0 z e J39lt z r z 4 r39z ltquot s e e1a JUN KM K3595 39 xjvc 39 40f zl g g9 g 7 agvzaegf 5 Difficulty frarming numbers correctly Stade11ts 11u111bers are too large or poorly formed wl1ieh 111akes solving co111p11tatio11al p1ol3le111s awltward par tic11larly when the students are 11r1able to read their ow11 1111r11bers 6 Dif culty with rr1er11orr Students are freq11er1tl3r 1111alJle to recall basic z11atl1 facts 7 Problems witlr mathematical judganent and reasooirtg St11tle11ts are 1111 aware when their resporises are u11reaso11al1le For e11a111ple tl1e393r do not see the obvious errors 111 9 6 15 or 4 1 3 43 They may also have troulzrle solv111g39 word proble111s For example they may be 1111able to decide wl1etl1er to add or subtract 111 a word problen1 8 Pr39oble111s with rnathernaticai language Students may have dif e11lty with the 111ea11i11gs of key 111atl1e1r1atieaI terms such as reg1a11p place value or ririrzas Cawley Fit1rr1a11riee Slzaw Ka 111 3 Bates 1979 T1e3r39111ay also have trou ble participating in oral drills or verbalizing the steps in solving word or com p11tatioI1al problems Cawle39y Miller amp School 1987 Students fro111 c11lt11rall3r and lir1guistieall diverse baeltgro1111ds 1113 have 339ClCll39 tional problems lea13911ir1g111atl1 sleilis Some pote11tial trouble spots and strategies for clealing wit11 these trouble spots are sl1ow11it1 the Professio11al Edge I11 additio11 the quotliacl1110logy Notes feature o11 pages 212 213 presents a 111L1lti111edia program that fosters sttldent slcills 111 tecl111ology co1111111111ieatioI1 and problem solving wi1l1ir1 the area of 111athe111atics Approaches to adapting Learning Skills i11s1r11ctior1 for sL11cle11ts W1 31 A9311 which are S111de11ts Wrth lear11111g and lt3l391E1 Fltil cl1sab1lt1esl1ave drf culty perforr11111g skills that covered in Chapter 7 are could help tl1e11 learn more readily Orte such skill is atte11tio11 Stticlents may have also applicable here difficulty co139r1i11g to attention or 11r1dersta11di11g task req11i1e111ents 1391 allal1an et 211 What Are the Learning Needs of Students with Learning and Behavior Disobiiities 391 Eii adapting Math instruction tor Students who are tinguisticaiiy and Culturaiiy iiierent Matit can be a c11alie11gi11g subject for ali students including students with lear11i11g and lnchayioral fti cultics St1dents from linguistically and cuitnraliy cli yc1 sc l3aci2g1oonds n1ay face adciitiollai chailer1ges Trouble Spot wisest lear11irtg 1113211 In the foiioWi11g tabie Scott and Reborn 1996 present some 13t I1ti3l trouble spots and sttggesteIi strategies for toachi11gtnath to students front iiI1g i1iSiZi3 ilii and cuituraily diverse laacltg139ot111ds Recommendation Learning a new ianguage Cuiturai differences Tricky vocabulary Symbolic language Leyei ofabstraction and memory 9 9 Determine the student39s leyei of proticiency inboth English and the native ianguage Assess math abiiities in both ianguages Eta studentis stronger in math than in Engiish provide math instruction in the prim mary Eanguage Listen to the words you most freguentiy use in teaching math Work together with the ESL teacher to heip the student learn these words or to help you learn39then39i in thestudent39s language Use a variety of ways to communicate such as gesturing drawing sketches writing basic yocabuiary and procedures reworcling and providing more details Provide time and activities that wiii aliow students to practicethe Engiish language and the ianguage of math 39 Use story probiern situations that are relevant to students personai cuiturai inden tity eg ethnicity gender geographical region age Share examplesofthe mathematical heritage of students cuitures eg iolit art African and Native American probabiiitygames measurernent systems involve family and community members in rnulticuiturai math Usequot concreteactivities to teach new vocabulary and the ianguage of math Useoniy as many technical words as are necessary to ensure understanding Give more information in a variety of ways to heip students understand new vocabulary Deyeiop a picture file purchase or have students make a picture dictionary of math terms and irequentiy used yocabuiary Aiiow students to draw pictures diagrams or graphic organizers to represent story probiems Make clear themeanings and function of symbols Point out the interchangeabie nature of operations In algebra teach students to translate phrases to rnathernaticai expressions Aliow students to cleyeiopmathematical relationships using concrete representa tions accompanied by yerbai descriptions Deyeiop mathematical understanding from concrete to abstract form Use visual and kinesthetic cues to strengthen memory Keep distractions to a minimum 5 o u a c E From quotReaiizing the Gifts of Diversity Among Students with Learning Disabiiities by P Scott and D Reborn F996 ti Forum 2i2i pp iGi 8 Reprinted by permission of the Councii of Learning Disabilities 212 fa Nqtessi 3 gt 2 tTechnologyw 5c Squot 95quot5quot3933 Wi CHAPTER 5 I Students with Highwincidence Disabilities teaching quotMathematics in tifluttilrned a 39Emironiment 39lgttittgquote and Hasse139hring 1i33999 have ltlettelo 3et39l a 1nntiioeciia program that fosters student slrills in tech 139itiitJgy coiniriunication and prohlern soWing witliin the suliiject of mati1etnatics The prtigrtiiii uses Uii39t39 based 1natl1en1atical anchors to iinp1quotot 39e st11tl39ents prol39Jle1nsolving ahilitit Anchors are 1 t3l WCIl l problems tilepicteti in short tira1natic videos witlii11 authentic contexts The anchors focus student atten tion on 3 393l39lEi I1S conf1 lt3i1ting the main clf1ai39acter of the story Stzmients I139139ISt clearlg tlescrihe the proia ietn situation and then search for possible soiutions just as orrlinarj 39 persons solve itrohleins in their lives Tiie tl t39IiI39 lTJt3l iiCl the anchors is that reallii39e situa tions i39l ltiquotquot t 39E students to E1 JI Jlquotjf niathernatics in ineaning39ful contests In atitiition w39tJrir39ine on real life niquotc hleins is more 1 t7ii1 St3T1ll3l than ttrtiritinsf with traditional SttJ1quotquot problems particuiarl quot for stu tlents witli reatiing problems Students rnajr spend up to ve ciass periods trying to solse the t t39 3ii pI39 i r letu quotiftt3icall39y the 2J rninuteanciiors are pte senteci i1s39i391139g viieoclisc39 teci1noquotltt39ryquot that allows students to search and retrieve inquotforn1ation almost itnrnediateija iiihen1tist395popuiar setLtpfor classroomquot use is a iargesc139een39ino1iitor and a videodisc player operateci with a39liandl1elEl controllerBott39ge 8 Has selhriiquotig 19939E p 113 One eitarrtpie of such anc39hor softw39are is entitletl Bart s Pet Project which involves two hoys Wire Want to buy a pet and keep it in a cage The probietn is that they have onlyquot enough inonejr to buy one pet and have none ieft over to hit a read3ri1iade cage quotWhen teachiiig using this anchor the stuclents are first shown how to operate the vitleodisc equipment This is clone by showing them the scenario and then questioning theni to be sure they understand the chalienge Stutlents are then tiirected to solve two proijlenis First their must decide which pet the can afford Then they niust figure out how to 1 Eiif a cage with the money they have ieft The soiutiou requires several slrilis including cotnputing whole numbers adding fractions counting rnone39V read ing a tape rneasore am39l inteipretii1g a schernatic tl1 awing 39 An iinnortant aspect of problem sgtlxring is that stutients shov htiu39 theyquot arrive at a solution To help them do this th ej are given prt39Jo1Csl1eets that help them organize their thtJ11ghts and a1low the teacher to see howquot th 6 are prtgressintt The teacher inaites sure that students are ahle to complete these sheets prior to sr lvingj the prolle1n on their i 39 W39i1 See the sample proofnsheet in Fig11te 64 Students are toltl that they are free to tire w39hat ester resources the can ntl when solving the anchor l3l ET1ES just as the39 would in stiltti1g 3f17i1quot 139C1quotEIH39139 prohletn Mquot i1tipt39irtant role tif the teacher at this time is to cioselyquot rnonitor stutient tiiscussions to ensure that they stay on tasl aiicl lo not wantier too Elf from the central question if this happens the teacher needs to steer them haclc on traclt ls39 139eii39ifectiIquotgj stutient ques tions to jL1Sti39fi3quot the39ir l1 tl1ttStiS The effettiv39euess oi the anchors 39it339pE392I1lS l21139gBlj 39 on I the aliilit7 of the teacher to prosquotide such retiitection quotWheii students harrestiv39eti the entire problem theycrecorti all their prohle1u solving steps on quotthe proce durai checltlist in Figure 65 Bottge anal i lasselliring39iEl99 suggest that students can a39lso39report39 39theirfintlings39in techs nologywrbaseci quotformats such as H39perstucl39io 391996 a sirnple yet powerful tooi thatinte grates sound graph ics and text into a sophisticateti preseiitation Bottge and Iasselhri1ig 1999 reported positive finclings39 for the iniddie school students with tlisahil ities who participated in Barth Pet Project The stu dents improved their coniputation skills such as aciciing whole numbers and fractions dernonstrateti their ability to work together in groups drew on each others suggestions and reasoning sltiils to sohre a complex problem and showed persistence insticiting to a task Video anchors more sophisticated than Barth Pet Project have been shown to be effective with high school students with clisabiiities antl gen eral education eleinentartr students iearning and Technology39 Center Vanderbilt 39Unive1 sitja I996 wwwebiongmancomfttieed3e Whnmre the Learning Needs of rudenfs with Learning and Behavior Di5abiir39n39es i 9 i VideeAnchor F robem 39 Sehfmg Proof Sheet 39 T1quot E39WEI 395 I39 5 39 Name Page Videedisc important infermation Frame in words Number Calcuiaiions S 0 U 9 E From i e39a5hing Mathematics to iicioieseentswit39h Disabilities in a Muitimedia Environment by B A i ettge and quotiquot S Hasseiiaring i999 intervention in School and Cquotiinic 35 pp ii3 i E6 Copyright 9 1999 by PROED inc Reprinted with permission rrT5quot5ME9 213 39 E ii 9quotquot i Proceeiurei Checiaiist S 0 U e c E From Teaching Mathematics to Acioiescents with Disabilities in a Muitimedia Environment by 8 A Botige and T S Hasseibring i999 Preeedural Checklist ior Barr s Pet Project Money vaiEai3ie 500 iaiii 168 Stere beught 100 biii 9599 cagetank Money 100 1331 169 Not feasibie 50 quarters 10 dime 05 nitkei 93 pennies 158 Parakeet Snake Iguana Fiat P 995 9995 5995 599 39 F p G25 Not feasible Not feasibie Not feasible ija W5 Eg Has 42 Needs 2931 1 59 2999 Cage 2939 1512 20 1 4 i3 1213 96quot Has 55 4quot Has rfi3939 Neeqg 13 59 23199 5999 13 i592 2999 9999 13 159 2034 2 i 5391 2 4515 ZGEIF4 5432quot 9 13 96 jjas 55 4quot Has 4W4quot Needs 2939 2939 2099 2939 i3 5 2 399 13 13 5 2 MD 5495 quot i63xi39 15 2 3 552 2133 9599quot Wood Needs 95quot 8 X 2 x 2 169 95quot 9 g m 120 i2G 49 change intervention in School and Ciinic 35 pp 1 1391 16 Copyright i999 by PFiO ED inc Reprinted with permission 214 CHAPTER 5 J Studentswith Higlwncidence Disabilities 0 t t E d5 rs Speci c strategies for help ing students remember information are described in Chapter 11 Many educators claim that students have certain learn ing preferences or styles and that teaching to accommodate these styles enhances instruction parm ticularly in reading in a review of more than 40 re search studies on learning styles Kavale and Forness 1987 found no evidence for teaching based on learning styles Yates 1999 in a more recent revievv39 of the literature concluded that learning style Cl139 StlD1113il 33 cannot reliably differentiate in structional groups have not generated a consistent body of research verifying their effectiveness and may distract teachers from approaches that do have a sound research base Our advice is to meet individual needs by always teaching to as many senses as possible vvvvvvnbiongrnancornftrEeod3e 1999 For E3XE1139I1piE fanice frequently fails essay tests she is unable to focus on key vvords in the questions to help her organise a response n a result she loses valu able vvriting time just staring at the t39uestio11 and not ltnovving how to begin Benito misses irnportant information at the beginning of science lectures because he taltes 5 minutes to attend to the teachers presentation Students may also have trouble fo cusing on the important aspects of tasks For example Anita can tell you the color of her teacher s tie or the kind of belt he is vvearing but nothing about the inform mation he is presenting VVhen Armaii tries to sol39ve vvorcl problems in math he is unable to tell the difference between information that is needed and not needed to solve the problem Finally students vvith learning and behavior disabilities may have trouble sticking to a taslq once they have started it Memory problems may also malce learning difficult for students Wong 1996 Some problems occur when information is first learned For example Carla cannot remember information ivl1en it is presented just once Sal has practiced math facts many times but still cannot rernember some of them Students may also fail to retain vvhat they learn For example Abby had learned addition facts in the fall but ren1em bered only about 50 percent of them vvhen tested in the spring Finally students sometimes learn something but do not remember to use the information to solve problems or to learn other inforn391ation For example a student who learned a note taking strategy in a resource room failed to use the strategy in her content area classes Students with learning and behavior disabilities may have trouble organizing and interpreting oral and visual information despite adequate hearing and visual slrills Lerner 2000 F or example Rodney is a student with a learning disability who has trouble with visual tasks He frequently loses his place vvhiie reading and copying has trouble reading and copying from the challtboard does not notice de tails on pictures maps and photographs is confused by tvorltsheets containing a great deal of visual information and often cannot remember vvhat he has seen LaTonya on the other hand has trouble with auditory tasks She has difficulty fol lowing oral directions differentiating between fine differences in sounds e5 heartbeets talring notes during lectures and remembering what she has heard Students also may lack reasoning sltills necessary for success in school Impor tant reasoning sldlls include reading comprehension generalization the ability to recognize similarities across objects events or vocabulary adequate