INTRO TO ARCHAEOLOGY
INTRO TO ARCHAEOLOGY ANT 2100
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydni Dare Sr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 2100 at Florida State University taught by Glen Doran in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/205579/ant-2100-florida-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
ANT2100 Chapter 1 The Searchers the history of archaeology The Speculative Phase 1 Cultures have always speculated about their origins and past Foundation myths are often created 2 Aztecs exaggerated Toltec ancestry and were interested in Teotihuacan which was not in fact Toltec 3 Artifacts discovered and displayed haphazardly people very interested in Greece and Rome 4 William Stukely made systematic studies of monuments such as Stonehenge and dispelled some myths 5 Some explanations of artifacts and sites include llfairy arrowsquot for arrowheads and the lost race of mound builders that built the Native American burial mounds 6 Mummies and bog people also sparking interest in the past The First Excavations 1 18 h century researchers begin excavating sites like Pompeii only rediscovered in 1748 Etruscan horses from Tarquinia also sparked interest 2 Styles of furniture and interior decoration receive considerable attention 3 Thomas Jefferson conducted the llfirst scientific excavationquot in Virginia in 1784 4 By carefully digging a trench across a Native American burial mound he was able to observe different layers and to draw reasoned conclusions from the data Stratigraphy 5 Antiquarianism Really treasure hunting then selling on the market for profit The Beginnings of Modern Archaeology P9 5quot 9 quotl l Stratification of rocks Uniformitarianism Ancient conditions were similar to those of our own time Antiquarians sparked interest in artifacts and that did lead to archaeology Geology biology also influenced by discovery of fossil materials E The dinosaurs ex Sue the TRex at the Chicago museum Large animals were known as megafauna The asking of questions about interesting ancient objects led to a more scientific approach to answer them Up until the 1950s the focus was mainly on big impressive sites and elaborate burials The Antiquity of Humankind and the Concept of Evolution Prehistory of humankind established Charles Darwin and his theory of evolution The Three Age System Colt Hoare recognizes a sequence of stone quotbrassquot and iron artifacts in 1808 2 First systematically studied in the 1830s by the Stone age Bronze age and Iron age 3 Paleolithic Old Stone age and Neolithic New Stone Age Tim mm giving classification to artifacts in Ethnography and Archaeology 1 HT in scientific description of the customs of individuals and cultures 2 Traditional or native people of new lands begin to capture the interest of the settlersdiscoverers 3 Early accounts of these people need to be relooked at for accuracy They can however be useful Discovering the Early Civilizations Important dudes 1 i Flowe was an antiquarian who worked too much in Florida rather than big important sites His theory was that these artifacts described the common people more accurately Together with Julian Steward and Binford worked on New or Processual archaeology pioneered the idea of sampling and studied the interactions between cul mphasized a multidisciplinary approach and a scientific approach which would include a hypothesis and a series of tests The Development of Field Techniques Classification and Consolidation The Ecological Approach The Rise of Archaeological Science A Turning Point in Archaeology The Birth of New Archaeology The Postprocessual Debate of the 1980s and the 1990s The Widening Field 1 More women today in the field The Development of Public Archaeology IndigenousArchaeologies Key Early Advances 1 The rejection ofa literal interpretation of the biblical account of early human history and the establishment of the antiquity of humankind rm s theories of evolution and natural selection 3 The establishment of the followed by a Bronze Age and an Iron Age m which divided prehistory into a Stone Age 4 The development of archaeological n 0 Key Developments 1 The early 20 h century establishment of regional chronologies and sequences of artifacts 2 The development of scientific aids for archaeology notably radiocarbon dating 3 The postWorld War 2 development of an environmental or ecological explanation for past change 4 Increasing collaboration with specialists in other disciplines such as animal or plant studies 5 Gordon Childe s bold questioning of why things happened or changed in the past 0 Key Concepts 1 Processual Archaeology vs Traditional i Explanatory vs Descriptive ii Culture Process vs Culture history iii Reasoning Deductive vs Inductive iv Validation Testing vs Authority v Project design vs data accumulation vi Quantitative vs Simply qualitative vii Scope optimism vs Pessimism 2 Postprocessualism is a collective term for a number of approaches to the past all of which have roots in the postmodernist current of thought that developed in the 1980s and the 19905 0 Summary of Chapter 1 1 The history of archaeology is of new ideas methods and discoveries Modern archaeology took root in the 19 h century with the acceptance of three key concepts the great antiquity of humanity Darwin s principle of evolution and the Three Age System for ordering material culture 2 Many of the early civilizations especially in the Old World have been discovered by the 1880s and some of their ancient scripts deciphered This was followed by a long phase