HUMAN SEXUALITY ANT 2301
Popular in Course
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydni Dare Sr. on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 2301 at Florida State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/205585/ant-2301-florida-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Florida State University.
Reviews for HUMAN SEXUALITY
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/17/15
Concealed Ovulation Why did concealed ovulation evolve in human species 0 Primate traits o Hominin traits I Biomechanics I Behavior and social organization I Visual indicators I Olfactory indicators 0 Modern human traits Primate Traits o Estrus I Genital swelling as advertisement of ovulation o Receptivity I Readiness to copulate when solicited by a male Pawlowski o No difference in receptivity between humans and primates o The younger males with higher levels of testosterone constantly solicit females even without signs of estrus 0 Similar to humans in that there is more of a constant receptivity o Proceptivity Active encouragement and solicitations by females to copulate This behavior is more limited in primates to times during estrus Proceptive actions peak during periovulatory period of maximum swelling 0 Attractiveness Females become sexually exciting to males 0 During estrus males find females sexually attractive thus initiating copulations Most of the male primate menstrual cycle is characterized by sexual disinterest from males Until estrus Evolution of Concealed Ovulation o Primates I Most primates show dramatic increase in mating during estrus period I The genital swellings are visual in nature and attract males I Changes in hormone levels may also play a role in olfactory attraction and proceptive behaviors in females I The timing of ovulation is obvious so why waste energy with sex when not able to conceive o Humans I Concealed ovulation I Constant sexual receptivity proceptivity and attractiveness I Brief period of fertility during midmenstrual cycle 0 Hominins I What happened during hominin evolution to facilitate these characteristics I Hominin Estrus Pawlowski 0 Believe that the chimp estrus is an extreme example among primates I Evolved after the split with the last common ancestor o More likely the LCA and earliest hominins had a reduced slight genital swelling compared to modern chimps o Biomechanics I Bipedalism Centralized foramen magnum The vertebral column has distinct Scurve The pelvis rotates forward in humans becomes shorter and bowl shaped o Ilium thicker widerfor abductor muscles 0 Need abductors to counter torque and falling The femur angles inward to the knee 0 Knee must be near body center so femur angled at tibia The foot develops a distinct arch Abducted big toe used fortoe off walking I With increasingly efficient bipedalism Movement of genitals to underneath the pelvis females 0 Need a reduction in swelling to maintain biomechanical efficiency 0 Visual Cues By reducing swelling and movement of genitals the visual cue indicating ovulation loss of estrus is no longer advantageous I Males cannot see if females are ready to become pregnant O O O O I Not in the correct place for signaling Physical indications of swelling I Human males have unnecessarily large penises Olfactory Cues Avg erect penis length 14 cm Avg vaginal depth 1012 cm If at one time hominins had slight vaginal swellingto indicate ovulation 0 Make upfo I Hair loss in hominins I Adaptation to hair loss sweating Hair holds onto smell Can you smell someo O r the differences in size s ne39s public are when standing Armpit is closer to the nose I One ofthe arguments against concealed ovulation is female preference MHC major histocompatibility complex 0 Tshirt test Behavioral Theories What does constant receptivity by females do to the social dynamic o o o o o I Theory 1 I Theory 2 I Theory 3 o I Theory 4 I Theory 5 Competition Pairbonding Food sharing Paternity where females like the males with the greatest degree of immune differences Increased paternal care Concealed ovulation O O Concealed ovulation reduces malemale competition and enhances cooperation among male hunters Males cannot compete for females that are ovulating cannot monopolize every female Working together food sharing increases everyone39s chances of survival enhances bond between man and woman by making woman continuously receptive proceptive and attractive Males use Male chimps are mo less energy mating with a single female all the time to insure paternity re likely to share food with females in estrus Concealed estrus may ensure steady food supply f males do not know when females are ovulating they may provide more food to win favor 0 Females may receive food from multiple males Concealed estrus exploits male paranoia over paternity enhances pair bond 0 O 0 Strategy to confuse paternity and prevent infanticide f male doesn39t know when ovulation occurs he can39t guard female all the time Pair bonds Concealed ovulation increases the chances for male paternal care With male care giving the female can have children often and therefore increase her reproductive SUCCESS Concealed Ovulation mongt o I Hadza o 0 he Hadza Natural