SCIENCE HON SEM
SCIENCE HON SEM ISC 2937
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This 111 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kole Corwin on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISC 2937 at Florida State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see /class/205548/isc-2937-florida-state-university in Interdisciplinary Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Mutualism 2 October 2008 One minute review What is the difference between constitutive and induced plant defense How do you measure the cost of a defense to a plant Mutualism Definition A relationship between two species in which both participating species benefit 1 Symbiotic Nitrogen fixation bacteria 2 Mycorrhizae fungi 3 Pollination animals Most terrestrial plants are N limited FabaceaeLegumes bypass N limitation by establishing mutualism w N fixing bacte f 31 r y y ia Symbiotic Nitrogen fixation Terrestrial plants are limited by Nitrogen Nitrogen fixation by free living bacteria is limited by Carbon Oxygen Legume root nodule formation Flavenoids Wm nodth mu m mums Minna mm wannaquot mm mm mm mm mm Oldroyd amp Downie Nature 2004 Prob em Human ma nutrition Protein de ciency So ution P ant breeding corn wheat rice Crop rotation 1 Crops of the same vegetable or vegetables of the same family such as turnips and cabbage should not follow each other 2 Vegetables that feed near the surface like corn should follow deeprooting crops 3 Vines or leaf crops should follow root crops 4 Quickgrowing crops should follow those occupying the land all season Symbiotic and Saprophvtic Fungi A conic morel IVorchela conica Mycorrhizae Ectomycorrhizae Endomycorrhizae Forms a sheath outside the roots lVESlCUlaquot arbUSCUlar mVCDI39I39hlZael Chanterelles truf fles milk mushrooms unglrm mot comcal calls Increase surface area Selectively absorb phosphate and other minerals Seeds Agriculture gt Soils Plant benefit Animal benefit Why do we need pollinators Apple Almond Macademia nuts Pears Blueberries Vanilla Cacao Cucumbers Cantaloupe Alfalfa seeds Onion seeds produce pollen grains Which contain male gametes Ovules produce female gametes Seed production alfalfa clover Increase seed quality sun flower Fruit production and quality orchard fruits melons tomatoes Hybrid seeds sun flower Habitat Loss Crop spatial distribution floral diversity timing of flowering hedgerows 1938 Britain 30 decline Chemical fertilizers pesticides herbicides selective effects size Changes in Community Composition native and nonnative resource competition Landscapes and bee communities 1 U I P b Number of bee species I 0 10 20 30 40 organic land cover Fig 2 Effect of the organic land cover in landscape sectors with 500 m radius on the species richness of bees in 42 fallow strips adjacent to organic wheat fields triangles and solid line in and conventional wheat fields circles and dashed line Holzschuh Oikos 2007 California almond orchard fU LYFIUS A kmquan I pom pla m MUMmy mwrmtd wry 111 ml 171 mm mm39 quotminimal de um I quotMammyquot m1pr bum hm a my wmlbal 114m Primarily gum Cal 39lrnin ragebmtq umb nigh 1171le pndmlmum gum burth 1 lnlolmm39uneltglm nrnl 1 n mmI fl EWffD r A n39nfwm u rmudkum 7hptla 1m m nm gr m Ibrm39mprof hz m pImtx I grow m1 1 Lhtxrm 11 firman Sambamm 5mgquot ha 5 mmu um m m mm luv mi Pmt mm m mm m 774710 1m mm hm 7m mu tu wg anii bum n a Mam l mm bum wk mm mm mm bnlml m m and Ifm m e 141 qu m Akpmdmgmpvmiwwn quotpm quotmumquot l mm mm w 7 am Mm mmm n daznpmuuvbmzzlt Mmdopmmdm mg n wiw Mm mg Mum 5 m MW Food Webs Population Regulation 25 September 2008 Feedback from mid semester evaluation 9075 N 9 Speed of lecture Average 287 1 too fast 5too slow Need more explanation of scientific details extra reading would help Information content Average 3 1 too easy 5too hard Too much explanation of scientific details Bio 1 should be a pre req for this class Atmosphere in class Average 175 1comfortable 5intimidating Accessibility of instructors 475 1 not at all 