hacltground and vocabulary icnowledge induction figuring out a rule or principle based on a se ries of situations and sequencing detecting relationships among stimuli Salvia 8 Ysseldyke 1998 F or example Stu has difficulty understanding a lecture on the civil rights rnovementbecause he lacks necessary baclcground information he is unsure what a civil right is Tan1a1quota has trouble recognizing a relationship on her own even after repeated t3211I1plC39S her teacher presented ve examples of how to add to words that end in 3 but Taniara still could not figure out the rule Some students vvith learning and behavior disabilities may have motor coordi nation and fine motor impairments Lerner 2000 E or example Denise is a first grade student vvho has some ne motor and coordination problems She has trouble using scissors coloring vvithin the lines tying her shoes and printing letters and numbers Cal is in third grade His handvvriting is often illegible and messy isle is also uncoordinated at sports which has limited his opportunities for social interac tion on the playground because he is never selected to play on a team Independent learning also can be a challenge for students vvitli learning and be havior disahilities They have been referred to as passive learners meaning that What Are the Social and Emotions Needs of5rudeors with Learning and Behomior Disabilities they do not believe in their own abilities have limited knowledge of problem soiving strategies and even when they ltnow a strategy cannot tell when it is sup posed to be used IIallahan et al 1999 Lerner 2000 Being a passive learner is particularly problematic in the upper grades where more student independence is expected For eta1nple when LaVerne reads her science teittboolt she does not re alize when she comes across information that she does not understand So instead of employing a strategy to solve this problein such as rereading checlting the cl1ap ter summary or aslting for help she never learns the information As a result she is doing poorly in the class Vi hen Darrell studies for tests he reads qi1iclltly through his text and notes but does not use strategies for rememberinginformation such as asking himself questions saying the i11foirnation to himself or grouping into meaningful pieces the information he needs to learn Students with learning and behavior disabilities may also have problems in the area of academic survival skills such as attending school regularly being orga nized completing tasks in and out of school being independent taking an interest in school and displaying positive interpersonal skills with peers and adults Brown Kerr Zigmond 82 Harris 1984 For example Duane is failing in school because he rarely shows up for classquot when he does attend class he sits in the back of the room and displays an obvious lack of interest Nicole is always late for class and never completes her homework Her teachers thinlt she does not care about school at all As you can see students with learning and behavior disabilities have problems in a number of academic and learning areas In the Special Emphasis On feature on pages 216M237 strategies for working with these students in the area of art are dew scribed Some parents and teachers have tried unproven interventions in search of 39 quick fixes for students with learning and behavior clisabiiitties The issue of using un proven controversial therapies is discussed in the Professional Edge on pages 2 18 2 19 p haters the Social and Emotional Needs of Students with Learning and Behavior disabilities Considering students socialquot needs is crucial because students who have social ad justrnent problems in school are at risk for academic problems Epstein Kinder amp Bursuclt 1989 Lane 1999 as well as serious adjustment problems when they leave school Cowen et al i973 Smdents with learning and behavior disabilities may have needs in several social areas including classroom conduct interpersonal skills and personal and psychological adjustment Students with learning and behavior disabilities may engage in a number of ag gressive or disruptive behaviors in class including hitting fighting teasing hyper activity yelling refusing to comply with requests crying destructiveness quotvandalism and extortion Deita amp Orrnshy 1992 Hallahan 8 Kaiifiinan 2000 Although many of these behaviors may be exhibited by all children at one time or another the class room conduct of students with behavior disorders is viewed by teachers as abnorinal and their behavior has a negative impact on the other students in class Cullinan Epstein amp Lloyd 1983 F or example iienneth is an adolescent with learning and behaviorquotproblems His father died last year and his mother has been worlting two jobs just to make ends meet Kenneth has begun to hang out with a tougher crowd 215 EreecEt Your 39 ieerasing What learning needs might students with learning and behavior disabilities share How might you modify in srrncdon for basic academic skills for these students P F S I J l Estimates of the number of students with learning disabilities who are at risk for social problems range from 34 to 59 percent Bryan i997 2 ltv 5 l The use of strategies for re spending to student behav ior including punishment is the topic of Chapter 2 315 CHAPTER 6 Students with Higiwncidence Disabilities 39 R l513rsilcal edu cation have aivvavs rflriv39i39l3cli39s39rii i 51 39liricir out to all students quot Visual arts phvsicai use the liiCLUDE strat students eed ejsvrnasrrrcss ai9aer faovvri the itlsir idiea3r 139rEs39irisi7Siiigsesred by quotbehavior avrobiems Z I 39397l7lfieis39equotfa 39da39ptatiorrs can tiller iquotaquotl quot3clas se s Lrsi Fig serfitence for each alas Taiki our 39jro39trjoiirnal Novv ciea page1a fj39ffi39 r39fii abuiarv column 39iri2i39r4r rr3939igt n39ltri and copy aii rrfrisirirircirr csiarelies to s areas for students iiii is5a39 consider Offer a choice of media foregtltpiorin39g techniqLies and skills Allow for individual needs Be aware of low frustration ievels Heip the student address the problem and deal with it 39 Be positive and praise vvhen necessary aivvays con sidering a student39s self esteenquoti I 39 Use a buddy or an aide to helapfkeee the S L3ClE3f1t on task Be sure the person helps the stud39er1t with a disability rrrrdersrand the prololem but does not do the task for hirrr or her quot 39 Behavior Problems 6 Be as positive as possible Give the student activities thatare vviihin his or her capabilities Provide positivereinforcement when appropriate and possible I Foiievv exacriv the discipliaaryd39lan specified by support personnelaridaclrnini39sti39atior1 Ir Establish procedures rries and expectations Emotioriai Problems Have lessons as strucrmed as possible but flexlbie allowing for individual erpression Give the student small anfroants of vvorlr at a tirne with praise at each step to encourage completion vvvvvvablongrnancornffriend3e ancl has been getringi11to fights in school He has also been tailrirtg back to his teach ers frequer1tLv and refusi11g ro eor11piv vvr39th titeir clerrrarrcls Ker1r1etl1 s lJelquot1a39v139or has gotten so bad that other stuclenrs and their parents are ccrrnplaining abortrt it to the teacher Some eat1tior1s i1139volvecl in disciplining smcleets like Kermeth are presented in the Professional Edge rm pages 22l 22 i irstereersorral isills Stuclerits with lear11ir1g and behaviorquot drlsabilities are 1iiltel r to have clif eul13rirr social reiatiorrs witla their peers l f39viclenee for these prcfolerrrs comes from more than 20 years orquot research shrrigtving that these srociertris have fewer 39friends are more liiltelr to sis carries 6 1 Students with Highiocidence Disabilities Contreversiai Theranies in tearning and Eehavior isehiiitiesz What Bees the Research Say Being tl1e parent or teacher of a student with iearn ing dis abilities is not easy Students with learning dis abilities often do not respond lnvorahlv to the first approach tried or for that inatter to the first sev eral Faiiure and friistration can lead to the Search for iniracie cures This probleni is compounded by the fact that journals that publish research about the effectiveness of various treatments are not norn1ali39y read by parents and teachers Uni7o1 tunateljv this void is readilyquot fiiled by a steady streani of inforrna tion much of it not st1bstantiated hv research froni popular books lav rnagaaines television tailaz shows Siiver 1998 and now the Internet As a teacher you need to be Well infornied about these therapies so you can give parents reiiahle up todate il1COI39H3Ci011Wilfi diey come to you for ad vice The best way to get this inforroarion is to read professionai jou1 nais Any treatment inay vvorlt for a few students but this is not thesanie as dernonstrat in g effectiveness in all controlledresearch studv If you or a so1dent s parentsquotdecidequot to use a controversial therapry you must Inonitor its effectiveness care iily and discontinue it if necessary Severai controversiai therapies are s39u1n1nari2ed here including the latest research findings for their eiquot39fectiveness Neurophysioiogieai Renraining In this group of approaches iearning difiicuities are seen as the result of dysfunctions in the centrai ner 39 vous s steni that can be reinediated I3quot havin stu Y Y S dents engage in speci c S3I1SO1 7 or rnotor activities One conirnon eXan1ple of thisapp139oach ispatterning Doinan 8 Deiacato 1968 in which students are taken bacit through earlier stages of develo1on1ent creeping and crawling Another approaci1 is optow inetric visual training in vvl1ich students do eye eaerm cises designed to improve their visuai perception and hence their reading sirilis A third approacl1 vestibu lar training takes chiidren through tasks involving spatiai orientation eye rnoveinents and balance with the goal of iniproving their academic perforinance quotes aeciaii in readin No research evidence su ests I Y E that patterning optornetric visual training or vestibu iar training iinprove students cognitive inctioning or reading abilitv Silver 1998 Diet Corititoi 39i herapies A nuniber of therapies invoive using diet to cont1quotoihy peractivity and other learning disorders One of these I Feingold 1975 ciairned to decrease suitie11thyperac tivitv hv elinainaurig various artificial avors colors and preservauves hquotoin the students diet Most research studies have shovvn that the Feingold Diet is not effec tive in conrroliin g liypeiactivitv S1nith39 199 7 Others have suggested that re ned sugars in the diet lead to l1vperactivity Again theseciaiu1s have not been nroven by research Earldev 1995 39 Connors amp Blouin 1982E983 Another diet therapy for learning disor ders inv39olves using 1negavitan1ins to treat einotional or cognitive disorders Cort 1977 1985 This therapy has notbeen verified by research39An1erican Acadenry of Pediatrics 1976 Another theory purpoirts that de ficiencies in trace eienients such as CCpZI39 zinc n1ag nesiurn inanganese and chroiniuin along with the more CT1I11D1391 lEI11 11tS of calcium sodium and iron cause learning disorders but these ciainas rernain un substantiated Silver 1998 F inaiiy one theory claiins iiypogiyceinia lovv blood sugar levels causes iearning disabilities Ciinicai studies on this theory have been in conclusive Rappaport l9Ei21983 Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrorne This sy11dro111e has been de ned as a difiiciiltv in efii cientlv processing iight vvliich causes a reading disor der Irien 1991 Lerner 2800 Svrnptoiiis inciude abnormal sensitivity to light blinicing and squii1tii1g red and watery eyes frequent headaches vvord hlurri ness print instahiiitv slow reading s1ipgting and rereading ines and dif cuitr reading at length be cause of generai eye strain and fatigue Irlen 1991 Foliovving a screening test students idennfied as hav ing scotopic sensitiviigr are treated with piastic overlays vvvvvvehioogmancomXiriend3e What Are the Socioi and Emotional Needs of Students with Learning end Behavior Disabilities w 21 0 Provide the student with activities for which he or she is able391oexpend energy positively in order to achieve success quickly foster con dence and build on that confidence Have a minimum of supplies within reach particu larly ifthevcan be spilieci or broken Give verbal and nonverbal recognition for efforts Give the studentextra attention when he or she re sponds but donot force attention on the student whenquothe or she withdraws Reward positive behav lot with concrete or nonverloai ie wink smile expression x Encourage group discussions on personal egtltpres 39 sion through art to help the student learn to ex a2 39 3939 press his or her emotions anger joy sadness in I appropriate ways identifyeach persons individual space where thequot3939 studentifeels safe and cared about Esta blis39hprocedures rules and expectations and u followtliern consistently Be prepared by pla39nni39rag b alternativesand appropriate steps for discipline if aquotquot if studentlsibehavior becomes too disruptive send for393939 F help D39onot leave the group quot 39 rt Lookat the student when you ask short questions Listen attentively Q E 399 O f39l3sau1d39It0rsr dc is Mild toqgfnitive Probiems Keep directions simpie break the task into progres sive steps quotdemonstrate each task he rejected or neglected by their peers Brvaii 1997 and are frequently rated as so cialist troubled by their teachers and parents Smith i 99 Many of these probleuis can be traced to the failure of students to etigage in socially appropriate behaviors or social skills in areas such as makiiag friencls carrying on conversations and deal ing with conflict Tlfiere are a number of expla11atiJ11s for wiry students have social skills prol1letns Some studeznts may siiuply not lcnow what to do in social situations They 111337 laclc lcncrwvledge because they do not learn from naturall39v occur1i11g models of social be havior at home or in school Students also naay have croubie reading social cues and 118 niisinterpret the feelings of others Bijvan dc Bryait 1986 For esarnple a story was told recer1tlv about ve liovs sitting on the floor of the principal s office waiting to be disciplined Four of the boys were liSC39t1S55l1 lg failing or near faihng grades and Social slcills are learned in cultural contexts Teach quot011i students about the variance in social behavior withiu all cultures and emphasize the notion that families and individuals experience their cultures in personal W3 jJ S Whomre the Socioi cmd Emorionoi Needs of51 udents with Leorning and Behavior Disobiiities j 219 or colored ieoses whi 391 can be expensive