conditions less hygienic f ovulation is not concealed then there should be an increase in attractiveness and male solicitations during ovulation midcycle Found 574 of Hadza believed women become pregnant right after menstruation t seemsthe males may be influenced by 5 days of abstinence then increase copulations May even be more concealed in Hadza everyone smells similar I Menstrual Huts Pacific Asian Beliefs o Huaulu Horticultural huntergatherers Menstruation as pollution Menstrual huts free to wander No cooking for husbands or carrying heavy loads when menstruating All children born in menstrual hut Males are forbidden to touch look into go into or repairthe huts underthe risk of death I Often females spend longer amounts of time in the hut than necessary Being safe don39t get blood anywhere near males or more time off I Tell stories nurse the young 0 Young boys are allowed to accompany mothers up until puberty I Kodi of Sumba Semiagricultural 0 Rice corn and tuber gardens 0 Raised pigs and chickens Herd horses and buffalo Blue Dye fermentation 0 Secret complex of female arts moro o Males are forbidden to approach touch or being meat into close range ofthe dye pots 0 Women who are menstruating are not allowed close to the dye pots I Menstrual blood is aggressive and could destroy the dye 0 Pregnant women are not allowed near because the baby is vulnerable to the dye and will dissolve or be aborted with contact 0 Blue Witches o Blueness is inherited I Blood is poisonous to others I Only women pass it on to offspring I Associated with witchcraft o STDs are blames on women having sex during menses maybe on purpose 0 Contact may lead to impotence and infertility Mate Preferences Changes in human evolution that may lead to modern patterns of behavior and biology Shifting focus from nonhuman primates to modern human biology psychology and culture Mate preferences 0 With concealed ovulation I rease in sexual dimorphism Decreased direct malemale competition I Increased reliance on male provisioning I Increase in pairbonding between males and females long term 0 So what does each sex look for in a mate I Due to inequalities in investment females face several adaptive problems in findingthe right mate I Infer that females and males evolved preferences information processing biases that enable them to asses traits that indicate fitness levels I What traits correlated with high mate value Evolutionary explanations Social psychology explanations Generaltrends 0 Men prefer younger women especially as they get older and they devote great efforts to mate retention with women they perceived as being very attractive potentially unfaithful 0 Women prefer males with plentiful resources and who also showed more mate retention behaviors 0 Men were more likely to use resourcebased tactics and aggression to retain a mate while women were much more likely to use physical enhancement Biologicaltraits 0 Personality based on perceived facial features and length of relationship 0 Preferential changes in preferred odor I MHC major histocompatibility complex I Male preferences 0 The age factor Male preferences vs female preferences Facial preferences 0 Females preferred masculine looking faces at ovulation but less masculine faces when nonfertile 0 However females using oral contraception revealed no cyclical changes in facial preference 0 Females did have an overall preference for symmetry but this was irrespective of menstrual cycle phase 0 Overall females prefer a more feminized face during luteal phase slightly past ovulation I May indicate increased parental care lowertestosterone levels I Levels are correlated to parental care Short termhigh risk more masculine faces preferred Menstrual cycle phase and face preferences By being more open to masculine 39good genes39 men around ovulation but generally preferring feminine 39caring sharing39 men at othertimes women may maximize the benefits oftheir mate choices 0 Similar patterns of change during the menstrual cycle have been observes for voice preferences Change in women39s preferences for masculinity reflects change in progesterone level ratherthan estrogen level Major Histocompatibility Complex 0 MHC genes make the molecules that enable the immune system to recognize invaders I The more diverse the MHC genes of the parents the strongerthe immune system of the offspring o MHC dissimilar mate selection tendencies in humans Females smelled tshirtsthat had been worn by male students I Overwhelming number of women preferred the odors of men with dissimilar MHCs to their own 0 Preference disappeared if they were taking oral contraceptives Olfactory Genetics 0 Body odor serves as a cue for health I Examined whether females would prefer the scent of a more symmetrical man during ovulation o For contraceptive pill users and females not ovulation there was no relationship I Ovulationnon pill users consistently preferred the scent of symmetrical men 0 Males are primarily concerned with physical attractiveness whereas females considered a man39s smell to be more important than looks money or ambition Female body odor Men smelled shirts of women in follicular ovulating phase and luteal