5 very accessible Slides posted on web site 4 1 not useful 5useful Study questions on web site 38 1not useful 5useful 3 NAslll Work load 3375 1easy 5a lot of work GMO research took a lot of time Usefulness of Assignments 2625 1 productive 5waste of time make them more challenging discussion papers don t fuel discussions Note order of reading Expectations 281 1l understand 5 have no idea what these people want from me vague requirements mixed messages 10 General comments more about specific brands more specifics about farming practices One minute review 1 What is integrated pest management IPM 2 What are three of the main principles of an IPM program quotIntegrated Pest Management IPM is a coordinated decisionmaking and action process that uses the most appropriate pest control methods and strategy in an environmentally and economically sound manner to meet agency programmatic pest management objectives Principles of an IPM broqram 1Management actions should take advantage of factors that naturally suppress pests 2 Many species inhabit agroecosystems but only a few are pests 3 Each pest can be managed by two or more methods Management actions should take advantage of factors that naturally suppress pests f j Outline of Population Regulation lecture Population Growth ll Density dependence lll Density independence IV Economic thresholds V Pesticides Population dynamics time rNKNK dNdt Population Ecology What causes population fluctuations What governs the extentmagnitude of fluctuations What determines average abundance A couple key concepts stability equilibrium persistence DENSITY DEPENDENCE Definition Any factor influencing population regulation that has a greater impact as population density increases dN dtN time RESOURCE AVAILABILITY Escape In Time Constant availability Pulsed availability Truncated availability time Predation UGMNZHI Some herbivores can be controlled by natural enemies predators and parasitoids Indonesian Rice Detritivores amp Predators306 22315 4 19 TOTAL OF 765 SPECIES Silti 39 39 Settle et al 1996 187 24 DENSITY INDEPENDENCE Definition Any factor that limits population growth by the same percentage regardless of population density dN dtN time DENSITY INDEPENDENCE US Drought Monitor WWW mener n I DDAbnurmz y my m mm Madame r grasslands gt D2 Dmugm r Savera I D3 Drougmr Exlvsme H Hydm ugxcal WW I m Drougm ExBEmmnm m Dmugm Manuwfocuses on manurea canamnns Local commons may vary See ammpanymg ext summary brie3635151319706quot 2008 quotnanN A warm Released Thursday ugust DENSITY INDEPENDENCE DENSITY INDEPENDENCE What kinds of factors may be regulating this population 550 In EEIIIIII E ED Edna 5350 I 3300 E 2251 2m El 51D1520253035 Years Disease as a factor that limits crop production Is disease density dependent or density independent How does genetic uniformity influence the spread of disease Phytophthora infestans 18451847 IV Economic thresholds Economic Threshold ET level of damage or pest abundance that indicates a problem and allows time to take suppressive measures before the Economic Injury Level is reached also called action threshold Relationship between insect density and loss of yield Tomato herbivore density No edible tomatoes No per 100 plants harvested from 100 plants 0 500 1 500 5 IJ 500 10 i 475 20 450 40 375 Past Population Economic thresholds Ecunumic damage d39 Hiring ijnE EEGHmo THRESHOLD E CU NUMIC THLH E EHOLD Past Formulation Central pest l whean SIGDUIth i5 abme threshold Emil Eon39t control past threshslt timer reachch till l time Risk Assessment quotl was wondering what the mouse tra was forquot said Alice quotIt isn39t very likely there would be any mice on horse39s backquot quotNot very likely perhapsquot said the Knight quotbut ifthey do come I don39t choose to have them running all about You seequot he went on a er a pause quotit39s as well to be provided for everything that39s the reason the horse has all these anklets about his feetquot quotBut what are they forquot Alice asked in a tone