Altlaoogh n12111 yquot people izreated with tiI1tei 1exlseseiailn thaf the eI1ses eliminate their symptoms39a11d l1e p them read better 139e e2reh sho39v395 t1at tests for se39o topic se11sitiV ity are awed Silver 1998 quotWoerz St Mepies 19 and quotthe effects of the lenses have notquotbeer1 Veri ed Fleie1er 839 Martiz1e2 1994 C31391tio11393iS391dvised Aierg39ies39 Athugh there seeme to be 1 reiatioilsh p between a1 lergieseilcl h39ai1391 fL1nCti39Jning no clear aI1se am391 ef Feet reIatio1ship has feet to be est391 blishenri Silver 1998 Two pe1quotms who lnave w391itiene39 101 about the re13ti11s1ip between a lerg ies 3111 ie3i39ni3913g disal39Jilities and X 339HI139 are Dr Doris R21pp 1r1d Dr Vi ilian1 39 Crook Dr Rapp 5uggjests the e1391nina tion L39f certain Fomis fr139mhe diet such 15 milk chr gteoiete eggs wheat com peanuts pork 21nci39su39ga1 Sl1e pe1 for139nse1139 under 1eooog uequot test not v21iid39etedf that She cl39ain1s 39 eietermin39es whether 1 Child is eI39ergquoti to any or all r gtfquot these foocis Dr Croolzie recent wo1quotls39 has fo uzed oI139 ci1ild 1e39aCtioos to 3 speci c jseeseand the tievelopmellt3 of spetei c i3ehe39io1quot5 fcH Jw39i1gquot 3 yezast i11feetior1 shquot e391 i11g to Si1tre1f1397 8 11eiLhe1quot39Croollt39 nor Repp 513p part their fiocii39gs with 1e5ee1el1 In edamp itioIi the e5mbiisi1ed 393931fession of pedi1tric aIIeigies ndoee not aecept either of these treatments39Siivef 998 39Comroveria The139apies and the l39ntemet39 15ti3e numbe of 393fernet sites ereated for epeei39fie 39tiiseioiities or re aIed heeit1 iemes increases so too does i rfor1foatiltgtJ1 3iJo11t emt1foquotersil39 therapies Be 39 Causei for139neoo1139 on the mert1et is 11vt139e 39iewel for qu1391i39 ifI1f2 30E139 sugg este th21t3939giou bio thequotf393liowi11g quotto deterli ne the C edib39iitr of the v21139io39us websites you visit 1 Cfiidlco1139f11equotAbout Usor Cloiitectquot39US391in Sor b 1E39 tons ata wequotbsite quotThese links 1I1ey39i1139frm ne of Whoiis on the quotteamquot of pecgtpe quot139unI139i11g21 p3rt39ie1i1a1 Weihsite Ma11ysites39 pa1lttic113911r39ly39111ose 39iha1 want39to39 prove their oredibil y fea39tu e3 pagedeseitibing P their quotb3ekgrou39olti h39iLsto1 Ta11d ef 1iations iiillei quotAb39J11t Us397seetio11 and an address em3i and pquotho11e o139m1be139 the Cont lctUs395eCtiJn Try toestebIishijj1f39ls with ofher sites Sites with 39reiiab1r usable 39i1if139mati39on Ina have endorse ri1ents fro111promine13t Specie needs orgfan ations or nlay have 1i11sto 1t1e1 websites with more I1 fo139o13tion on the subje39 Look for iinl s to 0t11E1 essoeietions or educatio11a or even gIavernmeot Fopported institutions ela1eii to the subject The more indepeodenii sites ehat vaiidsite 1 recom mem391ation themore credibe it is The follow iog39r1re speci c eites that 11133 address doubts about the recIibiitr39 of 2 partieuer eonzroversial 3hquot31 3 39 39 WW39inteys39rg 39II 11IampZ1 1Tl amp1 i I121iD SiBXi Societyquot vWxrW1dInetl31fg The Lea1ning DisebiiiIies ampssoeiatin of America 39 WWw1393cldcrg Nzltittne Center for Learning D39ieabiiities Inc The Courleii for 8 cl di11te1r1aliona139o39g 39 1eor1113911g Dis3ii iti39es A iquotfrie1391ds and special ueetls esscxciati 3n5 to r39ee 39 oI31memi websites that are i1f39JI I1131iiRquott39 Y i3I can a391s eemeil people you thinic can el11e you in on the eredihilityquotof E139 I tiCLIi3I site quotEx3mine the contem of th39es39ite f 393r39 tjVpcJgraphie1 or gra1111etjee39leraf1 S 15 vi39ith iaooi5 1391egaquot2ine3 andj393u139na1S Credibi39t is often re eeted in edito I339139a39I exeeenee39 39 39 f 39 G39he39e1c to see39l1oiivoften t15xesiize is 11piate39d site t i139 i391iquotis tpdetedquotreguIarly xriith39iozexxr reeeeel1 ee iugs 39is39 most1ike1y39to be E b3people i39nterestedquotE I11 learnilxlg3939 the 0 1a 39therquot than erp39etuatii1g 1391ieir I own point of view Cl1eok392to be sure that 3 giver139 nding has 5 bee11quot vali aie by quot393eredi 5139e refereed 39resea1eh39p1111ioa 39tio1391 quotMoecf39 1ese p1iblieatio11s are quotaxia39iIziibIequotoI1 the39W673 39 I Z Mw M ft IER s Students with HigiquotriI 1CidEi 39aCE Disabilities wwwebiongr nanComfftiend3e v istioitning Students with Einotionai istuthenee gtudents with ernotionai disturhance soinetirnes her other estifatiifdinary situations can result in a susw have in ways that disrttpt the education oi other stun pension of up to 45 iquotr S To eitpel a student for dents in the ciass or threaten their safetyquot Vifheii this inore than 10 d21 jS a con39unittee inchiding the stun happens tron tnay need to punish the student both to dent s parents ntust determine that the rnisconduet de ise the situation and to deter the student front actm had nothing to do with the disahihty Fi11aih239 in the ing out a gain unishn1ent imroives decreasing inap case Jf311jv39E39Spt311SiO11 students must he presented propriate hehavior by either presenting something with the e39vidence against thein and given the op negative or taicing away sotnethiiig t3ositiwe Al1iitJttgit portunit 39 to present their side of the story the courts have held that it is permissible to punish 339 The punishmmt Bf Smdems with elllotiolml diS students with eniotional ciisnn39hance they have also held that the pu11ishnfient inust he delivered accorrdirig to the foiiowing principes Ha1ot39ig amp Rti cili 20 Yeii 1990 Yeli Cherie St PtiyaIiup 1993 turbance inust serve a iegitiniate purpose its use innst serve an educational purpose and clearhr written guidelines for its use must eitist For ere tllilpitir Caivin is told that his Verhai outhurstsin ciass are preveiitiiig hint and his ciassnfiates front 1 quotleachers must be careful not to V10i21i 39Ei the due pro 16 3111m E H 6 3 hmded 3 Wmx n mntmct mdicm C333 nghtg of their Smdenwquot This mans Emquot You ing that if he engages in more than one verbal out need to coinntunicate ciearhr to parents and stu d hurst in ciass he will be required to sit in the hack dents the hehi1triti1s1roi expect an the spectficeo1i of th 1 Dam am 110 pamcip t in any C 35810 Om sequences for inappropriate hehaviors its needed 3Cti tiES for 3 mi ulteS these items should he written Hi the students ill as mm of tha i3a11ampViOm1 inteW31t OH plan in The punishment procedure used must be reason ahie aceordin to these quotuideiines 2 Wheit usirig puntshrnent do not vio1ate the educa g 3 tior1aIrig hts of students with ernotionaI disturbance 339 W35 Che Tu393 E39311 f0rCed 139339 5 3113bE Punishnaents such as eazpuision serial suspensions h Did the punishntent inatch s offense successive consecutive suspensions prolonged in school suspensions and proionged periods of i iITt out removing students front classroom activities see Chapter 12 constitute a change of placement and therefore cannot be done without due process quoti7enipor39ary suspensions of 10 days or fewer are per 5 iiIore intrusive punish1nents should he used oiihr tnissihie possession offa weapon or iiiegai drug or after tnore positive procedures have been tried For 2 Wfas the punishnient teasonahie in light of the student s a ge and physical condition d Did the teacher deal out the punishiuent without malice or personal ilhwiii toward the student the trouhie tilts were going to he in when the fifth him a student with a 1eai1iing dis ahiiityt chimed in to say that his grandparents were coming to visit the nest week 5 quot5 E Other students 1na r itnow what to do hut not do it For emnipiei some stu Social rtJes39areveri1ia1 or dents with learnin and hehavior disahiiities are ins uisive their act before thee D r I sionverhai signais people thinllt in D e1 s sessions with the schooi sociai woifilter he is ahie to erspiain how he give that C0TI1I139111il1C Ei 11 would act in varions sociai situations hut in an actuai socia setting he gets nertrous 5 1gt3939 3 lt31 1 i 333t Jquot3 and acts without tiiinkiiig Other students rnay choose not to act on their huoWiedge because their attempts at sociaiiy appropriate behavior may have gone nnrecog niaed and they 39Wquot39L1iCi rather have negative recognition than no recogriitioii at all F or ex Whot Are the Sociol and Emotional Needs of Students with Learning one Sehovfor Disabilities 0 221 example Calvin s teacher had rst tried givingquot Calvin 39 quot395 niinutes of f139eetime for not iiaving a verbal ot1t burst lWl1eo thisapp1oaci1 Cli lI1CItquotW OE l he tried a di 5 ferent revigfard When this posliiiVE39pTJCf3Cl111 E failed Calvi11 squotteaclierresorted to sittingliini by hir1iself for a period o39f39time 39 39 639 VVlquoten you use punish r1e13t l p 139ecortis of all the p1 oeedt11 es you quottry Vrite ziloiwn the liehavic39r that precipit39ates39 the pnn ishirient the procetlui39es used the leiigtls of time the were nseti and the res i 1l 3 Ti is ii Q quotquotmtion C3 Stodents who are experiencing emotional problems might be withdrawn anxious or h ll W1quot 391339l l111C573911 1393lt3f39i depressed What can you do to help these students in your clossroom tlecisions about a sttttilerifs 39 39 ixehavior E IT1239i amp1gt 31 1391t3l1ti pro grant it can also help cin7i39l391 for E E313939ifE whyj393ti 1i 39221i39i on 39 If31 ClquotL 1quotE11 ii i39iarents39eacl i tithe he tri39eti39 aquot used a particular procetinre 39 different piinisliinent proce39ti11re 39i7lJ11quot1iSl1i11E31139i tii ocet39it1res quottoriquotstuCle3its with use I 398quot Rememher thatp39nnishmentzjshoniti G trise l 39 Iiooal tiistitihance sho1ilti hecatirieti oi1tfin co139i 39 i11conjnnctionWith iiiisitiv39econsegnen39cesfor39at junction siiiti39tht quotspecial 39eelt1ation teach39e1 as jpropria39te l JeI339a39siir39i 39Tl i39e39 Iuse quotofPo39sitive iii1s39e agreed on in the stutientquotquots IEP Ari n1ajc39n cha1g es qo39ences can gr39eatljr 1edi1ee39the neequoti for t1sir1g iiilitiiiislirnent sho39ulti he tlecitleci on 3111 in co39l iPquotL1 IiSlIiIquotlE39271iT in theitltiireanti339caiihelp lill1139i39l39Ci 13Cisi39 lahoratioii with these si139nepet39apie l3cgtiquot 39L 39 1iI3plC tive 39i39tel1asio1r39s th39at39hen39e t 39s1odeI1i39s tl1rougl1out Cah739i t1 squotteaci1 er cciisi1lte39i1aquotitli Caiv39ir1quots39special eci39 Eh eir lives 39 39 I ample Jantes was tehiiffetl by one group of students so often that he began to say nastyquot things to thern just to provoke them He aso began to liaiig out with other students who chronically rriisbehaved because according to James at least they ape preciate me l33 inally39 still other students may know what to do socially but lack the confidence to act on their lltnoWledge in social situations pai39ticuiai l39V if tliey have a history of social rejection or lacllt JpO1 tuiitiES for social interactions Consider Holly a student who is socially withdrawn l IOlir W39O l Cl for a year with her school counselor to learn how to initiate a social activity with a friend but is afraid to try it out for fear of being rejected 222 CHAPTER 6 l Students with Higlrlocldence Disabilities wwwablongmaocomXirierid3e taasamits 1 Personal and Psychological ndjustrnent The website for Internet Mental Health www Students with little success at acadeinics andor social relationslnps mayhave personal eghCO is i and psychological problems as well Kerschner 1990 Torgesen 1991 One common ml eC Csdi3 Of 133133 personal problem is selfwirnage Students with learning and behavior disabiliu39 es often heg1j1 jnfofma on have a poor selfconcept they have little con dence in their own abilities Licht Kist ner Oakaragoz Shapiro St Clausen 1985 Poor selfdrnage in turn can lead to learned helplessness Students with learned helplessness see little relationsliip be tween their efforts and school or social success Wheii these students succeed they at tribute their success to luck when they fail they blame their failure on a lack of ability Vllhen confronted with difficult situations students who have learned helplessness are likely to say or think What s the use I never do anything right anyway For exam ple Denny is a E5year old sophomore in high school He has been in special educa tion since the second grade He has never received a grade better than a C and has received quite a few Dis and F s Last quarter Denny started to skip classes because he felt that even when he went to class he did not do well Denny is looking forward to dropping out of school on his 16th birthday and going to work for a fastvfood chain Vu Au 39iis at o te u where atquotleast he is able to do the work ig and Reid 1994 Students with learning and behavior problen1s may also have severe anxiety or f113j1l the incidence of depression Culiinan S Epstein 1994 WrightStraurdernian Lindsey Navarette rlepression in a sample of St Flippo i996 Depressed or arrsious students may refuse to speak up when in 95 adolescents With1earI1 class may be pessimistic or uninterested in key aspects of their lives may be visibly 111 Cll53l3ililj95 110 bf 3503 nervous when given an assignment may become ill when it is time to go to school 19 P T 33 t C31quot manic or may show a lack of self confidence when performing common school and social et al 2000 found that 5 9 percent of a sample of l85 adolescents with emotional disturbance were depressed tasks For eaainple Barrett is a 9year old boy with a consistent history of school failure Barrett is sick just about every morning before he goes to school At rst his mother let him stay home but now she rnaltes him go anyway Wlien at school Bar rett is very withdrawn He has few friends and rarely speaks in class Barret s teacha ers tend not to notice him because he is quiet and does not cause problems If you have a student in your class who exhibits the signs of depression shown in Fig ure 66 get help for him or her by contacting your school counselor psychologist or social worker 39 g as re a 3939 39iagnost39 cquotEriteria for 39Majo39r epression Depression is a dysphoric mood unhappy depressed affect a loss of interest or pleasure in all or almost all usual activities At least four of the following symptoms also must have been present consistently for or least weeks change in appetite or weight sleep d istorbance psychornotor agitation or retardation loss of energy feelings of worthlessoess complaints of difficulty to concentrate thoughts of death or suicide aotvooooa S o u s c E Diagnostic and Stotfsticol wlonuol offvlenrol Disorders lth ed Text Revision 2000 Washing ton DC American Psychiatric Association Reprinted by permission Wfietrlccommodotions Can You Make for Students with Learning end Behavior Drsobiifties 0 N u uaf with Learning and Behavior Disabilities As you have just read students with learning and behavior disahiiities have a range