Chemistry 100 CHEM 100 002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Archer on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 100 002 at Indiana State University taught by Jeeewandara in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Chemistry and Society in Chemistry at Indiana State University.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
( Valence electrons are the electrons in the outer orbit) Chemistry chapter 5 G.N. Lewis and Bonding Lewis theory fundamental ideas: o Valence electrons are the most important in chemical bonding o Two bond type: Ionic : valence electrons are transferred Covalent : valence electrons are shared o Bond formation results in formation of full outer Bohr orbits. Because this stable configuration typically involves eight electrons, this is commonly known as the OCTET rule o Noble gasses are already stable Lewis Structure Element symbol surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of valence electrons Ignore the inner or core electrons The order in which electrons (dots) are drawn and their exact location are not critical Octet and Duet Elements without an octet tend to react with other elements to form an octet, except hydrogen which reacts to form a duet Chemical bonding brings together elements in the correct ratios so that all of the atoms involved form an octet Ionic Lewis Structures Since ionic bonding involves the transfer of electrons from a metal to a nonmetal, the Lewis structure for an ionic compound involves moving dots. The metal becomes a cation and the nonmetal becomes an anion Ionic Lewis Structures The metal and the nonmetal each acquire a charge in the formation of an ionic bond We indicate the magnitude of the charges in the upper right corner of the symbol We enclose the anion in brackets Charges on anions and cations within an ionic formula sum to zero Covalent Lewis Structures Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons Covalent Lewis structures contain dots that count for the octet of more than one atom Multiple Bonds Sometimes multiple bonding pairs are necessary to complete the octets for each atom in the Lewis structure Two bonding pairs are called a double bond, three is a triple Ozone: Resonance Resonance in zone is the averaging for two identical Lewis structures The shape of molecules Molecular shape is an important factor in determining the properties of substances Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR theory) allows us to predict molecule shapes from their Lewis structures
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