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by: Garett Kovacek


Garett Kovacek
GPA 3.95


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Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Garett Kovacek on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHY 2054C at Florida State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see /class/205541/phy-2054c-florida-state-university in Physics 2 at Florida State University.




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Date Created: 09/17/15
it PHY 2054C College physicS Electricity Magnetism Light Optics 7 ch a D l e r WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT 24 Why do we care spectrometers poluroid sunglasses anti re ective coatings resolution in telescopes amp microscopes real world39 understanding of Interactions of light etc Inteiference amfdi raction sfits gratings t in ms noun WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT 24 H uy g EP I 39 w 0quot o The debate about the nature of light wave or particle The phenomena in geometric optics cannot clearly distinguish the two Difference in the propagation of particle and wave a particle travel in straight lines so it cannot get around obstacles a wave can get behind and around obstacles Huygens Principle Every point on a waveinn can be considered as I wurce raftiny wavelets that spread out in rhejbzward direction III16 xpeed uftite wave itself The new wavetom is the envelope 0ft the wave vms that is tangent to them HuygensePrimiplei the Law of and the Law of REfF39EE ti Qn 5 La 0139 Rufrnciinn Medium Medium 2 171 lt 17 wimpy II39 n gt n ru bends Inward the normal it follows from the liu3guns principle lhnl v lt i upposile In the prediction by particle theor of Newmn n a medium with refractive index n lighl has speed v cm and mnelcnglh R Mn here c and L are the speed and wavelength of light in vacuum rL39specthciy The frequency of the light wave does not change in different media N urmnl Source lgidcm If Ii asses from a thinner to a denser medium n2gtn it is refracted toward the non Rc I lccicd my Air 11 Water ill Rafiacted my The waves in the denser medium are actually moving slower Mudinm Medium 2 n1 lt iil Question v 0 iii Grmi mm chum Red smiiim r 7 7 7 r i i WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT 24 Dispersion and the Visible Spectrum Fur ilin same medium he index nf refraction is diffcrciii for lighl of Iiffcrcnl lrcquu ix larger for liglll ur iiiaiiii Il39qllt cy lien a beam of him Ilglll mu 3 prism ii scparnlos imo HIE visible spcclrum bemuse oi lIL39 lIif l L nl rclracliun imglcs fur different colors Scattering of Light by the Atmosphere opacnly or transparency of the atmosphere v visible light and radio are Ihe only large quotwindowsquot u UV blocked by ozone in upper atmosphere and H by water in lower atmosphere hip ms uunmm mum imamnu Hamil menm Gunm um mm m I kmmm wan lieuinland Blue Skies 5 Beautiful Sunsets What makes th m so Blue Skies Nitrogen and small particulates scatter mostly blue light in all directions across the sky but leaves the redder light largely unaffected Beautiful Sunsets Blue light is removed as it travels a long distance through the atmosphere When the Sun is low in the sky and less bright we see the residual red light that comes straight at us WAVE NATURE 0quot LlGll39l39 2A Huygen s Principle and Diffraction Singl Slit Huygens Principle Evelwpoinl an I n m q am can be comideryd m L wmrro nfriny u39uw39lvls Ilmr qn mz am in Illnhrn39unl zlirm39limt ul I w 39m391zg39Ilzc wave 17er TIL new nuvqi39nm ix he envelope ofull the u ure 39nmxi than is tangent In Ilwm ulli mm c 39l hc humli u ul39wuvcs behind ubxmcles inn 1 udnw region is known us diffracnon m m m l Question InterfereneerYBunbgi wtiI HSIit Diffraction Wlwn gm passes through two clnscly spnccd mm sliu particle lllcm39 predicts im hrigln lines aquot the screw and wave lhcnry pmiim i wriux m Ivi39iglll iiucs nnm illicrl39urencu up Vmwing m wquot Double Slit Diffraction Grating Measure A Condition for constructive interference Path length difference between rays must be BJNhOIeianeI 39739 I Aldsin9 d 9917273 Inte rference f f b faetion A bright fringe al Ihe center Dark fringes occur at where D is he width ol lhc slil 39 39quot quot Important factor 6 Al Path length difference Broadest peaks e spacing D narrowest FIGURE 2440 inmmuym mu mu 1mquot palm or n unglc m i hm n 1 Jim imm 13 wt quotmum nynllhc mum iuniy irIgt wuic mchi Top half of sli destructively interferes with bottom half 6 1 uuus a uuuuu us may nunu a M H c1 Vum Interference Youn t fs Double Slit Diffraction Top slit constructively or destru Ively interferes with bottom slit nun tumlnmnr mm ulnlmmw mlnfrvrim i mmkmwn Imyiu Minimum Incr39ri m L I r u E1quot 4mm 5 A y 71 e 39 Strccu Screen 1 hi rm cum dislnnce Iranch by one my determines whullmr mm ls um uquot m 39 4 39 39umlrucllre incrrcrcncumnximum inlcnslly imam fringes Narrower peaks I39 39on Wr single slit pattern 6 spacing between d is bigger than D again the Important factor 6 Path length difference InterfeP fhctw E gbn Gratings I A large number of equally spaced slils are called 1 xli 39muion grnling 1ninm cunstruclh c interference occurs at FIG U R E 24 gt24 Inmmlv J 4 umxmn ur wcwxug mth u 1w pommn m w an m n um Same posmons as double slit peaks 6 same d spacing 917 mm A us PM a dill mcum wr of 5115 I m lu uml Hm pruk uc IHIIUWL I xul 1mm WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT 2A SpectrmetemandtSpectra Colllmnlmg Ixarl Smcllcscnpu 4r Spcuagvuph I causal E39A Kgmic Spectra 39 Caused by transitions between electron energy levels within individual atoms 39 Each spectrum is unique to the type of atom element present runmm mMMWIW 15 noun 2 a 1 Causirucliw inmlcicntz 1m Dmimclnr Inlnrlcmncr m nrw Sccuuu urn um mall of W cmg ul a odd mo in of at Thtktyie pmzmglh g diluent iiiHM medw Thin Films amp Interference O Ray 2 travels an cxlra dlslnncc llmn ray I of 2 The re ections can alsn introduce an extra phase shift at he inlerf cc if I n gt m ph l ii changed by M2 Z n lt n plum Is unchanged So Ihc mlle path difference can In Hymanmawengmma erference 17 mm mum w 2 quotYAquot where m 0 I 2 Franhofer diffration GUnE 147 Vuliul yp ilmqumn ununnvtmcnisi n n nm WM 1 M 1 n m nu l wn n hm Imlruminiiy II in dnpam wouid an m n W s mum on Mxi iPolarizat O 39 quot A l of Electromagnetic f quot quot Radiation n quot x n ugh nvc is pnlariml if um E cld DI Imam is along n paniculur 39 39 39 39 ulc uh ui n pulnrmr reduces mo Intensin ornn Ilnpolnrlzed light by 7 I112 direction of polarization can he changed using a polarizer am If 2 If cos 9 El I In cos2 6 Ilxnmpl ed polar FlGLIRE zan rnmu Nlnmlulmmplelclythmmnlc min Pnlnr vcr n mxu mimlr Huh hurlumnlh mm N no iigm pm Wilmlm icd liglu iigin mnnnr mus pnmn mm mu inr Polarization of Electromagnetic Radiation


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