of learning and s39iciaiernotiotiai needs Although these needs nfiav rnaice iesrning and socializing difficult for theni students with learniiig and behavior disshiiities can succeed in your classroom if given support Some initial ideas about how you can accommodate students with iearning and behavior disabiii ti es in your classroom are discussed next A more in depth treatnient of such accornrnodations can he found in Chapters 813 Addressing Academic Needs As we have aresdjr discussed you csn discern whether students with lei1rning and hen havior disabilities need adaptstions by using the INCLUDE strategy to analyze their learning needs end the particular demands of your classroom You can try three dif ferent types of adaptations bypassiiig the students need by siiovving the student to enipltrjr coinpeiisstory iearning strategies malting an 2iCi3pt21tiOI1 in ciessroorn orga nization gro39uping rnateriais and methods and providing the student vrith direct in struction on basic or independent learning sitilis For example Jessica who has learning disabilities is enrolied in Mr Greshis high school generai science class Mr Gresh uses a teaching format in which the students first read the text then hear 3 lec ture and naiijr conduct and write up a lab activity deinands Jessica has severe reading and Writing prohierns She is reading at about 21 siXth grade ievei and has dif ficulty vvriting a legible coherent paragraph student learning needs Iiovrever she does have good listening skills and is an adequate note taicer student strength In 223 I e s o is r coil LI Oniine is an interac1ive guide to iearning disshiii ties for parents students and teachers This site ofw fers nevrsietters teaching tips and more at www idoniineorg t E o nis Review fail the steps of the INCLUIDIE strategy see Chapter 4 What are thejvlr How can 3 Q11 use them for stu dents with highw incidence disabilities In what ways mr39ghtstu den ts with cognitive emo tionei and behaviors disorders have dif cuity learning How can teachers address each of these orees of difficulty 224 saris were Sutherland W ehhy and Copeland 2000 found that therate of onetasit 39 hehavi or of nine fifthgrade stu den ts with ernotionai and behavior disorders was signiticantly increased by sinipiy increasing the number of times their teacher praised thein for appropriate beiaavior ifh er it to as E Learning What SCia1irElI10ti0fE3l needs might students with learning and behavior tiisabihties share Vi7hy39is it iniportant to address studentsquot social and erno tional needs id39aquots o e rs e s p The Center for Effective Coilahoration and Practice 39I39lT10tES coliaboration among federai agencies serving chiidren with emo tional disabilities or 3t1 i5l of developing e1notional disahiiiues This site provides in any linllts to resources on issues of ernotional and behavioral problems in children and youth Visit httpz cecpair orgf iI1Cl l391tF39 CHAPTER 6 1 1 s 5 i Students with Highdocidence Disabiiities wwwabiongtnancornx triend3e Mr Greslfs class Jessica will have difficulty reading the tezttboolt and rneeting the lab writing requireiuents independendy problem She will he able to get the lecture in forination sheneeds because of her good listening slnlls success Mr Gresh with help from essica s special education teacher brainstorIned a nnrnber of possibie adaptations forjessica and then agreed to irnplernent three of theni He developed a study guide to help Jessica identify key points in the teat adaptation He also set up sniali groups in class to review the study guides adaptatio11 and assigned Jessica a buddy to help her with the writing demands of the lab activity bypass Finally Mr Gresh and the special education teacher set up a schedule to monitor essica s pro gress in writing lab reports and reading the 1 t3Xtl300l Several more ertarnples of how the INCLUDE strategy can be applied are provided in Tabie 62 addressing Social and Emotionat Needs One of the most important reasons given to espiain the trend toward inclusive ed ucation is the social bene ts for students with and without disabiities Schaps 8 Solomon i99 Stainbaclt lt3 Stainhack 1988 Unfortunately experience shows that many students with learning and behavior probienas do not acquire iinportant social sltiils just from their physicai presentie in general education classes Sale 8 Carey I 995 Although much of the ernphasis in your training as ateacher concerns academics your responsibilities as a teacher also include helping all stiidents de velop socially whether or not they have special needs As with academics the sup port students need depends iargely on the specific social problem each student has Students who have significant conduct prohleir1s benefit from a classrooru with a clear consistent behavior n1anage1nent system in classrooras that are effectively inanaged the rules are corntuunicated clearly and the consequences for following or not foilowing those ruies are clearly stated and consistenty applied Conduct prob lems can also be rninin1iaed if students are engaged in meaningfui academic tasks that can he completed successfully Still conduct probienrs may he so signi cant that they require a more intensive individuaiired approach For esarnple Rick whona you read about at the beginning of this chapter repeatedly li 1il6 l out and loudly re fused to carry out any requests his teachers made or him His school attendance was aiso spotty Riclds general education teachers got together with Ricirfs special educa tion teacher to develop a behavior contract According to the contract each teacher was to lteep track oi39Riclr s attendance taliltouts and refusals to comply in class The contract speci ed that when Rick tali ed out or refused to cornply once he would be given a warning If he engaged in these behaviors again he would be required to serve 539 niinutes of detention for each violation The contract also speci ed that for each ciass Rick attended without incident he would receive points that his parents wouid allow hitn to trade for coupons to buy gasoline for his car Adaptations depend on the types of interpersonal problerns your students have You can use social skiils training for students who do not know how to interact with peers and adults Goldstein Spra tin Gershaw 8 Kiein 1980 For eXa1nple Tarniny is very withdrawn and has few friends One day her teacher took her aside and suggested that she ask one of the other girls in class home some day after school Tainrny told her that she would never do that because she just would not know what to say quot1iu39n1ny s teacher decided to spend several social studies classes worlting with the class on that skill and other sliilis such as carrying on a ccnversation and using the correct words and deni1eanor when asking another student whether he or she What Accommodations Can You Make for5tudents with Learning and Behavior Disooifities 225 0y t3 Making adaptations for Students with Learning and Behavior Disabiiities Using identify Classroom Demands quotStepsquotin tite39IIiCLii E Strategy ute Student Strengths 39 and isieeds gheck for Potentiai Successes Look for Potentiai Problems Qecide on Adaptations Student desks in cius ters offour Smai group work with peers Expect students to attend class and be on time Textbook difficuit to read Lecture on women s suffrage movement to whoie ciass Whoie ciass instruc tion on teliing time to the quarter hour Strengths Good vocapuiary skiiis Needs Difficulty attending to task Strengths Good handwriting Needs Orai expressive ianguageue probiem with word finding Strengths Good drawing sitiiis Needs Poor time management Strengths Good orai communication skiiis Needs Poor reading accuracy Lacks systematic strategy for reading text Strengths Very motivated and interested in ciass Needs Lack of background iltnowi edge Strengths Good coioring skiiis Needs Cannot identify numbers 712 Cannot count by fives Success Student understands instruction if on task Problem Student off task does not face instructor as she teaches Success Student acts as secretary for coop erative group Probiem Student has diificuity expressing self in peer ieaining groups Success Student uses artistic taient in ciass Probiem Student is late for ciass and tie quentiy does not attend at aii Success Student participates welt in ciass Good candidate for ciass dramati zations Probiern Student is unabie to read text for information Success Student earns points for ciass attendance and effort Problem Student iacilts background knowi edge to understand important information in iecture Success Student is abie to color ciocit faces used in instruction Probiern Student is unabie to acquire teiiing time skiiis Change seating so student faces instructor Assign as secretary of group Piece into compatibie srnaii group Deveiop social siriiis instruc tion for aii students Use inditriduaiized student contract for attendance and punctuaiitymif goats met give student artistic respon sitsilitv in ciass Provide taped textbooks Higniight student text Give student video to view before iecture Buiid points for attendance and working hard into grad ing system Provide extra instruction on number identification and counting by fives continued 225 Continueda CHAPTER 6 l Students with Higimincidence Disabiiities wwvuablongmancomffriend3e identify Ciassroom Demands ute Student Strengths and Needs Qieck for Potentiai Successes Look for Potential Problems Qecide on Adaptations Math test involving soiving word prob lems using addition Multipie choice and fillwinthebianks test Strengths Good reasoning skills Needs Probierns mastering math facts sums of 104 8 Strengths Memorywgood memory for details Needs AttentionAuecannot identify key words in test questions Success Student is good at solving probiems Problem Student misses probierns due to math fact errors Success Student does well on fiil inthe bianir questions that require memorization Problem Student is doing pooriy on multi Aliow use of calculator Use bold type for key words in multiple choice questions Teach strategy for ta king multiple choice tests quotWeak comprehension skills pie choice parts of history tests Vdavs of teaching students seli39 control are covered in Chapters I0 and 12 4lltvrci39ger and ivcner 1996 suggest that teachers can build up the seltlesteeni of English language learn era by embracing the com mon and diverse strengths hrought from their home culture by considering all learners capable of con strncting and reconstruct ing meaning over ijrne and by providing opportunities for suidents to share their irnowiedge and questions and to View themselves as important contributors to their own ianguage would like to play a game She felt that many of the students in ciass besides Tanuny would bene t from these lessons First Tam1nv s teacher posted the steps involved in performing these sltills on a chart in front of the classroom Then she and sev eral students in the class dent1onsIrated the social sltiils for the class She then divided the class into small groups and each group role played the various skills and were given feedback inquot their classmates and peers To maize sure that Tainmy felt con1 fortahle the teacher put her in a group of students who had a positive attitude and lilltecl Tammy An example of how to carry our social skills trairiing is presented in the Case in Practice 39 For students who lI1OW What to do in social situations but iaci the seifcontrol to behave approp139iatelv selfcontrol training can he used Kauffinan 199 Self cont139oi training teaches students to redirect their actions by tallring to themselves For X3II 1plE3 Dominic does not handle confiict very well l fhen his frieiids tease him he is quicls to iose his temper and verbally iash out at tiiern His outbursts only encourage the students and die continue teasing and taunting him any chance they get Dominic s teacher taught him a selfcoritrol strategy to heip him ignore his friends teasing Vl7hei1ever he was teased Dominic first counted to 5 to hirnself to get beyond his initial anger He then told himself that vvhat they were saying vvasn t true and that the best vi39av to get them to stop was to ignore them and vvaiis away When he vvalleted awav Dominic told himself he did a good job and later reported his efforts to his teacher Some students niav iI1039W what to do socially but lacit opportunities for using their social sicills For eaainple students vvho are nevdy39 included in your classroom andor ncvv to the school need opporturiities to interact vvith classmates to get to lmow them better One wayquot to create opportunities for social interaction is to ailovv students to vvorlr in small groups with a shared learning goal For ezrarnple Thomas is a student with a mild cognitive disability who is included in Mr efh39e39vs s sixth grade class Tliis is Thomas s first vest in general education until this year he had What Accommodations Can You More forstuderts with Learning and Behavior Disabilities 39 R 22 m n A Sorini Skiils Twining Session Ms Perez and her fourthgrade Class are wo139lting on a unit on social slrilis in social studies They are learning the slltill of listening to someone who is tallcing by doing the foilowing Look at the person who is talldng Reineniber to sit quietiy Think about what is being said Say yes or nod your head 2 tsit a question about the topic to U1Ia MNd nd out more Jeanine 3 student in the ciass has just practiced these listening sltills in front of the class by roleplayiilg the part of a student who is talking to her teacher about an assignment in the roleplay ivis Perez played herself The class is now giving lea nine feetlback on her performance Ms Peres First did Jeanine look at me when I was tallring Before you answer can someone tell me why it s iinportant to loolt at the person who is tallting Lsrna39 You don t want the other erson to think vou re not listenin P J g even though you are So you really have to rivets thein you are listening Ms Perez That s right Lorna Well how did Jeanine do on this one C i3erZes3939 ewes she looited at you at first but while you were explaining the assignnient she looked down at her feet It lltiI1l oi loollt39ed like she wasn t listening ezsnz39i39te lquot was listening but i guess I shouid have lrept good eye contact all the way through Ms Perez Yes Jeanine To be hon est iii didn t know you better I would have thought that you didn t care about what I was saying You need to work harder on that step The next step is to renieniber to sit quietly How did Jeanine do with this one iiiiitort I l1ii1lSh 2 did well She re nienibered not to iaugh fidget or play with anything while you were