of great cur39osity quotTo guard against the bite of sharksquot the Knight replied Through the Looking Glass by Lewis Carroll RiskBenefit Assessment How do we decide what acceptable risk is Ride planescars Climb mountains play sports Ingest pesticide contaminated food and drink Use medicines Smoke drink alcohol use legal or illegal drugs Vote V Pesticides AHistory of pesticides BHow do pesticides work A History of pesticides 1 First generation pesticides developed by Chinese and Greeks a Inorganic salts b Natural Products Arsenic Nicotine Sulfer Pyrethroids Hydrogen cyanide Rotenone Mercuric chloride Sodium flouride b Natural products Chemical Source Mode of action Mimics acetylcholine in neuromuscularjunctions uncontrolable contraction NiCOtine of muscles Pyrethroids Peperonyl blltOXId Synerglst Sesame OII smerglst Rotenone Uncouples phosphorylation robs organism of ATP Problem Broad spectrum they kill too wide of a variety of animals 2 Second Generation a Chlorinated hydrocarbons DDT dieldrin aldrin chlordane kepone Build up in the environment and can kill non target organisms like birds b Organophosphates Malathion Parathion Dichlorvos Tepp Mocap Abate Dursban Diazonon Break down faster than hydrocarbons Pesticides c Carbam ates baygon sevin Less toxic to us bc they disappear rapidly in environment and our body can break them down better They can still kill you Nerve poisons A Diagramatic Representation ofthe Insect Nervous System 97 aungmv M quot v 39 Kai39s a a th m A Subesophageal Thoracic Abdominal Ganglion Gang Ganglia Nicotine DD Organo phosphates Carbamates DDT effects action potential in sensory neurons Na activation Na inactivation 6 DDT blocks this K activation a Hormones Juvebione Juvenile hormone mimic Ecdysteroidsinappropriate molting a i Hill39l39lml cml Imiunquot 1 Precocenesmake you an adult too soon Disruption of metamorphosis kills the insect b Pheromones monitor insect populations mass trapping lure kill disruption vineyards Advantage Can be very species specific Disadvantage Can be difficult to synthesize and are not always cost effective Chemical Insecticides 5 main modes of action physical poisons protoplasmic poisons metabolic inhibitors nerve poisons molting inhibitors insect growth regulators 7 A a I 7 i any quot 5 I 7 m r q i u 4 39 bu a mix19 7 1quot The Ecology of Food ISC 2939 Please take out a piece of paper and write down the following Your name Any previous biology courses that you have taken andor noncourse experiences that you think might relate to this class doesn t have to be at FSU Your goals in taking this class ie why take this class what specifically do you want to get out of it One interesting thing about you a hobby interest where you are from what you did over the summer etc Instructors Dr Jessica Hines and Dr Nora Underwood Course web site NOT Blackboard httpbiofsuedununderwoodi502937O1lecoloqv200f20food20homepgqehtm orfind link on Underwood website under teaching httpbiofsuedununderwoodhomepggg What We Will Do In This Class or A Variety of Things for A Variety of Students Lectures to explain some science Reading and discussion to link the science to social and environmental issues Small projects Mystery Plants a debate analysis of your hair an energy budget Two exams to review lectures Field trip andor visiting speakers A semester long final project so you have a chance to address an issue of your choice in depth using a format that suits your interests and background Reading The Omnivore s Dilemma by Michael Pollan Final Project Semester long project exploring some aspect of the ecologyevolution of food Products at the end written component and presentation to the class Format Very flexible choose topic and approach that fit your interestsgoals We will ask you for an informal proposal in a couple of weeks so start thinking about this right away See website for detailed information Why this course at this time o What is agriculture anyway A little history What is happening now Agriculture A i