HUMAN SEXUALITY ANT 2301
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Date Created: 09/17/15
ANT2301 Test 1 Study Guide Week One Perspectives on Sexuality What is Sexuality I How individuals experience express themselves as sexual beings I Can be explained through different perspectives o Biologically Addresses sexual contact sexual attraction o Sociologically Cultural legal and political sexual expectations 8 standards 0 Philosophically How individuals groups think about sex morally ethically theologically spiritually etc I Primarily look for explanation of sexuality in natural selection Darwin e main force driving sexual selection is to pass one39s genes on to the next generation The more offspring bore the higher fitness of an individual39s genes How is Sexuality Determined I Prehistory Most of sexual knowledge comes from assumptions inferences 0 Venus of Willendorf Earliest evidence of symbolic ideals of sex enhanced sexual features I Biology The body can tell us about sexual selection I Art Symbolism and Writing Reveals cultural perspectives on sex Sexuality in History Ancient Mediterranean I Includes some of the earliest writing forms 0 Concepts of what activities sensations etc are considered sexual 0 Accounts of STDs menstruation circumcision contraception prostitution The Hebrews 1000200 BC I Rules regulated by Hebrew Bible regarding what is isn39t sexually appropriate 0 Rules about sexualbehavior I Acknowledges 8 De nes love The Greeks 1000200 BC I Distinguish between love and sex 0 Mythological stories to reinforce distinction Aphrodite love 8 Eros sex I Institutionalizehomosexuality 0 Behavior based not orientation based 0 Idealization of the male form 0 Pederasty common I Typically platonic love sex only sometimes occurred I Consumption 8 Education lead to manhood The Romans 500 BC700 AD I Marriage 8 Sex were social moves meant to improve one39s social standing I Permissive of homosexuality until introduction of Christianity 0 Banned under Christianity India Beginning around 400 BC I Belief of Karma Hinduism affected perspectives on sexuality I Kama Sutra 0 Not just an instructional manualquot but also a moral guide 0 Addressed love and family in addition to sex China Beginning around 200 BC I Practiced polygamy 0 Established power wealth of an individual I Tao belief in Yin 8 Yang in Female weak submissive Q Yang Male dominant strong assertive I Both yin 8 yang necessary for balance Moche Peru 100800 AD I Known for rich monumental architecture 0 Structure sites of human sacri ce I Sex Pottery Early Christianity Beginning around 50 AD I Iesus very liberal in his thinking of sexuality Male and Female considered equals I Stricter sexual regulations enforced by St Paul and later followers I Typically sex is associated with sin in Christianity The Middle Ages 5001400 AD I Early in the period All sex outside of marriage considered sinful was forbidden I Later in period New ideals of women developed I Not all women are temptresses 0 Thomas Aquinas Establishes sexual laws I Any nonprocreative sexual activity was illegal Islam Around 500 AD I Developed with Jewish 8 Christian roots I Muslims Very strict rules of gender roles modesty 0 Women are subjugated to their husbands though men are often allowed harems The Renaissance Beginning around 1300 AD I More focus on mankind39s place in the world I Rejuvination of Sexuality I Increased women39s roles in society 0 Though later in the period backlash against sexuality of a woman The Reformation Beginning around 1500 AD I Martin Luther 8 John Calvin 0 Sex is natural 0 Marriage is a companionship with equal partners The Enlightenment Beginning 1700 AD I Exploration of female sexuality I Homosexuality heavily condemned Victorian Era 183 71901 I Public vs Private sexual behavior 0 Public Very sexually conservative 0 Private Complete opposite I Prevalence of porn adultery prostitution I Return of Chivalry Belief that women are delicate and must be protected Puritans Begin around 1600 I Severe sanctions for sexual behaviors o Caused groups to ee and regroup with others with similar ideals and morals Early US 1700180039s I Late 170039s More liberal sexual attitudes I Slavery an issue of human rights impacts sexual conduct o Settlers used open sexuality of minorities Mexicans Native Americans as a reason to disdain 8 oppress them The 19th Century I Free Love movement 0 Saw marriage as the sexual slavery of women I Increase in medical studies de nitions of sexuality I ComstockAct of 1873 prohibits mailing of sexually obscene publications