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GEOL 101 week 4 notes

by: Jessica_Kline

GEOL 101 week 4 notes GEOL 101-01

Marketplace > Ball State University > Science > GEOL 101-01 > GEOL 101 week 4 notes
GPA 3.78
Planet Earth's geological environment
Kirsten N. Nicholson

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About this Document

A lot about igneous rocks and volcanoes.
Planet Earth's geological environment
Kirsten N. Nicholson
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 101-01 at Ball State University taught by Kirsten N. Nicholson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Planet Earth's geological environment in Science at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 09/17/15
GEOL 101 Week 4 0914 amp 0916 Igneous Rocks rocks formed from solidifying meltslavamagma I Extrusive igneous rocks rocks formed at or above the earth s surface lava a Pyroclastic ows VERY thick dust particles that stay close to the side of a volcano b Pyroclastic falls ash that rises up out of a volcano and falls back to earth c Different types of extrusive rock 1 Basalt very mafic has lots of Ma and Fe lt50 SiOz scoria is basalt that has air bubbles volatiles inside of it pillow basalts when liquid basalt is dropped into water it makes a rounded pillow shape 2 Andesite intermediater mafic 5060 SiOz 3 Dacite intermediately mafic 6070 SiOz 4 Rhyolite felsic feldspar and Si gt7 0 SiOz pumice is rhyolite that has air bubbles volatiles inside of it 11 Intrusive igneous rocks rocks formed under the earth s surface and pushed upward magma a Magma has enough space inbetween its bonds with a low enough pressure to allow volatiles in which make it melt to form the magma b Different types of intrusive rock 1 Gabbro same makeup as basalt but coarse grained 2 Diorite same makeup as andesite but coarse grained 3 Granodiorite same makeup as dacite but coarse grained 4 Granite same makeup as rhyolite but coarse grained c Dikes are rocks that cut through strata other rock layers 1 Breccia is where one rock breaks another rock into pieces many times through a dike growing through a layer of rock d Sills are rocks that grow parallel to strata 1 Law of cutting relationships rocks that cut through other rock dikes and sills are always younger than the rocks that they are cutting through 111 Other important things a The longer a rock takes to cool the larger the crystals can be intrusive rocks typically have bigger crystals b Phenocrysts crystals that are more than the rock matrix 1 Groundmass a rock that has an unidenti able speci c type of crystals 2 Porphyry a rock with phenocrysts c J ointing this caused cooling cracks to form when a liquid cools it shrinks causing it to crack IV Volcanoes a About 80 of the world s volcanoes are found in the Ring of Fire Paci c Plate because it is moving so much almost rotating b Magmatic differentiation is the process of magma changing its properties over time by crystallization assimilation and partial melting c Volcanoes are grouped based on the viscosity of their lava viscosity is how thick something is how much SiOz and temperature 1 2 Rhyolite lava is super thick like toothpaste and very unpredictable more dangerous Basalt lava is much thinner like water and much more predictable d There are several different types of volcano classi cations based on their shapes 1 Shield volcanoes are basaltic with very gently sloping sides usually between 3 and 5 degrees they take up the most landmass Cinder cones are basaltic with steeper sides anything that erupts out of them goes up and comes straight back down because there is so much gas in them Composite volcanoes are caused by subduction of a plate they are cone shaped with very step sides 3050 degrees typically andesitic lava Calderas has VERY think lava which makes the volcano hard to eXplode so when it does it will be a huge eXplosion they are mostly rhyolitic and have TONS of ash Lava tubes form when the outer layer of lava cools but the inside is still hot and owing through like a straw


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