tailring llis Per39ez I agree Milton Nice W39O1 llt Lieanine lTlow can sorneone tell me what the next listening step is iyi i39s39 it s to thini about what the person is saying ilxis Perez Right Kyrie Let s let l39eanine evaiuate herself on this one feasting Well I tried to thinlt about what you were saying Once i felt my IT iiIT1 l start to wander but I fol lowed your suggestion and started thinldng about a question that I could asit you ildr Perez Coo leanii1e Trying to think of a question to as can he very helpful How did you think you did on the next step Did you nod your head or say yes to show you were foilowin g inc ee2ine I think I did iitfiii Perez39 Vil3st do the rest of you think Did 39leanine nod her head or say yes I Esra quotWell I saw her nod a little but it was hard to tell Maybe she needs to nod more clearly riffs Peirce Jeanine you need to nod more strongly or the teacher worft realize you are doing it Wiliat teaching procedures is 0 Perez using to teach her students listening skills Do you think they are effective What could she do to inalte sure that her students use this sltill in their classes For what set tings outside of school would these and other social sltills be iinportant been in a self contained special education classroom iilrJeff1eys decided to use peer learitung groups in science because he thought it would be a good way for Thonias to get to lmow his classrnates and inake some friends Ev39e1y 2 weeits Thomas has the opportunity to coinpiete quotvarious lab activities with a different group Students who exhibit learned helplessness can bene t frorn attribution re training Ellis Lens 8 Sabornie i987 The idea hehind attribution retraining is that if you can convince students that their faiiures are due to lack of effort rather than ability they will be more persistent and iinprove their perforrnance in the face of difficulty Schunic 1989 228 CHAPTER 5 0 Students with Higlwncidence Disabiiities wwwzaIolongmancornXfriend3e You can enhance student selfiinage by using the foilowing strategies suggested by iviercer 19 1 Set reasonable goals WJB setting goals for students rnalre sure that they are not too easy or too hard Sch worth is improved when students reach their goals thro39ugh considerable effort Goals that are too ambitious perpetu ate failure Goals that are too easy can give students the idea that you think they are not capable of doing anything difficult 2 Provide speci c feedback contingent on student behavior Feedback should be largely positive but it should also be contingent on coinpletion of tasks Otherwise students are lilltel39y to perceive your feedback as patronizing and just another indication that you third they are unable to do real acadetnic worlt Do not he afraid to correct students when they are wrong Providing corrective feedback communicates to students that you think they can succeed if they lteep trying and that you care about thein 3 Givequot the student responsibility i5 issigning a responsibiiity demonstrates to students that you trust theni and beiieve they can act iuaturely Seine errant ples include talting the class pet home on weelrends taking the lunclfi count being a line leader talting messages to39the ori ce andtaldng attendance 4 Teach students to reinforce theinselves Students with poor selhiinages say negative things about theniseives You can help students hy re1iiii1ding there of their strengths encouraging them to inake more positive stateinents about thernselyes and dien reinforcing thern for inalting these staternents 5 Give students a chance to show their strengths Part of the INCLUDE strategy is to identify student strengths and then help students achieve success by iinding or creating classrooni situations in which they can ernploy their strengths For example Cara cannot read very well but has an eztcellent speak ing voice After her group wrote a report on the 1960 presidential election Cara was given the tStSl39 of presenting the report to the whole class C Students with highdncidence disahiiities are students who have speech and language disabilities learning disabilities einotional disturbance or inild cognitive disabili ties Students with high iucidence disabilities I IE1lE392 up about 90 percent of all stu dents who have disabilities They are often hard to distinguish from their peers exhibit a con1bination of behaviorai sociai and academic probierns and are likely to bene t from systematic highiy structured interventions Students with corninunications disorders have a number of learning social and ernotional needs Their language pro oleins can affect their perforinance in all acad ernic areas including reading math written expression and contentiarea instruc tion Socially they rnay be withdrawn reiected by their peers and have considerable difficulty using language in social situations Tlie acadeinic and social perforinance of students with speech and language problenfis can be enhanced through a nurnber of adaptations including creating an atmosphere of acceptance actively encouraging listening sltilis stressing words that are irnportant to ineaning presenting inany ea atnples of vocabula1y and concepts being taught and presenting there several times W i3sgJ quotfV39h quot quot sagst K A 396 fh 39 n 739c39392 r 0 TE The University 0j L0aqi3ianaewMem 0e 5 92 J 39 3 mm p F M M quotRamp M 0 quotquot e zlt raa 3r majmx lt new I 39 u quot 39 lt392 quot 3 sg anavquot W quotMn E 5rquotm 9 39 3 M quot mm Q7 v g 3X w u39N I 39 g AA 39 aw e g u quotquotquot quot quot quotcgt rfi 0 mm 3939 39 e39 3I4 39r 5 W mg I 3L W3 p 15 A Boston New Fem Sam Fmmlseo amp Qty Memreai Terofnto Lo39na1on Madrid Munich Paris Seiezgapere Tfekye Cape Town Sydney t 39Kh 3c x W39 x 3939equot x st 5quot 39 it 239 BASES PRENCEPLES ANS PRACTEEES OF ENCLUSEVE ENSTRUCTEUN Jofyce 8 Cheats Special students require instruction in most of the same skills that other stu dents need Many of the sanie instructionai procedures appropriate for other stu dents are just as appropriate for special students However variations of some validated rnethods increase their effectiveness for teaching special students Several puhiications report on signi cant research associated with teaching students with learning probierns At the conclusion of this chapter is a list of se lected references containing the mixture of research findings and good practice that provides the basis for appropriate teaching The irnplications of this research document the efficacy or outiine the development of the Correction strategies throughout this book Refer to these resources for clarification and expanded explanations r Both generai and special education teachers must foilovv the Individualized Education 1Prograrn IEP when teaching a student identi ed for a speciai edu cation and both should be actively involved in developing and updating each IE1 The five instructional principles with 20 associated practices that foliovv pro vide direction to help shape the development and irnpleinentation of IEPs they apply to most students but are vitai to special learners especiaiiy vvhen taught in inclusive settings These inclusive practices provide general guidelines for irn plernenting the Correction suategies described in Chapters 416 PRWECEPLE i DEFFEREN39i39i i E iNST UCTiON ANS PRQVESE SUPPURVS Differentiation systernatically varying the learning content product and most important the teaching and learning process to rnatch the unique learning pro file of individual students is the essence of inclusive instruction That is dif ferentiated instruction is vvhat rnalces ordinary teaching inciusive Within an inclusive classroom universaiiy designed curricula facilitate differentiation by offering multiple options for What to learn hovv to learn and how to demonstrate learning Practice i Differentiate instruction according to student needs Differentiation by varying the learning content and product is relatively straight forward and easy to irnplernent Curricuiar adjustments differentiate content vvhen teachers select content for its real life value and either supplement or sini plify the curriculum according to student needs Appropriate professional stan dards are incorporated as expectations Offering alternate goais assignments and response forrnats differentiates learning products or the ways in which iearn ers demonstrate their rnastery Presenting options for different degrees of diffi culty perrnits the teacher to address the varied needs of severe students at the same time The inclusive teacher rnanages differentiated instruction by btenolzirtg indi vidual instruction srnall cooperative iearning groups teacherdirected groups CHAPTER THREE BASIC PRINIHPLES AND PRACTICES OF INCLUSIVE INSTRUCTION j and whole class instruction For example in a single iesson an effective teacher may provide learning activities at different levels of complexity assign different tasks or projects for students to demonstrate learning and place students at difw ferent points on the curricular continuum providing different levels and types of support and accommodations to supplement and facilitate individual progress Thus particular types and combinations of differentiated instruction that are appropriate vary according to speci c student needs and to teacher expertise willingness and resources Practice 2 Adjust instruction for learning profile A central focus of the differentiated learning process is student learning style that set of instructional conditions that facilitates a specific students learning progress Major considerations include preferred learning modality light sound time temperature grouping degree of structure and preferred stimulusz response format i in order to differentiate the learning process to match a students learning pro le several instructional variables must be manipulated intensity explicit ness duration lesson formats tasks supervision and supplements Students with special needs often require more intense and explicit instruction with in structional duration either increased or decreased according to need Varying lesson formats by choosing optimal delivery formats eg group or individual and presentation methods that enhance instruction eg multisensory and mul timedia helps to reach diverse learners as does offering alternate tasks and as signments Struggling students also often beneiit from additional supervision monitoring prompting correction and feedback As outlined in Practice 3 in structional supplements many of which can be implemented quickly and easily and may offer povverful assistance to students provide further differentiation of the learning process Practice 3 Offer appropriate accommodations and assistance instructional accommodations are essential supplements to differentiated in struction For example assistive technology devices may be needed to improve the functional capabilities of some students vvitli disabilities The checklist in Figure 31 for accommodating students unique learning needs and styles sug gests possible options and provides a convenient format for analyzing and mon itoring accommodations and their effectiveness then adjusting as needed 5 Practice 4 Utilize universal design procedures A major avenue for accommodating individual learning needs is effective use of technologymespecially software and interactive media with universal design fea tures that offer students multiple options for accessing and responding to cur riculum and instruction The prominent model for accommodative use oftecbnology is the Universal Design for Learning UDL As described by Rose and Meyer 2002 UDL offers great promise for facilitating inclusive instruction Borrowing the architectural concept of universal design that removes barriers to access in buildings the Center for Applied Special Technology CAST advocates the removal of media barriers to curriculum design Hence UDL renders learning accessible and 49 f9 3C0ifi39sr39iB 3tTIiquote 39G SPECWLL NEEES as WEE i39tt73i Equotu39 E CLASSROOM CHECiiE39iquot OF C1Fquot TEP B FDR ACCGNEEWODATEMG LEARNING STYLES AND NEEDS Teacher Dateisi iilircie accommodations atterrrpted rnark successtui accommodations with pics unsuccessfui with minus H ctrtssdocrii Preterentiaiseatirrgspecify i3es39r39gn39 0 E quot Group size 39 i1 wlteacher quoti 1 Wfpeer Smaii group Large group constrrrctiire I Needtorrnouernent Litt1e mHAuerage Higii rearning gquot v Distraction management mCarreis Headsets m Seating mmtither fe39ninquotortrnent V Noise None mE1uiet iVioderate i I i Lighting were uJ1uerage merrghr Temperature WWarrn m uerage ACooi Gther specify 39 Peak time Early morning Late morning Midday Afternoon grg rairg39ji39 39 y Lesson iength 5 iU min Wis23 min 253D rein mm3 min y 39 x Variation needed mmLittie Soroe HwAverage i diuch n q p X Extra tirne needed Litte Mmsome jwerage Muci1 39 scrreiuie39quot39 s P q Other specify x I39 w 39 Stimulus Format Response Format ussreertr gl Visuai Ji serire mmaeaa Choose mPoint Mark s Auditory mjJrai D iscuss Tail Restate mmEltpia in Pm Touch iioid MwFeei Write Mmshort answer Essair o Modeiz quotCoach mw emonstrate Wordprocess mSorne A i m 5 iviuitisensory Fw oinbination Show mDemonstrate mmli ake 39 Other specify Pb 39 39 Va139V stimuiusfresponse umVary directions wwvaw sequence 5 c 3 f mmtiignlight essentiai content muse partiat content mead steps 0 g Expand practice Add selfwchecking mEmhed prompts trn39aterr39af39quotf39f39 i T HSegrnent State key concepts in margins Wade Suopernents T 7 0 39 Other spec iiyi 1c instructions Strategies Mat39eria39s Assignments Human Resources iquot 390 9 Zquot J1rduartce organizers mASSiSti39dB device r utiapted testing HMlo teacher D P mCharted progress Audiotapes ottext mmnduance assignment Ccoperative group Wide U 393 quotI Checirlist of steps wm alcuiator mmniternate mminstructionai coach c 1393quot fquot r 35 cW U yX HJi3orrrptrter activities WCaptioned video assignments minterpreter 39i5 quot quotquotquot 9 R U S WmEiraiuation checklists foded text mExtended time Peer advocate 5 39 quot Q 39 QR P quot Braphic organizers mm omouter programs WmExtra practice j eer note tairer tu iodeiing 3ames for practice Eutiined tasks MPeer prornpter miV1nerrronic guides Highiighted text wPartiai outiines mwfeertutor iVtuitisensory Kevternquoti definitions mmttuestion guides Persona attendant techniques gMLarge orinttext Referance access mStudir buddy Erganization charts mmh anipuiatives Scripted practice Voiunteer tutor mw epeated readings fviath charts Segrnented tasks Scripted mNiultimedia mmShortened demonstrations HMuitipie text assignments 3eitquot questioning lniine resources mmsimpiified directions Managemenfsmregies