The 2 0th Century I Social Hygiene Movement 0 Blood tests before marriage to prevent spread of STDs 0 Police action against prostitutes I Sexology 0 Alfred Kinsey Importance of sex greater than originally believed 0 Masters 8 ohnson Studied physiology of sexual response I The Sexual Revolution 192039s Flapper era enforced strength 8 power of women and their sexuality Rise of feminism I Gay Liberation o Stonewall Riot 19 6 9 Bar raided by police because it was for gays triggered a major riot I Queer Theory 0 Recognizes legitimacy of homosexuality The 21st Century I Rise in popularity of plastic surgery Re ects ideals of unnatural images of beauty as seen in the media pornography Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality Evolutionary Persp ectives I Biological Theory Emphasizes biology behind sexual behavior genetics etc I Sociobiology Sexual behaviors are a result of natural selection in evolution I Evolutionary Psychology I f r g39 39 and 39 factors on sexual behavior Psychological Theories I Psychoanalytic Theory Freud Id ego superego libido psychosexual development erogenous zones I Social Learning Theory Classical conditioning rewardpunishment on sexual behavior I Cognitive Theory Our thoughts are responsible for our sexual behavior Sociological Perspectives I All societies regulate sexuality in different ways social norms taboos expectations etc I Appropriate behavior is dependant on the culture I Symbolic Interaction Theory Sexual behavior is in uenced by prior learning I Reiss39s Theory Sexuality is about power forming bonds Social Messages about Sexuality I Agency Cultural ideal that you either interact with or oppose your culture Ex religion family peers media of an individual I Ideals of a Culture vs Actual Reality what we say we do vs what we really do Genetics in Sex Genetics are a relatively new concept An alleleis one of two or more forms of the DNA sequence of a particular gene The genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell an organism or an individual usually with reference to a speci c character under consideration A phenotype is any observable characteristic or trait of an organism such as its morphology J 39 39 or r 39 g39 properties behavior and products of behavior genotype environment gt p h enotype Genesunit of heredity in a living organism Chromosomes Strand of DNA in the cell nucleus that carries the genes MeiosisCell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms Recombination Gene mixin lntraspecific selectionCompetition within a species 0 lnterspecific selection Competitionbetween 2 different species for resources Gametes that are small numerous and cheap males Gametes that are large rare and costly females Disruptive selection can produce two quite different gametes and sexes The Riddle of Sex Darwin Natural Selection Genetic changes take hundreds thousands of years to be noted in a species Adaptation occurs through natural selection so individuals are better suited for their environment Changes can be structural or behavioral Some species are able to switch from asexual to sexual reproduction depending on circumstances Ex Strawberries Komodo Dragons So why isn39t every species asexual The Red Queen Hypothesis Refers to disease pathogens etc that all wouldbe susceptible to if asexual reproduction always occurred Asexual reproductionCloned offspring Week Two Sexual Selection What is Sexual Selection The struggle by one seXfor mating with the other sex Different Types of Sexual Selection I lntraSexual Selection Maleto Male Competition Males ght and compete for access to females I InterSexual Selection Female Choice Females either wait to mate with victor or actively chooses a male as a mate 0 Choice typically based on physical traits of male Male vs Female Choice Overall Strategy To maximize reproductive success quotselfish gene I Males Want to mate as much as physically possible without injury I Females Want to choose the quotmust tquot mate 0 This is based on some idea of good genes beauty dominance etc I Con ict in selection arises due to different goals between males and females I Polygyny One male multiple females a Male typically gets more decorated to attract females I Monogamy Females typically more decorated I Lek Group of males from which females are choosing Female Choice I Because females typically invest more in their offspring than males do they have more to lose in making the choice for the right mate Females are therefore expected to be more choosy Female Choice favors 3 kinds of traits I Traits that directly