WEBMulticult Film HUM 3321
Popular in Course
Popular in Humanities
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Magnus Schuster on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HUM 3321 at Florida State University taught by Paul Cook in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/205569/hum-3321-florida-state-university in Humanities at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Emphases American Multiculturalism Movies as course quottextsquot Definitions Multicultural A society in which more than one cultural group is present distinctive cultural identity of each group is maintained Race Major groupings of humanity usually according to physical features or common ethnic background Class A division order or ranking of society according to status In the United States usually based on economics Gender The sex ofa human being often used to emphasize cultural distinctions between sexes Sexuality A person s sexual identity in relation to the gender to which he or she is typically attracted A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Race Class Gender and Sexuality Lynn Weber 39239 Six Themes Common to Race Class Gender and Sexuality Contextual Cultural hierarchies are not fixed they depend on particular contexts Socially constructed As a group struggles over socially valued resources the dominant culture defines categories eg race class gender sexuality Systems of power relationships One group exerts control over others securing its position of dominance Social structural macro and social psychological micro Cultural divisions involve large groups and individuals Minority cultures should be viewed through their own lens rather than the controlling images of the dominant culture Simultaneously expressed To some degree systems of social hierarchies are all operative in every social situation Nearly everyone occupies both dominant and subordinate positions in relation to others Interdependence of knowledge and activism Our understanding of race class gender and sexuality is interdependently linked with our activism Stuart Hall quotRepresentation Meaning and Language Meaning is not inherently located in language Society formulates a conceptual map that assigns certain things to language Louis Althusser quotIdeology and Ideological State Apparatuses Distinction between Repressive State Apparatus RSA and Ideological State Apparatus ISA RSA functions by violence ISA functions by ideology James Lull quotHegemonyquot quotHegemony is the power or dominance that one social group holds over others quotSocial consent can be a more effective means of control than coercion or force quotIts effectiveness depends on subordinated peoples accepting the dominant ideology as normal reality or mmon sense David Blakesley quotSophistry Magic andThe UsuaSuspects Rhetoric the ability to persuade Judith Andre Stereotypes What is a stereotype Inflexible belief Broad categories rather than full picture of reality Implies stereotyped behavior is inevitable Are Positive Stereotypes Bad Protect selfesteem of the majority Potential falsehood is often linked with other beliefs we hold All stereotypes prevent access to the truth Benedict Anderson quotIntrod uctionquot What is a nation Imagined Limited Sovereign Andrew Moss quotSchizophrenia and Postmodernism Coen brothers films eg Raising Arizona require a different approach from viewers Challenges to quotmodernistquot viewings quotSchizophrenia and Postmodernism Violation of conventions forces viewers to process films differently Example Retrospective Dream Effect s FI m Nolr quotBlack film American style 19411958 Name given by French critics after WWII Noir Lowkey lighting Dark subject matter Unsettling mood Characteristics Toughguy protagonists seductive femmesfataes Storylines crime corruption etc Themes alienated individual futility oflife The Noir Style Conventions Heavy shadows Low lighting Extreme juxtaposition between shots Flashbackstyle narration with voiceover Fastpaced dialogue Origins The end of American innocence and the American Dream Source material from crime fiction Corruption fastpaced dialogue Production Code Indirect alusive narrative style Noir Archetypes The antihero the Private Eye UninteIIectual but sharp wit The Spider WomanFemme FataIe The Nurturing Woman The Spider Woman quotDark Lady Refuses to be defined in relation to men Derives power from sexuality Film rarity active intelligent powerful women The Nurturing Woman Virgin mother innocent redeemer Functions primarily to comfort the man Often idealized Sometimes only a foil to contrast the dark woman Women in Film