nonovulating phase 0 Males lead to believe one tshirt worn by attractive female other by unattractive 0 Rated most attractive or sexy smell follicular phase The Age Factor o In chimpanzees males prefer olderfemales due to higher survivorship of offspring youngerfemales are less experienced parents 0 Female preference was for someone around 4 years older females consistently marries males who were around 5 years older than themselves 0 Evolutionaryexplanation I Reproductive potential as women reach their reproductive peak around the age of twenty which declines thereafter 0 Males desire females who are at the peak of reproductive potential males preferred wives 2 V2 years younger as males age they prefer mates who are increasingly younger I Teenage males preferred mates who were slightly olderthan themselves 0 Age preference changes at different relationship levels I Women preferred partners around their own age regardless ofthe relationship involvement I Males preferred mates at the peak of productive capability 1830 for shortterm relationships or sexual fantasies for longer term relationships males preferred mates above the age of maximum fertility Sociocultural Factors o In general mate selection is limited to the norms of society 0 The fact that females prefer older higher status males and males prefer younger more attractive females may be a reflection of traditional sexroles 0 Provide Resources I Human males can provide a range of resources forthe female 0 Food 0 Shelter 0 Protection from other males I Females should have evolved preferences for males who 0 Have good financial prospects Have higher social status 0 Display hardworking and industrious characters I Women tend to value the economic resources of a potential partner substantially more than men do around twice as hi hi as men 0 Education and job prospects I Many women choose males that are still young and relatively lacking in social status and resources 0 Those males have an education and willingness to seek resources I Women thus place high value on characteristics indicating hard work in potential mates career orientation industriousness and ambition I More likely to discontinue relationships with males who become unemployed lack career motivation or show laziness 0 Status I Investigated the relative importance of status vs attractiveness I Photographs of people of high medium and low attractiveness were paired with three levels of occupational status I Students viewed the portrayals and indicated their willingness to engage in relationships of varying levels of sexual intimacy I Physical attraction has some influence but the highest status was able to offset unattractiveness I Burger King Study Males were prerated into handsome vs homely Each were put into one of three costumes high medium or low rank 0 Females prefer males who are socially dominant and have the respect of their peers Forming a relationship with a socially dominant male would confer greater direct access to resources and also raise the social status of the female Dominant behavior increased the sexual attractiveness and dating desirability of the males whilst female target were unaffected 0 Parenting Ability Pictures of males in several different conditions with children 0 Positive interactions with a small child yielded the most positive reactions 0 Women highly value characteristics such as dependability maturity and emotional stability Expressions of love are a signal of regular commitment towards offspring reinforces bonds 0 Behavioral Characteristics Paternity Certainty I males lack paternity certainty those males that were able to reduce the risk of cuckoldry would have had greater reproductive fitness I Males should have developed adaptations to seek partners particularly for longterm relationships who would remain faithful Chastity is valued highly in most cultures but there are large differences in its extent I Males in all cultures view promiscuity and unfaithfulness as being particularly undesirable in a potential longterm tner o Psychological Studies ofJealousy I Males and females would be differentially concerned about potential sexual and emotional infidelity Males experience greater distress to sexual infidelity 60 compared to 17 0 Females experience greater distress to emotional infidelity 83 0 Cross Cultural Studies I Culture can influence the strength of the adaptive response but the response is still significant US males compared to the German or Dutch males experienced the greatest upset during a sexual infidelity scenario 0 Homosexual Mate Preferences Homosexual participants generally provided similar ratings as their samesex counterparts Female homosexuals placed greater emphasis on visual sexual stimuli than did heterosexual females but less emphasis on the partner39s status 0 Male homosexuals placed slightly less value on sexual jealousythan heterosexual men and slightly less value on partner yout I The Hadza The don39t have wealth or differences in status 0 Food sharing prevents females from directly benefiting from a mate that is a good hunter 0 So the evolutionary and sociocultural explanations are not as clear 0 Female preferences in males good