Equot of consolidation of improvements in fieldwork and excavation and the establishment of regional chronologies After WW2 the pace of change in the discipline quickened New Ecological approaches 39 39 to the New scientific of the 1960s and 70s turned to questions sought to help us 39 human techiniques developed The idlewr 51quot 2 of why things happened A diversity of theoretical approaches r gut highlighted the variety of possible interpretations and the sensitivity of their political implications Precisely how archaeologists are continuing to push back the frontiers of knowledge about our planet s human past forms the subject of the rest of the book Chapter 2 What is Left The variety of the evidence 0 Basic P P PP E J The P1Pquot the exact position of a find within the matrix L w m m a find s relationship with other finds Without context an artifact loses much of its archaeological value Strata where and what is found with the item where within the site is it found in a home or outside of a home Example the megafauna bone found engraved with an image ofa mammoth was found without context so it will always be in doubt Counter Example The presence of burned seeds wood and flint at the Acheulian site of GesherBenotYa aqov in Israel is suggestive of the control of fire by humans nearly 790000 years ago The distribution of the site39s small burned flint fragments suggests that burning occurred in specific spots possibly indicating hearth locations Wood of six taxa was burned at the site at least three of which are edible olive wild barley and wild grape Context in this case allows the findings to be accepted 1 A whole series of formation processes may have affected both the way in which finds came to be buried and what happened to them after they were buried 2 The study of these processes is called xiii w w what happens after discard loss or burial 3 Distinction between processes Cultural formation processes or natural formation processes 4 3 an be instructive about some of the formation processes that affect physical preservation of archaeological material Cultural Formation Processes How People have Affected What Survives in the Archaeological Record 1 Original Human Behavior is reflected by at least four major activities i Acquisition of the raw material ii Manufacture iii Use distribution and finally iv Disposal or Discard 2 Deliberate Burial of valuables Hoards of goods 3 Storage of food 4 Burial of the dead 5 Human 39 39record occurs when rulers would order of the 39 39 the destruction of past monuments belonging to previous chiefs or monarchs 6 We can move lighthouses and this is important to know Ex Cape Canaveral Natural Formation Processes How Nature Affects what Survives in the Archaeological Record Inorganic Materials 1 Stone tools Fired clay and Metals preserve very well 2 The sea can destroy inorganic materials but the use of electrolysis placing the object in a chemical solution and passing a weak current through it leaves the metal artifact clean and safe after extracting 3 Lithic tools thought to be the oldest 4 million BP 4 Ceramics 10000 BPOften are broken and found in fragments rather than whole pots 5 Metals 6000 10000 BP not everywhere Organic Materials 1 Survival of these largely determined by the matrix 2 Matrix usually some kind of sediment or soil 3 Climate plays an important role Tropical climates are the most destructive Temperate climates are not good for preservation of organic materals 4 Natural Disasters can sometimes preserve sites by depositing material on top of that site 5 Organic materials do not preserve well but are thought to be the oldest tools 6 400000 800000 years the limit for organics 7 cm and f 39r comprise some microremains Preservation of Organic Materials Extreme Conditions 1 Dry environments prevent decay through shortage of water and destructive micro organisms are unable to flourish Example Paisley Cave used to be near water but it has since dried up 2 Cold environments serve as natural refrigeration for organic materials Example Frozen mammoth Example 2Utzi the frozen Alpine traveler 3 Waterlogged environments protect organic materials because they are effectively sealed in a wet and airless environment which doesn t move These environments are ideal because they preserve materials until the time of excavation Bog Bodies are well preserved I archaeological site near Titusville Florida 168 people buried in peat and incredibly wellpreserved brain tissue was able to be analyzed Example Reimanwcdm mounds in Georgia indicate it was a center of population and activity in North America Example 3 Irish bogs 0 Summary of Chapter 2 o The archaeological evidence available to us depends on a number of important factors 1 What people past and present have done to it cultural formation processes 2 What natural conditions such as soil and climate have preserved or destroyed natural formation processes Inorganic materials usually survive far better than organics but the latter can be well preserved in a range of special environments the dry the cold and the waterlogged 5 Our ability to find recognize recover and conserve it F We can do nothing about the first two factors being at the mercy of the elements and previous human behavior But the third factor is constantly improving as we understand better the processes of decay and destruction and design research strategies and technical aids to make the most of what archaeological evidence actually survives Chapter 3 Where Survey and excavation of sites and features 0 Locating Archaeological