Noir Insecurity with women in power Threat of traditional familial norms Out to destroy men Women in relation to men Sexuality or lack of it is central General goal of women Independence Myth and Film Noir Popular culture is the quotmythquot of our society Myth by means of popular culture responds to changing needs of society Myth can also respond to repressed needs Horror The Monster Core issue What does it mean to be human Addressed by conflict Selfvs Other What makes us different What do horror films say about society The Musical Elevates basic narrative to a different register Alternates between quotrealquot narrative world and quotfantasyquot musical world Example quotGee Officer Krupke West Side Story 1961 Kinkade amp Katovich quotSociology of Cult Filmsquot Typical people in atypical situations Identification with subversive characters Challenge authority structures Reflect strains in society Multiple interpretations Don t dream it be it Cult films allow deviation but also engender conformity A ritualistic experience that is secular but religious in nature Mark Siegel quotMore than a Lip Service Stage play adapted for screen 1975 Viewers began to respond verbay to film Dressing up as characters Addition of props Rites of Passage Life as a series of transitions with quotritesquot at each stage Arts and sports replace religion Rocky Horror represents transition to new standards in society War and Cinema Breaking Rules Suspension of morality different set of rules quotwequot fight fair they do not Deviant narratives valuing the group over the individual Masculinity in War Films Oedipal battles Fatherfigure officers Conventional homoeroticism Homoeroticrelationships Female threats Overmasculinization Back at home Demasculinization Movies War Public Opinion Influence foragainst war Hollywood changes with public opinion Education in WWII Why we fight Vietnam first to portray war as senseless and wrong Race Ethnicity and War Films WWII films highlight democracy equality History tells different story Armed forces segregated until 1948 Internment ofJapanese Americans Doug Williams quotConcealment and Disclosure Birth ofa Nation 1915 D W Griffith Based on The Clansman novel by Thomas Dixon Duringafter Civil War Ideological histom Attributes the reunification of the US to the Ku Klux Klan Birth ofa Nation and WWI American reluctance quotRescuequot strategy Klan rescues South from Northern influence WWI involvement US rescues Europe Is the US obligated to quotrescuequot the world Film and the Vietnam War Different from others No battle lines ambiguous enemies are we winning Widespread public criticism Increased coverage Veterans portrayed as unstable Vietnam vs WW Movies Demythologized hero Bittersweet endings Senseless war Irreverent death Disunity of combat units 3609 battlefield Psychological tol Minorities as soldiers Transforming the Genre Resist the urge to portray war as something it s not Displacement Were we right to fight in Vietnam What is our obligation to the veterans of the war Keeping focus on war itself Born on the Fourth ofJuy Women s roles Masculinity Film editing Vietnam War 19641975 Cultural battles on the home front Civil rights movement Civil Rights Act 1964 Voting Rights Act 1965 Civil Rights Act 1968 Model for student protests Women s Liberation Movement A reexamination of traditional gender interaction What gender inequalities remained in the 1960s Betty Friedan NOW Oppression of women Cultural assumptions Marriage New Developments Reliable oral contraceptive 1960 Loretta Lynn quotThe Pillquot 1974 Legalization ofabortion 1973 Higher education Hollywood and Social Development Women portrayed as sexually liberated or aggressive True happiness found only in the home Youth in search of sex and cheap thrills Films avoided issues Race exposure quotsolvesquot the problem Counterculture Avoidance of issues Gradually catering to younger viewers Increase of quotexploitationquot films sex violence drugs disobedient youth Ratings system quot 39 39 39 becomes 39 39 39 topics move toward the fringe Lisa M AndersonquotRepresentation and Resistance Portrayal of black women in theatre and film Ad heres to stereotypes Antidote realism Show how black women really are The quotwoman warriorquot Black Female Stereotypes The Mammy Domestic servant jovial overweight loud Suggests ugliness from white male perspective Desexualizedquotsafequot Perpetuates myth obscures reality The Mulatto Biracial mixed race Lightskinned woman falls in love with white man racial background revealed Woman acts white but retained in social position Divisions based on society