MmStrategy posters Paraiiei text Sirnpiified tasks wwghaned Perf rma ce derbai rehearsai mSirnpir fieti text mmstructured notes mmchecmists mVideo modeiing 3ummaries Study guides C 3 t 3Ct5 Hw Jisuai irnagery Uideo enactments mmiimed practice Equottf3 i f9 9 399 t Wm ther fJther MOther ww iher CHAP39i39quotE THREE BASES FRENCHquotLE 9E D PFEACTECES OF INCLUSIVE WSTHUCTEGN supportive to all students by using digital media and computer technology to buiid flexibility into curricula materials methods and assessment Multiple media options are included for all facets of instruction and for students to dernonstrate their lltnovvledge and skills Based on research studies of the brain and learning the UDL framevv orllt ad dresses three interconnected neural networks that explain many learner differ ences recognition strategic and affective networks Recognition networks enable students to recognize patterns letters Words numbers number facts correct spelling complete and granunatically correct sentences scientific con cepts and social studies facts and relationships Strategic netvvorks perrnit stu dents to plan implement plans and routines solve problerns evaiuate results and ansvvers and selfanonitor and also influence students higher level cornpre hension their study strategies the prevvriting writing and revision activities niatheniatical and sociai problem solving and scientific experimentation meth ods Affective netvvorlrs involve such factors as interest motivation emotion and students evaluation of relevance and value to themselves and society thus irnpacting learning and performance in all areas individual diiferences in the three netvvorics support multiple intelligence theory and account for the variance in individual students strengths and vveaicnesses To accommodate students differences in the recognition network UDL i 1 phasizes critical features and using multiple media formats and eiraniples Mul tipie options to demonstrate knowledge and skills practice with support and ongoing feedback and iiemble models are used to accommodate strategic net vvorir differences and adjustable challenge levels and student choices of con tent context and tools help differentiate for the affective network Although UDL exempli es differentiated instruction to reach and teach all learners the UDL model is not fully developedas a coniprehensive instructional program and is not Widely avaiiabie through published rnaterials Flutherinore limited resources and professional development funds constrain the hardvvare and softvvare and the training opportunities available to many teacher prepara tion programs and P l2 classrooms therehy lessening access to products de veioped by CAST Meanwhile teachers can and should use vvhatever resources they have on hand to apply many of the UDL principles procedures and tech niques iquotirst thinir inultripte ogotrlons and support in terms of media presentation of content interactive learning activities and dernonstration of lrnovvledge and skills Next consider building lessons using digital text for its flexibility of pre sentation and use changes in size and color multiple image options animation options optional features such as tegtrt to speech or specch to teXt capabilities embedded linlrzs and supports such as glossaries strategic questions response prompts clarifying graphics or direct linlrs to additional information tools such as highlighting or organization aids and opportunities and arnenability to editing andor rnodifications Build collections of examples and IlCI1 ElX LITlpi S on disk and online for key concepts also collect online links that provide important baclrground looovvledge for target concepts Begin by selecting the II lDSi1iIiipO1 tant concepts in each subject area then develop and i1npleinent one or two UDL lessons for each and finally continuously identify and eiirninate curricular bar riers in order to provide access to all learners To expand available resources explore opportunities to acquire professional developinent and hardware and software appropriate for U BL through the local and state technology coordinators Examples of UDL in action posted on the CAST Website suggest the limitless possibilities for enhancing instruction as well as the resources that individual teachers might need For additionai UDL ideas J5 p Kquot 55 52 quot E quot39 3939 39139 3939u quotquotquotquot 39 i a aW Rquotquot393 I39 ah if 42 RACCDMMODATING SPECML NEEDS IN THE INCLUSJVE CLASSROOM techniques and materials consult the CAST vvebsite at httpz vvvvvvcastorg which offers a valuable array of resources for differentiated instruction i Piecing differentiation within the context of teaching methods that have been found to be generally effective for most students also increases the likelihood of teacher and student success enmctete ii use essecrws isvsrnucrionsnt Mernoos Some instructional strategies are effective for all types of learners and these are among the obvious and easiest opportunities for faciIitating inclusive teaching and learning Effective teachers structure learning tasks so that they are acces sible to students and enhance academic iearning time These tvvo principies sug gest several practices allot more tirne for instruction by scheduiing carefully and managing instruction efficiently see Principle V and ensure that students are activeiy engaged in each learning activity by inciuding for example interac tive learning experiences Practice 5 Use vafioiared teaching methods Several instructional strategies speci cally facilitate learning in inclusive settings organizing activities cooperative iearning peer mediated instruction strategy in struction direct instmction and technoiogyenhanced instruction These strate gies are appropriate for teaching a variety of learners across the curriculurn impmt the type and degree of iearning that occur and heip ren er content more accessible to a variety of learn Four types of orga nizing activities are especially useful in the inclusive classs I Iforganizing activ ities such as checldists or routines focus U assisting students to organize themselves their attention and their thinlltin raphic organizgi iich as ow charts or concept vvebs iilustrate conceptual interreiatio nship ytudy guides such as key questions or partial outlines for stu 7 nts to complete heip students understand and organize concepts and skills eacher routines such as using advance organizers help to organise and structure lessons special needs Groups of two three or five students provide a natural environ ment in which to learn and reinforce rnost skills especially in cornrnunication prohiern solving and social studies Successful cooperative formats share sev erai coinrnon features systeniatic structure heterogeneous groupings individual andor group revvards and specified roles for each group member Procedures for irnplernenting varied cooperative formats are detailed by Johnson and J ohn son 1999 and Slavin 1995 although cooperative groupings are frequently sug gested in this book the teacher must carefully select partners and then guide and monitor their interactions to ensure success lquotI e 39 quoted instruction includes peer tutoring and peer modeling and moni successfw forniats are ClassWide Peer Tutoring Utley Mortvveet dz Greenwood 1997 which pairs students for reciprocal teaching then assigns the pairs to one of two class teams crossage tutoring in which tutors are oider or younger than their partners and reverserole tutoring vvherein struggling students tutor younger or less able students Structure mon itoring and adj ustrnents are essential components of an effective peer mediation prograrn 0 rps facilitate active learning promote social inter i action and help develop social skills for most students especially students with CHAPTER THREE BASIC PHINCHPLES AND FHACTECES OF ENCLUSEVE INSTRUCTION 43 the focus of Practice 14 is another means of enhancing learning and performance in a wide range of curricula and inclusive settings Learning strategies are structured activities and routines designed to teach stu dents how to learn and increase their independence in learning and performance Direct 39 quotmotion a conipreliensive system for teaching basic content and sldlls has been an effective method for inclusive classes Building heavily on be havioristic principles direct instruction features behavioral objectives struc tured materials instructional scripts routines modeling choral response and specific skill instruction with corrective procedures Each lesson includes demonstration guided practice and independent practice and encourages diag nostic teaching Teciggnggl A 5quot I q also facilitates inclusive education assis tive technology devices improve the functional capabilities of some students with disa39bilities and COIIl J1ll3E lC 2SSlSfECl instruction CAD that includes correc tive feedback is effective for teaching a variety of skills and content as noted in Practice 4 multimedia instruction using universal design prodecures enhances students access to curricula and their performance of a wide range of tasks 3 u I u Practice 6 teach disgriosticsiip Biagnostic teaching identifies individual students needs for differentiated in struction their learning styles and the most effective methodology to reach them Diagnostic teaching begins with an initial diagnosis to identify acquisition of and de cits in specific skills skill applications and synthesis of skill with process strategies to accomplish authentic peri39ormances Three Ways to identify or detect the specific skills in need of correction are 1 direct testing using ei ther formal or informal measures 2 analysis of daily classroom performances and 3 synthesis of the data from testing and analysis of classroom performance In later chapters specific suggestions for diagnosis in each subject skill and performance area are offered after initial assessment diagnostic teaching proceeds with targeted in struction for identified skili and application needs followed by regular runni toring of progress to determine the appropriateness of methodology measure gains and needs and identify possible instructional modifications Some type of charting or graphing of performance across several lessons is required to produce a record of growth When performance is not consistently positive the teacher should modify instructional procedures and continue teaching diagnostically Practice 7 Use realistic and concrete examples Used regularly demonstrations and exarnples that apply to the students everyday life promote understanding and emphasize relevance Concrete examples and ob jects are particularly important to mastery of some sidlls and concepts eg in demonstrations and hands on experiences with manipulatives in mathematics or practical experiments in science Using the students language to introduce con cepts and then translating the ideas into more technical terms also enhances learning In addition nonetamples help to emphmiae the distinctiveness of examples and solidify learning Online resources provide a vast array of eirampies and noneirarnples to support and clarify concepts Regularly asking students quotHow did you lmovv that this answer was incor rect or instructing them to Prove it out ioud or Tell us as you tliink your 44 ACCDMMODIETINQ SP EC quot ii NEEQS EN THE iNELUSE L E C aSSHG ansvver helps develop ntietacognitive behaviors and thinking strategies rnaking retention and transfer or slrills and rnowieolge easier The actual content of errarnpies and lessons aiso influences iearning For in stance rnany slrills and concepts can be appiieri in the content of higlianterest quot lessons reaI iife content or awaninivinning literature Since speciai stnrients often errperience ciifficuity catching up and then ireeping up in rnany curricuiar areas this practice uses teacher and student tune and eiitort ei i39icienti32 Practice Q otitreip iniroirre students appropriate and nieaningfui ertarnples and models invite active student involve inent Students vvlio are actively involved and engaged tend to learn more anti faster Eiands on interactive iearning appeals to the senses and provides a reason to learn prornotes attention to tasir and niay iessen negative behaviors loop erative learning groups also faciiitate active learning as rioes involving students in pianning and evaiuating their learning experiences Fraction Q Use orresrioniog ezttecriireipr appropriate ouestioning encourages active sturient involverneut anti learning and D iquotaciii1ates thinking and problem solving The riuestions teachers ask determine in part the level of tliinlring the degree of understanding and the depth and hreacitiz of discussion that occur To become proficient learners students must be guided to seek ansvvers to questions asking arrest hero and rainy ans then to respond to such questions When digital tent is used questions rnav be ernieritieri to iiighlight important points and foster strategic tiiinlring Teachers responses to students ansvvers and questions partiaiiy cieterinine the quantity anoi quality of students responses anti questions as vveii Teachers vviio invite anti riiscuss multiple ansvvers anti their iogical cieifense encourage stu aents to responri after asiolng a question vvaitin g 5 to i seconds before seeking more inforrnation enhances students responses Prornpting or cueing for an svvers helps students think paraphrasing or restating ansvvers reinforces con cepts and builds positive behaviors in giving answers Teaching students to tonnulate their own questions and answers not only increases their understanri ing of language but aiso buiiris vitaiseii39rr1onitor39ing skills 45 J Practice i A i rinci tea orquot oeiisrriorisrn ll 3 Tire principles of behaviorisru are irnportant ingredients of revievv and practice a and indeed of ali ciassroorn activities Many of the practices cited as improving the achievement of special students incorporate the principles oiquot hehaviorisin quotI 39 vvhi ch is based on the premise that revvaroeri behavior is iiirely to recur Wlrien cle signing an instructionai plan the teacher should consider tvvo inajor factors 1 defining the behavior to he changes or iinproveri through ohservation and di agnosis and 2 plarining a program to systeiriaticaiiy reiritor39ce desired responses The first factor a part of riiagnostic teaching rnust inclurie setting realistic instructional goals Lessons shouiri he structurecl in sinall manageable steps that will lead to the accoinplisiiraer1t of a designated goal Systematic rein i39orce1nent is more co1npiicated The teacher rnust first deterrnine vvhat consti tutes revraro