Sites and Features Ground Reconnaissance Aerial Reconnaissance Geographic Information Systems 0 Assessing the Layout of Sites and Features Site Surface Survey Subsurface Detection GroundBased Remote Sensing o Excavation Stratigraphy Methods of excavation Underwater Archaeology Recovery and Recording of the Evidence Processing and Classification Chapter 3 Summary 1 Although many sites are found either by accident or during modern development the archaeologist has a barrage of ground and aerial reconnaissance techniques available with which to find new sites Until the present century individual sites were the main focus of archaeological attention but today archaeologists study whole regions often employing sampling techniques to bring ground reconnaissance survey within the scope of individual research teams After locating sites with GIS archaeologists can use remote sensing without having to excavate Remote sensing involves passing energy through the ground and locating buried features They depend on the contrast between the buried features and their surroundings They are costly in both equipment and time but they are often cheaper and less destructive than random trial trenches It allows archaeologists to decide which parts of a site should be fully excavated Excavation relies on methods designed to elucidate the horizontal extent of a site in space and the vertical stratification representing changes through time Good recording methods essential Classification based on selected attributes decoration shape material of artifacts typology Material of little use unless it can be dated Chapter 4 When Dating methods and chronology Relative Dating Stratigraphy Ordering Archaeological Layers Typological Sequences Comparing Objects 1 Seriation Comparing Assemblages of Objects Environmental Sequences Absolute Dating Calendars amp Historical Chronologies 1 Usinga historical Chronology Annual Cycles 1 TreeRingDating Radioactive Clocks 1 Radiocarbon Dating 2 Other Radiometric Methods Other Absolute Dating Methods World Chronology Chapter 4 Summary 1 The answer to the question quotWhenquot in archaeology has two main components Relative dating methods allow us to determine that something is relatively older or younger than something else Absolute methods make it possible to give a date in years Archaeological dating is most reliable when the two methods are used together Whenever possible results from one absolute method should be crosschecked by those from another In areas where ancient calendars and historical chronologies are available such as Mesoamerica these remain the most important methods of dating Elsewhere the two methods most useful to the archaeologist are radiocarbon dating and treering dating Although many other absolute dating techniques exist these tend to be reserved either for very specific applications or for sites that are beyond the range of radiocarbon back in the Paleolithic period Ultimately the precision of dating attainable for each period helps determine the kinds of questions we ask about the past for the Paleolithic questions are about longterm change for later periods the questions are more usually concerned with the shorter term variations in worldwide human development Chapter 5 How Were Societies Organized Social archaeology Establishment of the Nature and Scale of the Society Classification of Societies Methods of Social Analysis Settlement Analysis and Site Hierarchy Burial Analysis The Study of Ranking from Individual Burials Monuments and Public Works Written Records Ethnoarchaeology The Archaeology of the Individual and of the Identity Social Inequality Ethnicity and Conflict Investigating Gender Chapter 5 Summary l Iquot S P Equot 9 Chapter 6 Wha Rec Rec Sub I o WhatC The potential for understanding the more complex and highlyorganized societies represented by states and chiefdoms is especially great Written records when they exist only in state societies can be an important resource We can investigate ranked societies through their site hierarchies and in the case of state societies through their urban centers It should in this way be possible to identify the ruling center using archaeological methods alone and the extent of the area over which it held jurisdiction For ranked or stratified societies chiefdoms and states the study of the buildings and other evidence of administration at the center gives valuable information about the social political and economic organization of society as well as a picture of the life of the ruling elite Palaces and tombs give a lot of insight and studies of lowerorder administrative centers give further information about the social and political structure The differences in burials between the classes can reveal the complete range of status distinctions in a society Similar approaches may be applied to segmentary societies the study of individual settlements the evidence for social ranking revealed by burials and the existence of cooperative communal mechanisms for the construction of major monuments On a smaller scale and particularly important for the Paleolithic period the camps of mobile huntergatherer societies and the seasonal movement between different sites may also be studied using the different methods especially when the insights provided by ethnoarchaeological research on living societies are used in conjunction with direct study of the archaeological record In recent studies a quotbottomup perspective in social archaeologies has become important the archaeology of individuals and of identity