not skin color The Jezebel Sexually promiscuous seductive hypersexual Portrayed as the quotoppositequot of white women Blaxploitation films of early 1970s Stilldominatesculture The quotWarriorquot Woman A blending of civil rights and feminist movements In control of her life Strength beauty wisdom Racism depends on stereotypes stereotypes feed racism White quotliberalsquot often view blacks in only one way Suggestions Impossible to see color difference Portray people of color simply as they are more than mere stereotypes Portray anger if necessary Aaron Baker quotFrom He Got Gamequot Reinforcement of male roles in sports films Women in sports movies Both challenge and support traditional roles Love and Basketball Challenges to traditional gender roles Reinforcement of traditional roles Portrayal of African Americans Any stereotypes Ka rl Marx quotDestructive Power of Money Money as mediator Humans are alienated from their activity Loss of human relationships Exchange is abstract not human We amount to that which we can buy Money negates our individuality McNamee amp Miller quotThe Meritocracy Mythquot American Dream limitless opportunity based on one s merit quotMeritocracy Mythquot The system distributes resources according to individual merit Those who have deserve it those who don t have deserve that Is there a middle class The large quotmiddlequot class does not control the middle part of America s income or net worth quotMeritquot assumes natural results bell curve but reality is different Suggestions toward Meritocracy Reduce or eliminate discrimination Philanthropic distribution of wealth to underprivileged Close tax gap between those at the top and those at the bottom Allocate government resources for equal access to critical services eg education health care hare of Total Available Household Income 2002 350 880 lTop Fifth lSecond Fifth IThird Fifth IFourth Fifth I Bottom Fifth hare of Total Available Household Net Worth 2001 280 I99100th Percentile I 9599th Percentile I 9095th Percentile I 50th90th Percentile I 050th Percentile Film School Generation New Wave 1950s French film directors Recognition of American film directors Film schools 1960s amp 1970s Informed movie watchers Young Directors Economic necessity gave opportunities to young directors Wide release markets Increased advertising Deliberate references to earlier directors Michael Omi Howard Winant quotRacial Formation Race and Color Susie Phipps 198283 Sued to change her race LA state law 132quotd quotnegro bloodquot black Lost suit How Do We Determine Race Race and physical features Race signifies social conflicts and interests by types of human bodies Why not eliminate all racial distinctions from society Racial Formation quotRacial projects applying racial dynamics to specific situations Macrolevel politics government Microlevel everyday life Our impressions about race are based on experience Race and Politics Enlightenment biological racial distinctions Inferiority of nonWhite races Race as social construct Racial formation by means of hegemony One segment of society dominates others Coercion and consent What is Racism Often depends on observer Whitescolorconsciousness Nonwhites power Racism creates or reproduces structures of domination Did You Know There is no single characteristic trait or gene that distinguishes all members of one quotracequot from another There are no human subspecies humans are among the most similar ofall species Most traits eg skin color eye shape etc are inherited independently of one another There is greater variation Within quotracesquot than between them Jack G Shaheen quotReel Bad Arabs Impact of negative stereotypes on public policy Villians Armed tribesmen Terrorists Potential rapists Schemers Sheikhs Maidens Egyptians Palestinians Tony Shalhoub Lebanese parents Played many quotgenerically ethnicquot roles often Italians American East 2007 ArabAmericans in post9ll LA Puts faces on ArabAmericans The Siege 1998 Perpetuation of stereotypes Challenges to stereotypes The Star System Critical element in film industry Sideindustry of celeb journalism Multiple personalities 0 Screen character Cumulative roles The quotactualquot Typecasting Construction of a persona Stars and culture Barbara J Risman quotGender as a Social Structure Social constraints Social choices Addressing gender inequality A personal or social problem person Complexity of real life Lisa Maria Hogeland quotFear of Feminism Assumption Young women generally resist feminism Ms Pac Man Gender consciousness selfawareness Feminist consciousness politicization of gender consciousness Fear