forager good looking intelligent good character 0 Male preferences in females good looking hard working fertile good character Attractiveness Power of Attractiveness 0 Physical attractiveness is a strong predictor of whether a woman will marry and of the socioeconomic status of their spouse 0 Students were asked to answer a series of q M 39 g LII ind idHa39 39 39 39 39 39 desirability based on their photographs I Males were willing to date and have sex with the most attractive individuals irrespective of their social status s Beauty in the Eye ofthe Beholder o It used to be though that standards of beauty were culturally determined and individuals perceptions of beauty had to be learned 0 Infants gazed longer at the faces that had been judged as being attractive than thosejudged as being unattractive 0 Infants played longer with dolls with attractive faces than ones with unattractive faces Cross Cultural Agreement 0 Multiple fitness model I Beauty reflects a combination of desirable neonate sexually mature expressive grooming qualities I Within and between cultures individuals may display variance in response to specific features but will respond in a sImilar manner to the features as a whole All males were attracted to large eyes small noses high cheekbones small chin and large smile Contrast Effects 0 E fects of exposure to attractive nude females on male sexual attraction judgments I Males showed a significant reduction in rating oftheir partners Facial Attractiveness o Regardless of cultural affinities there are general biological correlations with facial attractiveness I Symmetry I Koinophilia Fluctuating Asymmetry o Fluctuating asymmetry indicated developmental stability in the presence of environmental and genetic challenges and therefore provides a possible indicator of health and therefore perhaps fertility 0 Low FA males report more sexual partners earlier age of first sexual intercourse and more offspring 0 Women whose partners have low FA report more orgasms than those whose partner have high FA 0 Male faces high in symmetry are rates as being more attractive dominant sexy and healthy Symmetry 0 Faces created by combining individual faces into composites are viewed as being more attractive than the individual faces themse ves o In making composites symmetry is increased and facial blemished are reduces Koinophilia 0 When sexual creatures seek a mate they preferthat mate not to have any unusual peculiar or deviant features 0 Facial attractiveness increases in proportion to the number of faces in the composite 0 Preference for the average Hormonal Markers 0 Levels of testosterone and estrogen in males and females affect a number of facial features that can be used as honest signals of heath and genetics Male Facial Structure 0 Testosterone promotes I Lateral growth of the cheekbones mandible and chin I Forward growth of the browridges I Lengthening of the face 0 Higher testosterone males are seen as being more masculine and more attractive Facial Hair o In humans the presence orthe absence of head and facial hair provides strong socialsexual signals 0 Facial hair is generated at puberty in the presence of testosterone and rate of beard growth is positively related to androgen levels 0 Males with facial hair are rated as being more masculine strong potent dominant and courageous Cranial Hair 0 Male pattern baldness evolved as a signal of aging and social maturity I Males with enhanced social status and reduces physical aggression o Males with facial hair and those with bald or receding hair were rated as being older than those who were cleanshaven or had a full head of hair 0 Beards and a full head of hair were also seen as being more aggressive and less socially mature baldness was associated with less attractiveness but more social maturity Female Facial Structure Attractive features associated with high levels of estrogen and low levels of testosterone include I Prominent cheek bones I Full lips I Small nose I Small chin I Large eyes I Skin condition 0 Males assign far greater significance to physical attractiveness than do females Neoteny 0 Features created by high estrogenlow testosterone ratio 0 Face with proportions indicative of a 14yearol o A key feature of female facial attractiveness is the extent of babyish features that the face displays Skin Condition 0 Flawless skin is one of the most universally desired female features 0 Skin becomes darker during the nonfertile phase of the cycle during pregnancy and in women who use the contraceptive pill Pheromones o Androstadienone male steroid from axillary scent glands alters female limbic system function and causes positive reactions I Females improve feelings toward males feel submissive Menstrual synchronization among female cohabitants Male Body Types Correlations with attractiveness include I Height 0 Associated with power and status and confers economic and social advantages 0 Tall men were rated more positively than short men I Torso dimension Shoulder width is a strong positive predictor of attractiveness of male figures Waistchest ration was the principle determinant of attractiveness Males with a high shouldertohip ratio reported