Gender studies in particular are now adding new insight into the structure of society t Was the Environment and What Did They Eat Environment subsistence and diet Investigating Environments on a Global Scale Evidence from Water and Ice TreeRings and Climate onstructing the Plant Environment onstructing the Animal Environment sistence and Diet an Plant Foods Tell Us About Diet Macrobotanical Remains Analysis of Plant Residues on Artifacts The Domestication of Wild Plant Species Plant Evidence from Literate Societies 39 0 Diet quot and T from Animal Remains Assessing Diet from Human remains Chapter 6 Summary 1 Humankind has developed from being primarily influenced by the environment to influencing it The environment is of crucial importance in archaeology Archaeologists now have a battery of techniques largely based on the analysis of plant and animal remains to help reconstruct such past environments Where food is concerned the evidence available varies from botanical and animal remains large and microscopic to tools and vessels plant and animal residues and art and texts We can discover what was eaten in which seasons and sometimes how it was prepared We need to assess whether the evidence arrived in the archaeological record naturally or through human actions and whether the resources were wild or under human control Occasionally we encounter the remains of individual meals left as funerary offerings or the contents of stomachs or feces Finally the human body itself contains a record of diet in its toothwear and in the chemical signatures left in bones by different foods Many of the techniques must be carried out by the specialist particularly the biochemist but archaeologists should know how to interpret the results because the rewards are enormous for our knowledge of what the environment was like what people ate how they exploited their resources and in what proportions Chapter 7 How Were Artifacts Made Used and Distributed Technology trade and exchange Unaltered Materials Stone Wood Plant and Animal Fibers Other Unaltered Materials Synthetic Materials Pottery Metals Trade and Exchange Discovering the sources of Traded Goods Characterization The Study of Distribution Spatial Analysis of Distribution Exchange and Interaction The Complete System Chapter 7 Summary 1 First one must assess whether an object is indeed an artifact and then of what material unaltered primarily stone wood fibers or synthetic pottery metals Ethnography and archaeological context may suggest the function of a tool but only analysis of its microwear or residues can demonstrate its likely use Nevertheless ethnoarchaeology is proving extremely valuable Studies of characterization ie the sources of the raw materials that make up artifacts have been of enormous importance in archaeology by shedding light on technological processes and contact and trade between different regions and cultures Thinsections as well as traceelement analysis and isotopic analysis have played a major role in these investigations4 3 Once an understanding of the whole process of making and using the artifacts has been attained we can turn to their distribution the spatial analysis of their places of manufacture and discovery and hence the exchange and transportation systems which have caused these distribution patterns to come about Chapter 8 What Were They Like The bioarchaeology of people 0 The Variety of Human Remains 0 Identifying Physical Attributes Which Sex How Long Did They Live What Did They Look Like How Were They Related 0 Chapter 8 Summary 1 The physical remains of past peoples provide direct evidence about their lives Bioarchaeology is the study of human remains from archaeological sites Though whole human bodies can be preserved in a variety of ways including mummification and freezing the vast majority of human remains uncovered by archaeologists are in the form of skeletons and bone fragments 2 An important part of the analysis of human remains in the identification of physical attributes The gender of skeletal remains for example can be determined through observing the shape of the pelvis as well as other bones Teeth and bones can help establish an individual s relative age at death namely whether they were young adult or old It is even possible to reconstruct what an individual looked like through careful analysis of skull features or to assess the relationship between two individuals Chapter 9 What Did They Think Cognitive archaeology 0 Cognitive Archaeology Investigating How Human Symbolizing Faculties Evolved 0 Working with Symbols Establishing Place The Location of Memory Measuring the World Symbols of Organization and Power The Archaeology of Religion 0 The Impact of Literacy Literacy in Classical Greece 0 Chapter 9 Summary 1 How archaeological evidence can be used to provide insights into the way of thinking of cultures and civilizations long dead Whether it be evidence for measurement means of organization and power or cult activity there are good archaeological procedures for analyzing and testing cognitive hypotheses about the past An archaeological project may focus on one aspect of the way ancient people thought for example in the search for a possible standard unit of measurement or it may be much broader for example the work at Chavin While textual evidence may be of crucial importance in supporting or helping to assess cognitive claims as in Mesoamerica or Mesopotamia cognitive archaeology does not depend on literary sources for its validity
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