Fabian PSYC 1000: 7-9 March Notes
Fabian PSYC 1000: 7-9 March Notes PSYC 1010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayden McKenzie on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
CH. 11 Obesity In U.S. adult obesity has more than doubled over the last 40 years Also an increase of childhood obesity Obesity and Weight Control Fat is an ideal form of stored energy Once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it Eating less slows metabolism A formerly obese person who lost weight will have to eat less than the average person just to prevent weight gain Social psychology of obesity Weight discrimination is stronger than race and gender discrimination People who are obese are more likely to be depressed or isolated Genetics and Obesity Weight resembles biological parents Identical twins (even when raised apart) are more similar than fraternal twins Many genes involved – burning calories, converting calories to fat, when intestines send “full” signal, how much to fidget, etc. Lifestyle factors and obesity Restlessness, fidgeting Inadequate sleep affects appetite hormones Obese friend Sedentary lifestyle Fast food Another human motivation: sex Sexual motivation enables our species’ survival Sexual arousal depends on the interplay of internal and external stimuli Hormones and sexual motivation Sexual desire and response is not as tied to hormone levels in humans as it is in animals Increase in sexual arousal <-> increase in testosterone During ovulation, women show a rise in estrogen and testosterone As this happens, sexual desire rises in women and also in men around them (whose testosterone level rises) Effect of External Stimuli The brain is our most significant sex organ Men and women become aroused when they see, hear, or read erotic material (effects are stronger for men) Psychological and social-cultural factors play a bigger role in sexual motivation than biological factors Sexuality in the media (TV, internet, magazines, etc.) – extremely stereotypical in portrayal of the sexes especially females, women as sexual objects, with repeated exposure to any erotic stimulus response lessens (habituates), adolescents (perception of peers, permissive attitudes, and early sex) Sexual Orientation Having a homosexual orientation puts one at risk for anxiety and mood disorders (because of discrimination, rejection, isolation) Causes of homosexuality? – domineering mother?, absent father?, hatred of other sex?, molested as a child by adult homosexual? None of these Differences appear to begin in the prenatal period -> genetic or exposure to hormones or antigens in the womb Fraternal birth order effect – the more older brothers a male has, the more likely he is to be homosexual (doesn’t apply to women or left-handed men) Sexual orientation is neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed Biological Differences associated with sexual preference Brain differences Genetic influences Prenatal influences – seem to be pretty significant Prenatal hormones In mammals, female fetuses exposed to extra testosterone and male fetuses exposed to low levels of testosterone often grow up with bodies, brains, and faces with traits of the opposite sex and/or same sex desires Another motivation: “to belong” We have a need to affiliate with others, even to become strongly attached to others in enduring, close relationships People in every society on Earth belong to groups Evolutionary psychology perspective – seeking bonds with others aids survival in many ways Balancing Bonding with Other Needs What makes life meaningful – close satisfying relationships with family, friends, or romantic partners We also need autonomy (independence) and a sense of personal competence/efficacy (individual ability) – balanced with our need for relationships Much of our social behavior seeks to increase our social acceptance and avoid rejection Disrupted Bonds, New Beginnings Life’s worst moments can be when close relationships end Being ostracized (excluded socially, not fitting in anywhere) can lead to real physical pain Another Area of Motivation: Work Income can satisfy the drive for food and shelter For some, work can feel like a calling (fulfilling and socially useful activity) “flow” – feeling purposefully engaged, deeply immersed, and challenged; some people may seek this optimal work experience Psychology of the Workplace: Industrial-Organizational Psychology Personnel psychology Organizational psychology Human factors psychology Personnel psychology Selecting, hiring, and placing employees Strengths-based selection system – match the strengths of people to tasks of organizations -> prosperity and profit, focus on accentuating strengths and talents rather than correcting deficiencies Interviewer illusions – interviewers overestimate their ability to “read” people (interviewer’s preconceptions or moods, situational variables, best predictor of the person we will be is the person we have been) How to predict future job performance – aptitude tests, job knowledge tests, work samples, past job performance, structured interviews Appraising/Evaluating Performance Personnel psychologists can help employers to objectively assess the performance and value of employees Goal: employee improvement and retention and helping determine job shifts, salary, and promotion Performance feedback can affirm workers’ strengths and motivate needed improvements Organizational psychology Worker motivation, satisfaction, engagement, productivity Teamwork and leadership Grit – combination of desire for achievement and the ability/willingness to persist at hard work Successful people are more ambitious, energetic, and persistent Best predictor of school performance, attendance, and graduation honors: self- discipline Satisfaction and engagement Employees who are satisfied in an organization are likely to stay longer Employees who are more engaged (connected, passionate, and energetic) are more productive Managing employees well Harnessing talents – good managers focus training time on drawing out and developing strengths, reinforce positive behaviors through recognition and reward Being positive – a good coach tries to offer players four or five positive comments for every negative one Useful goals are specific, challenging, measurable, immediate Human Factors: Work that Fits People Human factors psychology – taking design of body and the functioning of the mind into account when designing products and processes
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