of Consequences Lesbianism Limitation of future options Challenging norms Public exposure Complexity Unsafe This is What a Feminist Looks Like Sharon R Bird quotWelcome to the Men s Club l 39 men in 39 39 39 39 Homosocial nonsexual same gender Emotional detachment Competition Sexual objectification Cheshire Calhoun 39CenterIng Sexual Orientation Politics Heterosexism as distinct axis of oppression Feminism initially white middle class Heterosexism vs sexism Centering Sexual Orientation Politics Emphasize the effects of lesbiangay subordination Identify ideologies Two natural sexgender categories Lesbiangay sexuality is more excessive and compulsive Lesbiansgays are unfit for marriage and family Debra A Moddelmog quotCan a Romantic Comedy Be Gay Culmination romantic kiss surrounded by approving crowd Affirms heterosexual relationships Monogamous Affluent Predominantly white Trends in Romantic Comedies Inherently conservative hero amp heroine Nearly always white attractive affluent Would gaylesbian leads disrupt genre Often shown in smaller quotartquot theatres Trends Rare longterm samesex relationships Comic situations Ultimately tragic Nonsexual Always white SameSex Marriage Panic What are people afraid of Loss of straight privilege Changing social arrangements Religious convictions Fear of society quotgoing gay Citizenship39 who belongs in society Hollywood and the Cold War 1917 Bolsheviks in power 1919 American quotRed Scare quotRed Scare Arrest of quotcommunistsquot in America 6000 arrests 500 deportations The Great Depression Capitalists as quotgreedy villains Communists as deranged lunatics Hollywood attempts to mediate between antifascism and procommunism House UnAmerican Activities Committee During WWII antifascism national policy After WWII Truman declares quotCold War against Soviet Union HUAC investigates quotsubversivesquot in film industry Films and the Cold War During WWII proSoviet films were at the request of FDR Subversion against HUAC American fears directed toward SciFi Charlie Chaplin Tobin Siebers quotDisability in Theory Bodies as social constructs Our conception of bodies is based on expectations of society Contrast quotmedicalquot model Diseases to be cured Different bodies require new modes of representation Example Social Constructionism Weak sense A quotcommon sense approach Strong sense Prejudices are driven by ideology rather than mere ignorance How can bodies represent their interests in the public sphere Pain of Disability In one sense all humans are regressing from ability to disability Only 15 are born with their impairments How do we represent pain Daily struggle with intolerance and loneliness Blunt Crude Realities Activists tend to be blunt about physical realities Adjusting views of society Not powerladen Not isolated victims Not needy selfish resentful How to depend on people without feeling dominated Marilyn Charles quotA Beautiful Mindquot Film helps describe psychological reality John Nash narcissism interpersonal isolation Advantages of film Identifying disidentifying with characters Interpersonal Isolation Need for others Fictional characters provide quotsolutionquot for isolation Need for innovation encourages disconnection Patterns sameness difference Healing Norman L Keltner quotA Beautiful Mindquot Expert opinion on film Criticism Aural delusions Divorc Discoveries before illness Success Portrayal of suffering Burden of fami bell hooks Born Gloria Jean Watkins 1952 Hopkinsville KY Pen name bell hooks Mother grandmother Ain t a Woman 1981 Prof of English CUNY Integrates racism sexism classism etc Example quotA Revolution of Values Personal background 20th high school reunion Initial activism in racism extended to freedom in other areas How do we reflect our commitment to freedom in our values and habits quotTraditional values quotWorldquot perspective Lyingdenial Henry A Giroux quotNational Identity Nationalism identity and multiculturalism Culture and nationalism What does it mean to be American Uniformity or diversity Positive expressions of nationalism Mythic National Identity Expressions of nationalism that undermine democracy National identity often involves selective memory Social criticism is denounced Mass media and national identity Media and National Identity Media contribute to developing nationalist identity Affirm monoculturalism Portray quotAmericannessquot as under attack America has always been multicultural Democratic pluralization and formation of identity Aimee Carillo Rowe Whose America Nationalism establishing American identity 6
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