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Date Created: 08/25/14
Air and Air Pollution Miners Canaries and Air Pollution Nineteenth century miners and canaries Take into mines Canaries stop singing and die bad air contaminated with poisonous sulfur gases iesulfur dioxide sulfur trioxide Leave mines Lichens Lichens fungus and algae mutualism Fungus absorbs moisture secretes acids to keep attached to the substrate and dissolves rocks to obtain minerals The algae carries out photosynthesis 20000 species of lichen Can live anywhere rocks trees soil buildings etc Some lichens live for 4000 years In areas with non polluted air Good air pollution detectors they absorb air as part of their nourishments in photosynthesis They can replace 100000 air pollution monitoring stations Certain lichens are sensitive to specific air pollutants Old man s beard Usnea trichodeas and yellow Everia lichens sicken and Q in the presence of too much sulfur dioxide Isle Royale in Lake Superior has no cars or smokestacks but lichen were dying Lichens were used to discover S02 pollution Pinpointed the source coal factories in northern Thunder Bay Canada Healthy lichen in Germany s black forest got French coal factories off the hook and found the true culprit nitrogen oxides from car exhaust Chernobyl 1986 Northem Scandinavia Saami people feed on reindeer which feed on lichen Lichens were contaminated with radioactivity 70000 reindeer had to be killed Lichens helped scientists analyze which region s reindeer were okay to eat Atmosphere Troposphere Extends 8 to 11 miles above the Earth Composition 78 N2 gas 21 02 gas 1 Ar CO2 032 H20 vapor 0001 Global processes in atm Greenhouse effect traps heat in the atm in the troposphere Heat trapping chemicals We add to the atm can enhance the natural greenhouse effect and lead to global Warming Ozone shield in the stratosphere lters most of the sun s UV rays Air pollution Primary Pollutants As clean air moves across the troposphere it collects products from natural events dust storms and volcanoes and human activities emissions from cars and smokestacks Secondary Pollutantsprimary pollutants reacting with one another to create new pollutants Primary Pollutants C0 C02 SO2 NO NO2 most hydrocarbons CH compounds such as fossil fuels oils gasoline39s most suspended particles Secondary PollutantsSO3 HNO3 H2SO4 H202 O3 PANs peroxyacyl nitrates most NO3 and SO42 salts Air pollution has increased significantly since the Industrial revolution Today most pollutants are from various plants or factories and motor vehicles In carclogged cities such as LA Bangkok Rome Mexico City motor vehicles are responsible for 8088 of air pollution According to the World Health Organization 11 billion people one in five live in urban area Where there is unhealthy air to breath Urban area and cities usually have higher pollution but prevailing winds can spread long lived primary and secondary pollutants to rural areas Mai or Air Pollutants 1 Carbon oxides Carbon monoxide CO and carbon dioxide CO2 Colorless odorless gas that is toxic to humans CO cont Produced from transportation incomplete combustion and agricultural burning Causes minor problems such as headaches to major problems death 2 Sulfur oxides Sulfur dioxide S02 and sulfur trioxide SO3 Colorless odorless gas Can be converted into SO42 Produced from burning fossil fuels mostly coal and various industrial processes such as petroleum refining the production of paper cement and aluminum Causes corrosion of plants and metals injury or death to animals and plants 3Nitrogen oxides Nitric oxide NO and nitrogen dioxide N02 N02 is a visible yellow brown to reddish brown gas Can easily be converted to NO32 Within water particulates impairs visibility Can be converted into NO a major part of acid rain and smog Produced from automobiles and power plants Can produce irritation of nose throat eyes and lungs More susceptible to viral infections 4Volatile organic compounds Methane CH4 propane C3Hg benzene C6H6 chloro uorohydrocarbons CFCs Can be converted to harmful compounds through chemical reactions Produced by automobiles and gasoline in the environment 395 Suspended particulates Solid particulates dust soot asbestos lead nitrate and sulfate salts heavy metals liquid droplets sulfuric acid PCBdioxinspesticides Produced by industrial processes and buming fossil fuels Fine particles less than 25 um are of particular importance They can be inhaled into lung tissue Pollen is l0l00um Accounts for 60000 deaths per year in the US 6 Photochemical oxidants Ozone peroxyacyl PANs hydrogen peroxide H202 aldehydes Produced by autos fossil fuel burning and industrial processes Can cause damage to plants and animals such as eyes and respiratory damage and materials such as rubber paint and textiles 397 Radioactive substances Radon 222 Iodinel3lStrontium 90 Plutonium239 Can cause cancer and mutations in the DNA of living organisms 398 Toxic compounds Trace amounts of at least 600 toxic substances many are volatile organic compounds 60 are known to cause cancer in animals Smo s 1 Photochemical smog air pollution with a mixture of primary and secondary air pollutants formed under the in uence of sunlight Photochemical smog NOX CH gt 100 secondary pollutants Produced by primary pollutants N0X from motor vehicles and volatile hydrocarbons to produce more than 100 secondary pollutants including ozone aldehydes PANs HNO3 Photochemical smog 391 N2 O2 2N0 2 2NO 02 gt2 NO2 brown smog 393 N02 H2 gt 2HNO3 NO and N02 UV light gtNO o 4 02 O gt 03 5 02 N02 gt PANs Industrial Smog Industrial smog Gray air smog Cities that use large amounts of coal and heavy oils in heaters and power plants Mostly in developing countries Developed countries have smokestacks Industrial smog oC 02 CO2 2C 02 gt 2C0 S 02 gt S02 2S02 02 gtS03 S03 H20 gt H2S04 2NH3 H2S04 gtNH42S04 Global Warming Natural and human induced increase in the average global temperature of the atmosphere troposphere near the Earth s surface Gases in the atmosphere absorb some of the energy and heat being re ected back towards space They act similarly to a greenhouse Greenhouse Gases Anthropogenic human induced greenhouse gases C02 CFC methane nitrous oxide and ozone All have increased significantly in the last 100 years Natural Cycling Each year 200 billion metric tons of carbon cycle naturally due to biological and physical processes Water vaporproduces 85 of our total greenhouse warming but it is not increasing due to human activities Anthropogenic Sources 1 Buming of fossil fuelsadds 54 billion metric tons per year of C02 and other C gases 2 deforestationadds 16 billion metric tons per year of C02 Greenhouse gases in detail LM pg 1516 and textbook page 450 table 211 CFC CH4 O3 N20 C02 Controversy over Global warming There is no controversy over the greenhouse effect occurring The controversy is whether global warming is natural or human induced Scientists do know that anthropogenic processes have increased emissions of greenhouse gases Over the last 160000 years there is a correlation between the concentration of CO2 in the atm and the global temp increase or decrease Textbook pg 453 Climate change Last million years the global temp has gone through periods of T and L temperatures Durin warmer times inter lacial eriods have occurred Durin colder times lacial eriods ice a es are g g P g g P g occurring Currently We could be at the end of an ice age or at the end of an interglacial period
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