PEOPLES OF THE WORLD
PEOPLES OF THE WORLD ANT 3212
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydni Dare Sr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 3212 at Florida State University taught by Amy Kowal in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see /class/205580/ant-3212-florida-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Anthropology Study Guide Final THE DISCIPLINE OF ANTHROPOLOGY o What is anthropology Physical the branch of anthropology dealing with the genesis and variation of human beings Cultural the branch of anthropology that deals with human culture and society Archaeology is the study of humansociety primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data which they have left behind which includes artifacts architecture bio facts and cultural landscapes Anthropological linguistics the study of the relations between language and culture and the relations between human biology cognition and language the branch of anthropology that studies human language Linguistic anthropology is mainly concerned with the technical analysis of language 0 What is an ethnography The scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures 0 What is the difference between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism Cultural relativismis understanding other cultures and their beliefs For example what seems normal to one culture may seem offensive to another ex like china eats dogs and in America keeps them as pets Ethnocentrism is the belief that your country is the best and your culture is the best and your right and other cultures are wrong 0 What are the essentials of eldwork methods ethics Methods the ways of studying people from the anthropological perspective Participant observation is a fundamental method of research used in cultural anthropology It involves a researcher or researchers living within a given culture for an extended period of time to take part in its daily life in all its richness and diversity The anthropologist in such an approach tries to experience a culture quotfrom withinquot as a person native to that culture might do Publication products museum exhibits ethnographies articles Ethics respect their culture must always get approval and be nonbiased Answers to questions surveys direct and indirect questioning observations personal experience and learning 0 What are cultural universals paradoxes of culture and definitions of culture Cultural universals an element pattern trait or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide Paradoxes of culture Definitions of culturethe shared patterns of behaviors and interactions cognitive constructs and affective understanding that are learned through a process of socialization These shared patterns identify the members of a culture group while also distinguishing those of another group Evolution is the change over time in one or more inherited traits found in populations of organisms Participant observation is a fundamental method of research used in cultural anthropology It involves a researcher or researchers living within a given culture for an extended period of time to take part in its daily life in all its richness and diversity The anthropologist in such an approach tries to experience a culture quotfrom withinquot as a person native to that culture might do Informants a person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency Adaptation becoming familiar with your surroundings Institution any structure or mechanism of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given human community Assimilation the blending or fusing of minority groups into the dominant society Real behavior how people really act Ideal behavior how you want or wish people would act Emic a description of behavior or a belief in terms meaningful consciously or unconsciously to the actor that is an emic account comes from a person within the culture Etic a description of a behavior or belief by an observer in terms that can be applied to other cultures that is an etic account attempts to be 39culturally neutral39 Culture shock the difficulty people have adjusting to a new culture that differs markedly from their own Ethnocentrism characterized by or based on the attitude that one s own group is superior Cultural relativism understanding other cultures and their beliefs For example what seems normal to one culture may seem offensive to another Cultural system the interaction of different elements of culture Subsistence selfsufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed their families World view the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing natural philosophy fundamental existential and normative postulates or themes values emotions and ethics Social organization how people interact the kinship systems they use marriage residency patterns how they divide up the various tasks that need to be completed who has access to specific goods and knowledge what ranking strategy is being used Economic organization how people interact in society They are based off markets and merchants Ideology a set of ideas that constitutes one s goals expectations and actions Political organization an organization that involves itself in the political process In a broader sense a political organization can also be viewed as a political system as long as it includes the entire system and body of government It creates a form of structure to abide by Kinship a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin through either biological cultural or historical descent bilateralbilineal descent is reckoned through both father and mother without unilineal descent groups Patrilineal descent is established by tracing descent exclusively through males from a founding male ancestor Matrilineal based on or tracing ancestral descent through the maternal line Unilineal One method of limiting the recognition of kinship is to emphasize the relationships through one parent only Such unilineal kinship systems as they are called are of two main typesipatrilineal or agnatic systems in which the relationships reckoned through the father are emphasized and matrilineal or uxorial systems in which the relationships reckoned through the mother are Affinal having a family relationship by marriage Consanguine Of the same lineage or origin having a common ancestor Endogamy the practice of ma1rying within a specific ethnic group class or social group rejecting others on such bases as being unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships Exogamy marriage outside of a specific group especially as required by custom or law Band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an extended family or clan it has been defined as consisting of no more than 30 to 50 individuals Tribe any aggregate of people united by ties of descent from a common ancestor community of customs and traditions adherence to the same leaders etc Chiefdom a political economy that organizes regional populations through a hierarchy of the chiefs State commonly refers to either the present condition of a system or entity or to a governed entity or subentity such as a nation or province Holistic is considering the entire brand or image of the company
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