The Glahal Extent 1 Agtlcu lture rms Wand r nlr PAGEJM Thu man I hand an Glnbal Land Comm Chamcln sucs Dalnhusa lenn L Lowland al II 12mm and LISGEBEDC 6952 Thu 192ml Imam on FADSTAT HEEL Original extent of everglades Current land use around everglades fertile aggriescent China I 39 Centres of origin 01 Dad pmduc nn The must productive agricuitural areas of the madam wa d Sun ower Jerusalem artichok 39 tobacco Avocado Beans acao Some chilies Corn Squash Tomato Vanilla co on Quinoa Sweet potato Watermelon Broad bean Horseradish Melon sugarcane World Fertilizer Use 19602004 wean 197D wean 1990 zunu 2010 World Grain Production Per Ton of Fertilizer Use 19 02 04 Compiled by Earth Policy lnsmule from IFA Worldwalch USDA lFA Worldwaich Tons Gram WEED 19m WEED WEBB mm mm Pesticide Use 19641991 om Agricunure n Mogvams b 8 m o c Peshmde use Fig 15 Tom and ugncunuwl Us 199 100W r Y V pesticide L153 1964 l 196455 68 7o 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 redruwnI mmAapclin clul 3 M Mac et a1 1998 Insecticides 3 LII hllq f tnal I 1411 m A 770 14111 I 211 w W 353533333 I Less than 2111 Insecticide Use Herbicides Herhlcltle Use I uronmwmu I 45390l9133900 I mm 451 I Lmumu 90 p puiatian amp C02 uncentratinn Ppm m 1100 years 1am 9 hil icm 20 1 E E E quot B E E 55 trilllinni 2007 I 6 EUD 2 g multinatiuna l corp n 393 439 informatisan age quotFEquot339 E 33 green revulution 2 52m industria revolutian enlightenment E I I I I I l I 3 1mm 152m 1mm 20m 21m CGZ cancentratinn Namquot Reviews cum 100 MILLKIN ACRES H mm 39 Organic quot 1 Cirar d lllTlg JI Rodale 18981971 ampml MIWLnE N T L EQEHELW CARSON The central problem of our U age hasbecome the 10744 contamination cf man s total envnronment With substances of incredible potential for harm I l e I 5quot 391 IL Rachel Carscn US Organic Food Sales in Billions of Dollars I9982006 Is r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r I Direct 390 V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V 7 I Natural Food Stores Supermarkets 5 0 I998 ZOOI 2003 9493 141 194 2005 1006 243 230 Percent of Total Food Sales r Small Farms VOTE a I GlamlFood H th a auv FRESH ngva quoth I BUY LOCAL Burial 139 an a m hrnlut 3 man njnivoreb Dilemma A Tum msrom J Faun MEALS MICHAEL POLLAN THE aonw 0F Dasms w NA TKONAL BESTSELLER E IN DEFENSE Namqem O F F O O D BESfSErliLJEl I 1LR lIlLIH MICHAEL POLLAN m2 ovaouE39s DILEMMA Announcements Reading for next few lectures to prepare for GMO debate is in The Botany of Desire We have scanned these chapters and posted them on the web so you can read them as PDFs or print them out Don t forget to check on your mystery plants September 18th will be the GMO Debate Teams assigned today 0 Southern SARE Sustainable Community Innovation Grant Proposals due October 1 httpwwwsouthernsareugaeducallpagehtm Projects that work to strengthen both agriculture and Southern communities by building explicit linkages between sustainable agriculture and community development Grants of up to 10000 0 Tuesday September 16th SLOW FOOD TALLAHASSEE Ice Cream Social 7pm Lichgate Property 1401 High Road Bring your own dinnerware favorite ice cream toppings and a localseasonal non desert dish to share 7 for nonmembers includes a donation to Lichgate and a small fee for ice cream supplies RSVP required Email Brooke secretarysftgmailcom GMO Debate September 18th PROS defending the use of genetically engineered crops transgenic crops CONs arguing against the use of genetically engineered crops Roles of Debaters 1 or 2 of each on each team Staters stating the position taken by the group Provers responsible for citing relevant research to back up any of the statements given by the staters Attackers responsible for probing the opposite team for weaknesses in their arguments Concluders responsible for summarizing after hearing from the other side and stating which points can be salvaged to support the team39s position Debate Teams Pros Ashley Carissa David Donna Edward Josh Cons Kevin Marcello Rosanna