and punishment for a specific student vvhich sornetiines becomes apparent by anaiysing the instructional conditions that produce desired re sponses This procedure is aiso helpful in identiiting an appropriate stirnulus response format for speci c students cnaersn riinns easic eesucieies Aivo practices or auctusave uvsraocnom as PRiNClPlE Ell EWEPEi lSlEE ESSENTl ll CGNTENT The specific content that is most essential to individual students varies accord ing to age ability and present lmowledge and skill levels Practical real 1ife con siderations provide guidance in selecting the particular content to emphasize Practice 1 1 quotleech the big ideas Big ideas emphasize what is important and provide the structure and organiza tion for learning the smaller ideas of content and also for learning strategies lame entu39 5 Carnine 2001 For example an essential big idea for beginning readers is that words are made up of separate sounds which are related to letters Teachers who highlight the big ideas of a lesson unit or skill help struggling learners focus on the most important and relevant concepts understand the in terrelationships among their parts and how to think about the content The spe cific steps required for mathernatical computations constitute the big ideas and the inquirjv method is a major big idea in science Maintaining big ideas as cen tral focal points in instruction provides important assistance to the learners and facilitates acquisition of lrnowledge skills and strategies Practice i 2 Establish the experiential ease and core irocantiiery Learners understand and interpret concepts according to their individual expe riential backgrounds Typically the richer and more varied the learner s eXperi ence the more meaningful the learners understanding and performance For a number of reasons many special students have had limited experience partici pating in a variety oi activities many also lack the types of experiences that con tribute to a general fund of knowledge and language facility Therefore teachers must supply numerous concrete experiences to enhance understanding Video and audio materials action references such as 3D ROllI collections and additional oral and written examples supplement experiences Teachers should also identify preexisting concepts that will require modi cation or change To promote understanding and use of language the teacher should re view extend or develop concepts and their vocabulary prior to each lesson Building experiences sets the stage for learning by providing a lmowledge base and serving as a type of advance organizer an important element of the experiential base is understanding the vocabu larv that carries the conceptual load particularly in the content areas Semantic maps concept maps and webs word webs and clustering of vocabulary assist students to understand levels and categories of meaning and to organize their thoughts connect the concepts tlieniselves and relate them to a speci c topic or organizational scheme Other options for presenting vocabuiary include defining sentences close type activities or game formats Whatever the methodology the terms that carry major concepts should be eniphasiaed throughout each lesson for three purposes 1 before each lesson as an advance organiser 2 during the lesson to clarify and elaborate and 339 after the lesson to summarize and review Practice 13 Teach authentic and relevant content and skills Students who struggle to learn deserve to know why they must master school tasirs Both relevance to acadeniic progress and more importantly personal and ACCOMMODATING PEClAi NEEDS lhi THE INCLUSYUE CLASSROOM societal relevance should be explained discussed demonstrated and docu mented keeping the achievement level and interests of the students in mind Be yond the obvious contributions of reading writing and arithmetic to future school learning these basic sldils promote general literacy lifelong learning and informed functioning in the real vvorld Relevance is easily illustrated vvhen students appiy the essential loiovvledge and skills in the context of authentic performances Thus students should be coached to perform authentic tasks such as read for speci c information safety and pleasure solve their real vvorid math problems complete applications and other personal and business correspondence solve school community and so cietal problems and apply science knowledge and sldlls to improve and maintain health Authentic tasks and projects reinforce expand and also foster the gen eraiization and application of essential skills and knowledge PHENCEPLE EV TEACH FOR EVEASTERY Q NECESSARV S ltiiiS AND STRATEGEES Teachers should encourage students to persist until they attain mastery particu larly in the basic skills Since language skills for eirarnple are required for progress in school teaching for mastery is essential mastery of basic number facts is prerequisite to mastery of higherlevel mathematics Many special learn ers do not easily retain mastery of a skill unless they frequently review and apply it Such students require systematic instruction over time periodic reviews and application of a skill in varied situations Teaching for mastery also involves di agnostic teaching monitoring of skill acquisition transferring ltnovvledge from one skill and suhj ect to another and reinforcing learning 39 Practice E4 Directly teach essentiai skills and learning strategies Diagnostic and differentiated instruction requires targeted teaching of skills and their application Skills are vital elements of the strategies for accomplishing subject specific tasks As soon as speci c skills are mastered they should be im mediately applied in authentic context to read whole passages solve vvord prob lems write ideas conduct scienti c experiments and the like Certain skills may be especially difficult for special learners it despite appro priate and focused instruction lack of a particular skill impedes students progress the teacher should consider several options 1 Substitute a different skill such as listening for reading 2 change the stimulusfresponse format 3 guide students through the thought processes for accomplishing the task orally or 4 select other appropriate accommodations see Figure 31 When the troublesome skill is an essential one targeted instruction must continue as stu dents exercise these options to master essential concepts Explicit instruction in ways to circumvent and compensate for learning and behavior Weaknesses is an essential element of preparing students vvith special needs to learn independently in many cases component skills provide the best strategg for learning and performing tasks For example the four steps for solving mathematical problems presented in Chapter ll form a strategy for problem solving In other instances skills alone vvill not suffice as is the case when a student masters vvord analysis skills but then must learn which skills to apply when and in what order Thus along with lesson content and skills the strategies for ac C33EAPTER THREE BKASIC FREE ICEPLE AND PRACTICES OF ENCLUSIVE WSTRUCTIDN 47 complishing each task must be taught discussed rnodeled coached and cri tiqued Strategy instruction empowers learners and special learners need that empowerment Practice 15 Provide appropriate practice and generous review All students need periodic reviews but special learners often need more frequent and extensive review in order to master skills and concepts Relate each new skill and topic to previously learned information and skills Begin each lesson with a review of related concepts and needed sidlis and their relevance buiid or reinforce students experiences as needed Repeat and review concepts often Guide students to suinrnariae everything in their own words develop charts and graphs to summarise inforrnation and paraphrase concepts and apply them to their lives Use numerous visual aids topic summaries taped overviews eiraiupies and displays in the room to further reinforce important information To reinforce skills have students demonstrate and explain newly learned skills to peers Vary the format of review experiences to avoid boredom Computer activities offer endless variations for practicing skills and applying knowledge Puzzles games or learningcenter formats also offer changes to reduce the tedium of repetitive practice Cooperative group projects discussions and structured problemsolving sessions can reinforce and apply skills and concepts as well PRENCEPLE V MANAGE THE iNCiUSiVE PRUCESS EFFECWVELY AND EiFiCiENTiY inclusive instruction is a management process with the teacher as senior ITlElH ager inclusive teachers orchestrate classroom activities teach students self management procedures integrate knowledge and skills across the curriculum to ensure that their utility to students and collaborate to increase impact all the while maintaining the interest and entnusiasrn of the students and thernselves Practice E8 Manage constructively Effective nianagernent skills are central to inclusive education By e iciently and effectively managing themselves and the instructional process teachers model organization and management structure a positive classroom environment and increase the likelihood that both teacher and students will enjoy the teaching and iearning process As noted in Chapter 15 sound instructional management involves orchestration of a range of variables to iacilitate learning and enjoyment as well Another key ingredient of the wellrnanaged inclusive ciassroorn is students who monitor and manage themselves To reap full benefits from the inclusive principles and practices students must learn to manage and control themselves Selfenanagement skiiis enable se1f 1 nonitoring and along with mastery of study and learning strategies empower students to control themselves and their learn ing both now and in the future Students must iearn to manage such elements as attention ontask behavior selfmonitoring social sldlls peer and teacher inter actions tirne goal setting and possibly some of the other beiiaviors described in Chapter 14 as accointnoearime seeciat sleeps in rat avcrosive ctasssooivi Practice i integrate skills and concepts riarotrgiioirt the curriculum i All subjects and skills should be integrated throIigho1it an inclusive curriculum to mutually reinforce and extend skills and concepts and provide opportunities to applv learnings Guided application also fosters transier and generalisation For example integrating the language arts is more natural and logical than sep arating them and also provides a Inultisensorjv approach quotElie teacher can incori porate science and sociai studies topics and skills into other subject lessons throughout the day to reinforce concepts and slriils and to riernonstrate their ap plicability to other areas Sirniiariy rnatliernatical piquot lbiEi lS can the infused into most other areas or constructed from almost any subject content for specific rnath lessons an integrated curriculum offers special learners needed review and repetition shovvs them how to generalize sitills and content and heightens learning enjoyrneiit Piractice i8 nite interest and enthusiasm Unless students are interested in what they are iearning and doing the previous suggestions are of little ass active involvernent not only prornotes learning but also increases interest so give students a choice in vvliat and hovv they learn in volve students in the activities and also in each step of the planning process Stu dents often perform above their estaplislied achieveinent levels when a topic sldll or method particularly fascinates there Effective use of technolog such as the universal design procedures descriiled in lquotractice 4 eg interactive videos to einhellish lessons or Word processors to i aci1itate perfonnance may spark in terest Perhaps the roost practical Way to enhance interest is to establish the per sonal relevance of skills and topics societal relevance can extend and reinforce personal relevance Teaciier enthusiasm is a vitai element for buiiding interest the teachers eiithusiasni or iaclr of it can be contagious lnterest and enthusiasts j critical ingredients of a positive and productive iearning clirnate itractlcee in Qollaoorare and coor inare efforts 0 t The preceding principles prirnarily focus on what a single teacher does or does p not do with students However no teacher need stand alone A variety of pro h fessionals should collaborate to provide the best possible instruction for all i students particularly those vrith special learning needs Collaboration and coor dination save time and nurture teacher enthusiasts as integrating the curricuiurn Principle ll enhances mastery of skills and concepts in all areas coordinating efforts enhances expertise and progress Such collaboration eiiponentially in creases the chances of success for both students and teachers ractice 2 Sonarnir to irioitrsiire lrrsrrrrotiorr fire real key to successinl inclusive education is teacher confunitrnent to ercei lent instruction for every student Eespite the extra effort required dedicated teachers find their revvard in their students achievenient True some teachers continue to resist inclusion as represented in the debate betvveen an inclusive and an exclusive teacher in Figure 32 llovvever a teacher who cornrnits to ere cellence presents a strong case for successful inclusive teaching CHAPTER THREE BASIC PRINCIPLES AND PRACTECES OF INCLUSIVE INSTRUCTION 43 INCLUSIVE TEACiHNG DEBATE inclusive Teacher versus ErcIusive Teacher Effective teaching is my creed We get through every text 3 give them all the time they need Slow learners have me vexed I Irv to differentiate I give them or one task My role is to accommodate They ought to do what39s asked I must address each iearning style I show them my right way Exciting methods get atrial I donrha vs time to piei Assignments are not uniiersn Each ohiIoquots on the same page idly teaching methods show reform I doniimprove with age Biseeverv ileies them understand They memorize vvhafs known i ask their peers to lead a hand Each child must work alone 1 hair them learn how they age smart I test how siow they are i iike it if titeirvvavs depart i just want What is par Alternative assessments great I only need one test With students i coiiahorate Goahsetting irietesti 39 Yes I can help each student learn i39ve way too much to do For their success is what I veers My jobs to just get through Inclusive teaching worits i say It39s crazy I believe 39 i ionic with hope to each new day I may appiv for ieavei Titer ail need heig1whv eeaft gee see That s asking quite a ioti is make a diiierenee