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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Garett Kovacek on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 2053 at Florida State University taught by David Lind in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/205520/phy-2053-florida-state-university in Physics 2 at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
a my oKihematic Theory of PHY 2053C College Physics A man Motion Forces Energy Heat Wave Idea GasLaWPVnR Um We so far we have macmsmac 1n orde tempe microsc depends 0a the Know of m nd ead Tempermm Heat 12 nermdynmiex Introd uction the subjecm need to md opical y 1 s o r no study rature ard lhermodyn erstznd What happens I ofheal amics 34 bu dmg mocks of matter are the atoms of I h 1 t the matter The chemwm e emenm molecu es otthe c ermca compounds and crystalline sonds 35M The oonectundersmndng of these SUDJeCB mm edge of the mi croslruclure atomic theory of the 3 1193 a o a 00 900 Democ tos rftoverysmaH Atomic Theory of Matter 1111 atoms ide mm A N Ne quotquot z 15 chem ZN u ofa ntical zProto ons a w e eme 15 mass num IAmrmc Mass 2w lu ere 1u166gtlt 1o Z7Kg um Mum 1 mole oomzms 1 N mom 1 mm 1 mole weghs e 9 49 He 1 bet nt number here ere 4 5022x1023 atoms 9 A grams mole here 4U 1mm rm gt H iQuestion Atoms Bro nian Motion Alo meory Emperamre ls connected to unordered random motion ofamms and molecules y 1 omenanon Thermal Equlibrium Brlng hot and cold objecB m oorllzct and lhey WlH evenmally equalize lhelr temperamres Temperature Scales Temperature was measured long before peope u ersmo Townian motion Hlstorlc LINE are arbltral39v rm ei lwestTemp mat ermer O F hlsbodyTem 100 Celsius scale centlgrade Water lreezlng temp 0 C 32 Water bollll39vg Emp 100 C 212 F Absolute T es e an mg Temp Thermal Expansion Most substanc p d wrtn ncreasr 77795l 4 7 arms armylevel We W te A u wnere a s a materta constant typwca va ues around 20 c mass u 9x 105 cc Nummum u 25x 105 cc Water 10 X 105 0 n1 How W0 T hermometers Ir Most materta s ex and We nrgner Temperature can be used to measue temperamre a Liquidrinrgass thermometer hqmd n resever Expands by a few the Eve vanes b Gas thermometer dea gas aw P RT c bi smelallic striprtherm twe Nina s wrtn dr erent Expanswm39V39 pmpetres bend wrtn tempeemre d mermocoupte erem vnhage A re mtan urempeem Ideal Gas Law Pressure quotVo um 7 no mo es quotR Temp 315 Jmd Ke w v unversaw gas oonstant39 o 0521 L atmmo K absolute Temperature K 5 used absolute max pressure 5 used a 7quot We above the hquencanon pomt e us e pV Pv PZVZ constant on 2rd n amstart Boyle39s law PT PW PZTZ constant 0N arunrmstart Gaviussac law K1 9 cGa Theory AtomsMdem es bomce of he walls d atomsmolecul es bounce 39 per surface area umes thew average momentum Many many atoms are m the av around you a you feel no bouncing but constant pressue Temperature 5 re ated to average kin energy Kinetic Gas Theory Tem erature unordered random monori of atoms de average kinetic energy of one atom imol ecule temperatu where 3138 X 1023 JK e atomsmdemies have a wide range of different speeds caiied ihe Maxwell distribution Notice H1 is dismbu o is dependent on temperature wrangle Speed of Molecules What5 the S eed UfaFMDECLES fa an 0 ar24 c r iaain lli 29m5 iAin zu i i Ideal Gase Temperature dIntemal Energy Lets rstiook aggas ofsinge amms He Ar Kr Here the kinetic energxis the oriy energy an amm can have Where kr 35 X 1023 JK The total internal energy u in mi as is number ofamms nines Ki e c energy per atom 3Nk T 3 nRT a Heat transferred increases internai Energy iQues ons Examyle Heat capacity Helium e Forme smgx atom gashke Helium How manymews 1kg Mass number 4 merefore 4g of He 5 one mole 250 mdes a250m0 8 57r1 K 311ampJ Molecular Gases Internal Energy amp Degrees ofFreedam a foerentmatema s have dfferentformsof l na energy C degreesoffreedom e KE mm In addnontolin ar 9 molecues may have rolalional KE molecues may have elastic Polenn39al E U We PTE J 3 2 1 quot 7 IgTEk TEk T 4 The more degees of freedom me hlgwer me speci c heat capacity Real Gases Condensation Water and Vapor Raise PressureYlower Temp gt condensation gas to liquid gas and liquid ooexist vapor until all is converted riginally heat was thought to be a separate 1 Heat 0 quantity connected to Temperature Heat is energy Mechanical energy can become heat through friction Q Ts KE amLA ml i s mbol 39 y Q n Vciglu 1 unit 1 1Joule unit 1 cal Heat required to is r 39 Water Temp 1 C i r E 1 nal 1 Calorie as used r food Jame pmmmuue 19131999 i erature showed that you can raise temp by mechanical work Speci c Heat demo melting races Fe Pb A Different materials require different amount of Q to 3amp change their temperature The difference is called Speci c Heat 0 the amount of Heat required 1 kg ofgiven material by 1 C to raise the temperature of positive Q heals upquot negative Q cools down Several examples cwmer 4186 JK kg cI 450 JK kg cE 900 JK kg calm 840 JK kg c 1700 JK kg c 128 JK kg Protein H W 1 Heat 5 transfer of ene 50 Q2 Q 12 M raw gt u eat and Temperature Heatwm ow from higher to lower Emperamr 1 se 12 me 12 MM ower T TTzand Heat stops 391 Heat 5 me change ome imema rgv and energv s conserved omng energy UH Heat T g hermal conduc we The rate ofheat ow s proper conductivity ofme mamma s severa examp es k and Temperature vity a c k 2 Js m cgt km 200 Js m quot0 kms 34 Js m T km 40 Js m quot0 km 0 010 Js m c uona to me thermal g Que tion Stay tuned Wednesday MiniExam8 chapters 13 day Monday Chapter 14 cmt More Ca orimetrv Heat Exchange PHY2054c
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