increase tness of female 0 Ex Male will defend protect or provide I Traits that indicate good genes which enhance tness 0 Ex Peacock eyespots I Nonadaptive but Conspicuous traits 0 Ex Frog mate call that39s easier to hear I Traits females may look for o Dominance o Unfamiliarity I Helps avoid the risk of inbreeding 0 Good genesquot I Health strength etc 0 Variety of Mates I Confuses paternity decreasing risk of infanticide Preference vs Choice I Preference Desire propensity that an individual possesses I Choice An action made by an individual that can be observed measured What actually happens 0 Depends on behavior of both genders I Typically females that are older and have a higher rank are more able to refuse male coercion as opposed to younger lower ranked females Intrasexual Selection I Maletomale competition leads to more physical strength larger canines and even larger testes o Sperm Competitionquot Larger testes more sperm higher chance of reproducing I In multi male multi female groups females often mate with several males so selection favors males who produce more sperm I In this case males typically have larger testes 0 Physical Size Canine Size Advantageous in ghting other males Sexual Dimorphism Strong selection pressure that makes males bigger than females 0 More prevalent in polygyny o Caused by male competition I Operational Sex Ratio Includes adult sex ratio duration of breeding season birth internal length of estrus period number of cycles to conception o OSR predicts dimorphism in primates I Sexual dimorphism not signi cant in monogamous communities Problems in Research I Maletomale competition intensity is hard to measure I Length of birth interval can affect intensity of competition I Other factors food habitat etc are competed for as well not strictly competition for a mate Explanation from Bateman 1948 The more females around a male the higher the male39s reproductive success RS The more males around a female little to no effect on the female39s RS FemaletoFemale Competition I Occurs when males are scarce or when males provide something of value to females Ex food territory defense 0 Males typically then carry the clutchquot in terms of caring for offspring Triver 1972 Whichever gender invests more in the offspring is the choosier gender in picking a mate 0 Due to the evolution of lactation only in females in primates and mammals the females must typically be the ones to provide care for the offspring Potential Reproductive Rate PRR Amount of offspring one sex could have with unlimited access to the other CluttonBrockamp Parker 1992 Even when males invest greatly they still have grater PRR Even when females invest little they have less PRR Infanticide A male reproductive strategy of killing offspring that males in a group do not know to be theirs I Associated with changes in male residence or status I Occurs so the mother can be fertile again for the male 0 Females have evolved responses to threats of infanticide Hominin Dimorphism Australopithecines 42 mya I Large degree of dimorphism compare to gorillas I Chimp sized brain 8 Bodies I No projecting canines o Suggests lower levels of ghting in competition Homo Erectus 2 mya600 kya I More dimorphic than modern humans less dimorphic than Australopithecines I Significant increase in brain 8 body size I More readily hunting and scavenging diet depends more on meat I Handaxes 0 Hand Axe Theory Axes are what are being selected for the better the axe made the higher the chance of the female choosing that male Nowell 8 Chang 0 Flaws in proving the hand axe theory the following must be roven I Hominins are attracted to symmetry only point that can sort of be proven I Quality in manufacturing axes is heritable Axe directly represents tness Week Three Sexual Characteristics Primary Sexual Characteristics Includes any reproductive organs Male Penis testicles Female Vagina Cervix Uterus Ovaries Reproductive organs develop at Week 10 12 in fetal development Until week 9 all reproductive organs look the same in both male 8 female fetuses I Further protrusion of the genital tubercle in the male to form the penis I Labioscrotal folds evolve into the scrotum in males and the labia in females Babies are fully equippedquot at birth 0 Erections seen in male infants 0 Vaginal lubrication seen in females 0 Both produce testosterone and estrogen from birth Secondary Sexual Characteristics I Develop after puberty I Traits that distinguish the sexes of a species 0 Includes body hair fat distribution etc 0 Not directly part of the reproductive