there the key i Ii give it one more shot Poem by Jessie Silver reprinted with permission SUMMARY Both general and special education teachers must follow the Individualized Edu cation Program IE1 when teaching a student identi ed for a special education and both should be actively involved in developing and updating each IEP The basic principles and practices reviewed in Figure 33 applicable to roost students but vital for special learners provide direction for shaping IEPs and helping ed ucators adjust and differentiate instructing in all subject areas These inclusive practices are incorporated into the corrective techniques rccornrnendcd39 in this book Oi critical importance are the first and iast principle Differentiale in struction and provide supports and effective management of the inclusive process also important is content that is authentic and relevant Practice 13 Central to inclusive instruction are Practices 3 4 5 19 and 28 accorrunodaticns and assistance 3 universal design procedures 4 validated rncthods 5 col laboration 19 and cornnritrncnt to inclusive instruction 20 Other practices that are consequential include diagnostic teaching 8 teaching big ideas 11 and skill and strategy instruction 14 The best features of these teaching prin ciplcs and practices provide the franicwork for the Correction strategies in Chap ters ii through 16 50 i ili ii i0B 5i39i quotii S SPECS xL NEEDS ii i THE N JLUSiE IiASSFiO i iii FEEVEEW OF BASH PRENCEPLES FGH INCLUSIVE ENSTRUCTEON E39FiiiiiiJi5FiE i Practice 1 ifiereritiate iristraction according to student neecis Practice 2 Adjust instruction for learning oroiiie h 1 I quot I P quot quot Practice 3 Offer appropriate accommodations and assistance Practice ii Utilize uniiiersal design iICBiii39ES i 5 quot quotiquotilquot39ufi39i39quotiE ii iSE E5FfFE3TiiiE Practice 5 Use iiaiidated teaching methods 39 Practice 5 Teach diagnostically I I In Z In In 0 J6 Practice Ti Lise realistic and concrete examples Practice 8 Actiireiy intioiire students Practice 9 Use questioning eiiectiveii Practice 10 Itppiv principies of beliaviorisrn quotF39Hiiil39i 39i39iquot E39i39iiEiiJiPitiiiZE Practice ii Teach the big ideas e j39 3939ii39 39 Pia ctice 12 Estainiisii the experiential base and core iiocahoiargr H P5 I 0 In I In I P I I Practice i3 Teach authentic and releiiantcoriteritand skills W I Pi 3 cities 14 Dire ctiii teach essential skilis and learning strategies 1 0 Practice i5 Provide apibrcpriate Dtactice and generous reiiieiiii quot quot 39 39 39 quot 39 39 39 39 39 Practice 16 Manage constructiireitr Pra ctice ii integrate skills and concepts throughout the curriculum Practice i8 Buiid interest and enthusiasm 5 539 39 J Practice 19 Collaborate and coordinate efforts Practice 29 Eonimitto iaciusiiie education SELECTEB REFERENCES Baker E T Wang M 1 amp Waiberg E J 1i9a1995 file effects of it1e39tteieiri on leamizig E391i iri39Jcii 2lo i39io39i7 LeeLie39ePi39ig9 52 4 3335 Belecti I 2003 Tecimoiogyfcvr eacciegctiltmei ieaanei s Boston 1Eo39ogi1ton Itiiiffiin Borielt G D 20l4 Effeccirije teecitxilteg neei 39i2octs E11h eri iippelquot Saoldie i3iivetj NJ Prelttice Haii BLiTif1fli k L 2002 iquotils39irc39I 39i e cicir39 Leeaei 20 see see to iCi iquoti i A1e3t3ncit ia VA 1 saeciatiettt39etquot Supervieicin and Currieialuro DeVEi0 r tquotiE3It L Calnpiaeii L Campbell B Dieiicitieen I 1999 iquotecrii7i1to cmai iecsieecng i 1quoti i L 39i i 39i ti iE39ijE9 E teiiigeicces 3rd ed Bosizen Allyn atidBacot1 Citoate J 8 iii Rakes T A 1998 Ieaoisasiiee vlirastic2 cetc39o2 i 32 sr39aagg tiae t quot 6iiit quotS FE 4 34 Bee1TiitquotigteIt EN Phi Delta Kappa i3ti11ce1 i01 iai FO1iiildEli3iZiI1 Coutirihe M J 8 Rapp A C 1999 1 rtc tis39i3o39ri39 Tee i139nieriquotciZ39iii39i if smo e 139its Ai iI i d39ilscc 3i litl tales Belmettt CA WadsW39iJ139i139t Fisher J B SCi1UII13k E I J B 8 Deshler D 139 1995 Searching fe1quotva1itiatedittl1taiVep1 ae tices A review of the 1iteratut39e F39oc2is cm E2cc39ect39ee39ie C iaIicis39ec 2398 4 i 2 Fseiberg H 3 5 Drieve1I A 2000 Um1ieisoi teechiisg scr39etegiafes Barri ed Bosten Aiiyn and Bacon I I39ieItci M as Bursuc1lt W D 1999 I39iciuaI39i39itgi st1criem39s iirii ic sc ec39i1ai 39i39ieeois A o itrci ilitir1iiilcie foe cioesmom iiecirieers 2nd ed Bes139eI39i Aliytt and Bacon Gardner H 1997 i39Ei tittiquoteoe c i939ra gr i fidS New York Basic Books Iiiieheecliz 3 Meyer A Rose 13 diiv Jacilts0It R 2002 Previtiing new access to the genera ewe Ificuium Eiictivereai Design for Lea39rnir39ig TEACHING Etce33iioricii E39iinl d39re39ri 2 8 i39 CIHAPTER THREE BASES PRINCEPLES AND PFlACTCE OF ENCLUSEVE ENSTBLFCTION 51 Jacobsen P E 82 Kanciia1lt D 1999 llfrith ds for teccizii39tg39 P 0i it0 ttg strident teernirtg 5th ed Upper Saddle River NJ MerrillPrentice Hall Johnson D W 8 Johnson R T 1999 Learnirig togctlie39r and atone Cooperative competi tive said inrfisid39aal ienrning iitii ed Boston Allyn and Bacon Joyce B R 32 Well M 2000 iiltiodei3 ofquot teeciti39rtg 6th ed Boston Allyn and Bacon KaIne enui E J Carnine D W Dixon R 0 Sinimons D C dz Coyne M D 2002 E ectilee tertcirirtg strdiLegiTe9 that accovnmodate di39ierse learners 2nd ed Zipper Saddle River NJ lVle139rillfl3rentice Hall Kauchak 139 B 82 Eggen P i 2003 Lectrm1ng and i39edclr2Zrtg39 Resecrcitbesed rrietltods ith ed Boston Allyn and Bacon Kosteinik M Sodernian A l 8 Wliiren A P 1999 Deoetopmentttity appropriate can 39J iC ttltt1Vt39 Best practices in early clitiditood cdaco39tion 2nd ed Upper Saddle River lIi M I I39lliPI E ltl2e Hall Lewis R 8 2 Doorlag D H 2003 iilczttriinlng special students in gienera 1 edaccttton class roorns 6th ed Upper Saddle River NJ lrentice Hall Marchandiviartella N Slocnrn T iii li iaJtei1a R 2004 Icetrcdactiloa to direct iartraction Boston Allyn and Bacon lvlastropieri A S Scruggs T E 2000 The i39nctnsive etasrnorri39 Squottrategies for effective ilnstractvlon fipper Saddle River NJ Prentice Hall Roblyer D 2008 l ntegrating edacatilonai teciinology into teaching 3rd ed Upper Sad die River NJ l3rentice Hall Rose D EL 8 Meyer A vviti1Strang nian iI S Rappolt G 2002 L39l3achi39ng cnerfy student in ice digital ctee Unteerzsei Desngn for Learning Alexandria VA Association for Super vision and Cnrriculoni Developrnent Sapon Shevin M 1999 Because we can clzange the inortrik A prdcticot guide to Entiidingr co opereiine incttnsine ctassroont C0E i t tt iJi S Boston Allyn and Bacon Slavin it E 1995 Cropenttive ctn39ning Tlteorjy researcfi and practice 2nd ed Boston Allyn and Bacon Swiniarski L 13 63 Breitborde 2003 Educating the global village Inclnritng the child in the world 2nd ed Upper Saddle River NJ Prentice Hall Tornbari M 8 Boricli G 1999 r mtizentic assessrnent in this ciassroorn App I1cat39ions and practices Upper Saddle River iil ivlerriilil3rentice Hall Tornlinson C A i999 The difer39eittiated c cssroo39rn39 Responding to the needs ofatl learn ere Alexandria VA association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Zerneinian 8 Daniels 3 dz liyde A 1999 Best prrrcttce New standei39dsfIr teacitirig and iedrning in Anterica 9 sciioois 2nd ed Portsinouth NH lleinen391ann I REFLECWGNS QM PART GNE i As outlined in Chapter 1 the Regular Education initiative calls for general educa tion to assume greater responsibility for the education of special students After discussing the implications of this stance vvitli at least three teachers of regular and special classes Slll lii39l391E31quotlZ your position on the issue Inclusive instruction for special students in the general education classroom is brie y discussed in Chapter i Based on that discussion and on your own eperi ences evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of inclusion from the perspec tive of each of the following a Students with rniid disabilities b Students with severe disabilities 1 Students without disabilities cl Students who are academically gifted e Parents of students a d 2 General education classroom teachers a Special education teachers ii School adrninistrators Second Edition G moo Camooo Boo mok oooo Aiiyn and Bacon Boston London Tomnto Sydney To kyo Singapore APPREGMENQ Q FFEREN E S V Ft3 p x V Pmm iii iris 9 E 2 5 tr ti W 23 X 5 lt 932 1quot 2 PuW W Henry David Thoreau once said If a man does not lteep pace vvith his cornpanions per haps it is because he hears a different drummer Let l1im step to the music which he hears how ever measured or far away The diversity that Thoreau refers to has fascinated psychologists for centuries Hippocrates delineated tnelan cholic sanguine choleric and phlegrnatic per sonality types At the beginning of the twentieth century the psychologist Carl jung described varying preferences among individuals for per ceiving the world through sensing or intuit ing and making decisions based upon feeling or thinlltingi Terms for understanding hurnan differences in learning have been variously described as psychological types personality types cognitive styles and learning styles Since the 19705 educators have been interested in the classroom applications of learning styles Learning styles refers to individual differences in the way information is perceived processed and communicated To help students develop the ability to appreciatedifferences it is important both to model the behaviors and to use strategies that articulate learning style concepts While dis cerning individual differences it is quotalso crucial to emphasize to students the neutrality of variations in style One s habits or traits are not better than anyone else s they are simply different Some ideas follow about introducing students to style concepts 39iEA lilNQ 39W Eli39lS n lli lEnRlvilN STYLES t There are a variety of perceptuai activities and puzzles that help students understand differ ences in style One is a simple word associa tion The teacher says words like orange E 74 Chapter Six shell play or table Students jot down 3 word or phrase that comes to mind and then compare their responses with those around thern Students quickly notice the differences and a discussion can ensue about individual perceptions There are many optical illusions and visual perception tasks that illustrate the same point such as the familiar design with the vases and the faces vvhich can be found in many books of optical illusions There are also sentences vvritten with an extra vvord such as Paris in the the springtime When this is read quickly I the extra the is usually ignored Students can be offered a puzzle to solve or a logic problem that is brief and developrnental ly appropriate Ask students to observe the 9 process they use to problem solve rather than focusing on a single coriect response By comparing their problenmsolving strategies students can recognize significant differences in how people address the same task Students might discuss issues that are perti nent to their ovvn lives such as favorite music learning to ride a bicycle playing video garnes or other pastimes When asked to tell why certain activities are enjoyable students come to realize that individual preferences are unique rather than right or vvrong When students finish a project it is useful to discuss how they went about doing the assign ment Questions might include How did you begin How did you malre that decision What did you do when you ran into the chal lenge if you were doing this again would you do anything differently Which parts vvere ha139di Which were easy Discussing such questions in small groups can emphasize that people learn in different vvays There are also opportunities to capture the reachable rnornent when a child describes how he accomplishes a task For example one student may learn to ride a bicycle with train ing wheels raising them gradually until he is no longer dependent on the wheels Another might learn to ride a bike by spending all day Saturday practicing on the street in front of her home with many falls and scrapes on her ltnees until success is achieved Students who play musical instruments will find when they discuss how they practice a variety of individ ual differences and yet the final quality of their vvo I39l may not vary significantly s Many teachers administer inventories and tests so that students can identify patterns in their own learning as well as forrnai activities which describe the applications of those patterns Perhaps most irnportantly teachers must model an appreciation for individual differences in their behaviors throughout the school day Every student can be expected to develop the same sltills and gain the same competencew learning to read for example knowing how to multiply fractions spelling words correctly or understanding the historical significance of events yet teachers must be responsive to the fact that not all students learn and develop corn petencies in the same way Educators who rnodei that distinction who maintain high expectations for all students while appreciating and celebrating the diversity of ways students learn will teach more through their behavior than through strategies p Pi NE iii HE FEREPEUWE Our perceptions of others and of different situations stem from our life experiences value systems assumptions and expectations While it is easy enough to state that everyone perceives the world differently such a concept is difficult to internalize Repeated and ongoing effort is needed to see the world through the eyes of oth ers and to understand situations from diverse points of view In an increasingly complex world students may need to develop what Steven Lamy a foremost American global edu cator calls intellectual pluralism intellectual pluralism is the capacity to analyze or evaluate different or opposing perspectives The preceding section Appreciating Differences introduces students to the concept that people approach learning differently The following activities ask students to consider multiple perspectives in their interactions with others The strategies include acknowledging perceptions of others understanding diverse points of view reflecting on current events from several perspectives considering global implica tions and learning to think systemically by con sidering the impact of human action on natural and humanmade systems The first strategy focuses on students and their perceptions of each other WEW ARE WE Students are usuaily surprised to learn that others often perceive us differently from the way we perceive ourselves The following activity introduces children to the concept of multiple perspectives by exploring the discrepancies between sel perception and the perceptions of fellow classmates I Undersnsrrrdirrg One Another E7 3
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