Susannah Taylor Study Question Sometimes mistakes occur during DNA replication Consider the two following types of mistakes For each one describe how the mRNA and protein made from the altered copy of DNA would differ from the mRNA and protein made from the original good copy Would the effect of the mistake depend on where the mistake occurs Which type of mistake is likely to have bigger consequences Mistake 1 One nitrogenous base is substituted for another For example a guanine might be put in where an adenine was supposed to go Mistake 2 One nitrogenous base is left out during replication For example a guanine might be left out DNA structure Genetic code RNA to amino acids u c A G n Hydmgenmm uuu Phe ucu uAu Tyr ueu cys U t 0H uuc ucc uAc uec 9 p4 U Ser UUA Le UCA uAA Stop UGA Slop A we use UAG Stop use Trp e CUU CCU CA quotI CGU U 8 cuc ccc cAc 39 cec c Leu Pro Arg Gun 00 CAAJGIH CGA A cue cce GAG cce G uu39 Acu AAu AGU u Asn Ser AUC Ile ACC Th AAC AGC C U ACA r AAA AGA A 39 Lys Arg AUG mu Ace AAG AGG G Guu ecu GAU ecu u Asp GUC v I GCC Al GAG GGC GI C GUA a GCA a GAA GIquot GGA y A A adenine sue ece GAG 666 G T thymine U uracil m wmpemzmmm mm mn mmmm G guanine g C cytosine Genes and how they work oDNA genes and chromosomes oGetting info from DNA to proteins to make traits transcription translation and the genetic code Genotype gt Phenotype Ernssim alamwn Selechon Selection Selection Selection Selection Selection for terminal for lateral for stem for leaves for stems for ower buds buds and owers clusters JG Cabbage Brussels Kohlrabi Kale Broccoli Cauli ower sprouts m n i S W m T Genes and how they work oDNA genes and chromosomes oGetting info from DNA to proteins to make traits transcription translation and the genetic code Genotype gt Phenotype Getting info from one organism to another inheritance There are different types of chromosomes each carrying different genes Each cell carries a two full sets one from mom and one from dad Each type of chromosome carries genes for different traits Toenail shape Hair color Chromosome 1 Chromosome 2 i Eye color Tongue rolling nd the two copies of each chromosome may carry the same or different versions of genes alleles for each trait red from mom Chromosome 1 brown from dad elmmmmmwn K New alleles arise through mutation Mutation change in number or sequence of nucleotides in DNA Stigma Pollen grain Pollen tube 2 sperm w Style Ovary OVUIe Polar nuclei Microper Egg Why doesn t the number of chromosomes double each generation organism gametes 2 sets C somes one set c somes Zygote fertilized egg 2 sets c somes organism gametes 2 sets C somes one set c somes Regular cell division c some replication and division Zygote fertilized egg 2 sets c somes Cell division to make gametes c some replication and TWO divisions gametes organism one set c somes 2 sets c somes Fertilization Regular cell division fusing two cells with one c some replication of each chromosome type and division Zygote fertilized egg 2 sets c somes Useful jargon Diploid having two full sets of chromosomes Haploid having one full set of chromosomes Genes and how they work oDNA genes and chromosomes oGetting info from DNA to proteins to make traits transcription translation and the genetic code Genotype gt Phenotype Getting info from one organism to another inheritance red from mom b allele Chromosome 1 gene for hair color Chromosome 1 brown from dad B allele elmmwmmw Flower color in peas P for purple flowers P for White fIOWerS F OSSibIe genotypes Possible phenotypes PP homozygous Purple flowers Pp heterozygous White flowers pp homozygous Dominant allele expressed in phenotype when homo or heterozygous capital letter Recessive allele expressed in phenotype only when homozygous lower case letter Gameles Gameles Offspring F1 quot Gameles Offspring F1 quot l if an x L n WW aw PP Gam eles Gametes from parent 1 Gametes from parent 2 PP pp an an n g K f1amp 1 x 7 6 50 an Em U a 4 w s 4 x 2 x x a
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