system Male Secondary Characteristics I Hair 0 Pubic region typically rst to develop hair I Starts as darkening around the penis spreads upward o Facial hair begins at the corners of the mouth and spreads to the midline and eventually to the rest of the face 0 Body hair arm pits legs arms buttocks back develops way before the completion of facial hair growth 0 Hairline changes from bow shaped curve to a line with two wedged indentations I Face Shape 0 Face becomes longer less round 0 Eyes nose and mouth expand to better fill up the head 0 Chin typically grows becomes more defined I Vocal Changes 0 Growth of the larynx creates larger stronger sound 0 Thyroid cartilage increases creating the Adam39s Apple 0 Vocal chords lengthen and thicken I Body 0 Increased weight strength and overall size of body I Due to increased testosterone levels Female Secondary Characteristics I Hair 0 Pubic region develops hair rst I Be ins as darkening above vagina then spreads upward 0 Body hair develops slightly later I Breasts Tanner Stages Tanner I No glandular tissue around age 10 younger o Tanner II Breast buds form small area around glandular tissue age 10 115 o Tanner III Breasts become more elevated extend past areola age 11513 o Tanner IV Increased breast size and elevation age 1315 0 Tanner V Breasts reach final adult size age 15 I Pelvis o Broadens to a broad oval outlet I Flares at the hip 0 Increase in fat cells around buttocks and thighs Fertilization I Involves the fusing of a sperm with an ovum o Enzymes produced by the sperm allow it to penetrate the outer layer of the egg I Sperm plasma fuses with egg plasma sperm head disconnects and travels down the Fallopian tube to the uterus Embryonic Development Week 1 3 The brain spinal cord heart and gastrointestinal tract begin to form Week 45 The heart starts to beat and blood starts to ow Week 6 8 Facial features are beginning to develop I The fetal period begins at the end of the 10th week of gestation Fetal D eve opment I Week 1012 0 Reproductive organs develop 0 Permanent organs preceded by a set of embryonic structures Will disappear almost completely before the end of fetal life I Structures known as Wolffian male ampMullerian female ducts or the 39 39 39 inducts 1 Child Development Early Childhood 25 years I Crucial period of physical development I Begin exploration of bodies 0 Begin noticing difference between males and females 0 Toilet training occurring during this time I No intentions or ideas of sexuality Middle Childhood 612 years I Overt sexual behavior more common though in uenced by surrounding culture 0 Begin to learn what is and is not culturally acceptable I Begin questioning sexual functions 0 Birds and the Bees Pub erty Male Puberty I Changes rapid growth in primary sexual characteristics I Varies from personperson but occurs around age 1018 I Organs grow steadily during childhood then rapidly increase during puberty I Brain begins releasing hormones that stimulate testosterone production which stimulates sperm production Female Puberty I Changes rapid growth in primary sexual characteristics I Eggs ripen one approximately every menstrual cycle 28 days Passes through fallopian tube and passes through uterus then later passes through the vagina to the outside genital opening I Menarche A girl39s rst menstruation and rst de nite indication of a girl39s sexual maturity o Pituitary gland secretes a hormone that stimulates estrogen production I Increased estrogen eventually causes maturation and grth of fallopian tubes uterus and vagina 0 Girls that are heavier typically menstruate sooner than underweight 39rls African American girls typically menstruate earlier age 12 than Caucasian girls age 13 The Menstrual Cycle I Lining of uterus builds up in preparation for pregnancy I With no pregnancy menstruation occurs and the lining of the uterus and an unfertilized egg shed and is released through the vagina as blood and tissue When you can procreate you are biologically an adult I Males Ejaculation I Females Menstruation I Both occur prior to full biological maturity The Hadza I Located in Tanzania huntergatherer group I Females often 1617 before rst menstruation Sex Play I Children encouraged to perform acts of sex 0 Meant to be practice for their adulthood o A way to get promiscuity out of their systemquot before marriage Week Four Mating Systems Social Organization I Majorly based on food 0 Needed to sustain life in a community 0 Provides ener I Different metabolisms mean different energy needs depends on activity rowth rate reproductive efforts 0 The bigger the individual the lesser the quality of food needed Small animals Need small amounts of high quality food I Large animals Need large amounts of lower quality food 0 All diets require some form of protein and some form of carbohydrates I Different species specialize in their dietary needs EX insectivores herbivores etc o 4 parts of total energy required I Basal metabolism at rest I Active metabolism amount expended usually about twice basal I Growth rate the younger and growing require more I Reproductive effort females require 25 more in late pregnancy lactation 50 more Importance of Diet in Mating I Food distribution affects ranging pattern of a population 0 Ranging patterns affect grouping patterns which in uence social organization and mating systems I Most important thing for females Food distribution 0 Determines female ranging patterns 0 Males map onto female ranging patterns as males are typically less dependent on food Promiscuity I Can occur with or without bonds I Beneficial for males because they have higher chances of reproductive success when mating with multiple females I Beneficial for females because they have more mates to choose from create confused paternity and are more secure with group protection 0 Confused paternity reduces threat of infanticide Polyandry I 2 males and 1 female 0 The males are often brothers I EX Tamarins I Very rare mating technique in mammals 0 en more rare to humans speci cally though seen in Tibet I Evolved because species that have twins Marmosets Tamarins require more adult care of the offspring so more adults are invested in the offspring in polyan ry Polygyny I Multiple females and 1 male I Males must capitalize on bene ts from polygyny I Harem mating system Typically more sexually dimorphic 0 Because it39s all or nothingquot for the males in terms of mates Typically very territorial I The 1 male defends all of the females and all of their offspring 0 Only occurs when it is bene cial for females 0 Males typically have abundance of resources Multisex Troops I Multimale multi female I Can be with or without bonds I Typically the more the females the more the males 0 Few females 15 often only have 1 male Promiscuity Without Bonds I Seen in chimpanzees I No male investment due to no paternal confidence I Females dispersed unrelated have no bonds 0 Creates aggression in males I No active maleto male competition Rather veral competition sperm competition I Some competition hierarchies typically exist 0 Higher ranked have slightly more power than those ranked lower Promiscuity With Bonds EX Hamadryas Baboons I Moderate male investment due to moderate paternal con dence I Harems eXist within the general population 0 HomeRanges Mate guarding within harems M onogamy I Limited mating opportunities I High male investment in mate 8 offspring 0 Due to high con dence in paternity I Little to no sexual dimorphism 0 Due to no little need for competition I Evolves when males39 parental care is vital to successful female reproduction I Can be affected by resources in an environment 0 The more spread out the females are the more likely the males are to only have one mate due to inability to acquire additional mates Territoriality I Both males and females actively defend a resource within a territory 0 Often some type of food source I Territory Some area or something that is small and defendable o Monogamous groups are often territorial I Mate Defense Males defend females from outside males not related to food other resources Human Mating Systems Foragers I Marlowe 2003 o Argues that women value male provision less where males bring in less food which results in greater polygyn I In this case gene shopping occurs rather than resource shopping I Measured using the Standard CrossCultural Sample SCCS I When provisioning is less important females should pay more attention to o Pathogen protection 0 Gene shopping I Should cause an increase in or at least increased acceptance of polygyny I Polygyny higher where males contribute less I Polygyny and Pathogen Stress are positively correlated 0 These also correlate to average annual temperature or latitude o Colder climates Males contribute more lower po ygyny Traditional Forager View I The amount of male provisioning determines the mating system pair bonding 0 Increased return rates by certain hunters result in increased pair bonds 0 Females an offspring bene t more with a better provider doesn39t want additional wives to take away the advantage
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