having sex at an earlier ager and more sexual partners I Athleticismmusculature Sports competitors have more sexual partners and number of partners increased with performance level 0 Female Body Size and Shape I In western societies the general preference is for averageslim body sizes I In cultures where food is scarce plumpness is a sign of adequate nutrition health and good social standing more attractive I Female body shape Relatively narrow shoulders 0 Permanent breasts 0 Narrow waist Wider hips gluteofermoral fat Distribution of body fat 0 At puberty females deposit tissue on the thighs breasts and buttocks Waist Hip Ratio waist circumference divided by hip circumference 0 After puberty the female WHR becomes significantly lower than that of the male due to the presence of estrogens 0 Health WHR is 067080 0 WHR is unique to humans and may be an adaptation signaling fertility o A high WHR indicates proneness to diabetes hypertension heart problems and strokes Males and females rated the figure with the lowers WHR as being more youthful health reproductively capable and attractive Hadza Body Type Preference o Hadza average frontal and profile preference was 078 frontal09 profile06 0 Americans are 068 0 Actual average WHRfor Hadza females ages 1782 is 083 I Between the ages of 1724 WHR 079 It appears as though the average WHR most associated with attractiveness is what is seen in young fertile females regardless of culture 0 Fatness o What is considered attractive or healthy is culturally specific 0 Below 18 body fat I Menstruation stops I Unable to conceive or carry child I Cannot produce breast milk I Unable to store estrogen osteoporosis Annang Culture of Nigeria 0 Value quotWomen of Substancequot 0 Marriage practice to fatten up girls and make them beautiful Seclude girls and prevent them from doing any work I Primary goal is to get fat 0 Obesity is a culturebound syndrome 0 Mbobo I quotFattening Room Girlquot Secluded from other including other mbobo Naked so others can observe her fatness Fed whatever she wants by a small child attendant 0 Purpose I Major social event when a girl leavesthe fattening room 0 The fatterthe girl the higherthe bride price I During the process she was taught womanly arts how to please a husband care for children I Sign of how wealth a family was I Fatness ensured ability to conceive carry bear and suckle first child I Tradition also used to enter secret societies and combat infertility Trends 0 We tend to be attracted to individualsthat I Share core values attitudes opinions political ideals religious ideals sense of humor Parental Investment Minimums Parental Investments 0 Females I 9 month gestation I 23 year lactation I Production of eggs 0 Males I Minutes I Teaspoon of fluid Parental Investment 0 T e nature and intensity of sexual selection is a function of the parental investment each sex typically makes 0 Time and energy invested in 1 offspring precludes investingtime and energy in others o Tradeoffs o Negative effects on reproductive success I The more care required to rear offspring the greaterthe parental investment I The less care required the essthe parental investment 0 What accounts as parental investment I Production of sex cells I Internal fertilization I Gestation period internalexternal I Placentation I Lactation period 0 Among vertebrate animals with external fertilization fish and amphibians post natal care at least as likely to be performed by male as by females 0 Birds have external care which means that both sexes can invest mans have internal care and only females invest Parental Investments and Reproductive Rates 0 Sexual interest and receptivity to sexual offers should differ between males and females Coolidge Effect Males are often rearoused by the sight of a novel female 0 Since a male39s RS can increase with increased mating opportunities we should expect males to be eagerto mate even after they havejust done so Clark and Hatfield o Receptivity to sexual offer men were more likely to accept an invitation for sex Risk of Investment In the presence of real risk investment male and female choosiness converges Altruism and Kin Selection 0 We have discussed theoretical investment strategies and behaviors tied to males and females 0 Altruism refers to an individual acting in a waythat will decrease its own survival chances but improve the survival chance of another individual I Natural selection seems to favor selfish behavior I Animals living in social groups reveals that cooperation and altruism arejust as natural as selfishness vampire bats regurgitate to feed hungry conspecific ground squirrels will warn others of the presence of a predator social insects will forgo reproduction in orderto help raise sisters 0 Theories of Altruism Kin Selection 0 By helping relatives to reproduce then your shared genes can spread assisting a close relative therby increases one39s inclusive fitness HAMILTON39S RULE coefficient of relatednessbenefit to the recipientgtcost to the giver I How Much Pain Will You Suffer For Your Kin Participants were asked to maintain a painful position the longer they held the position the more money they would earn More pain was sustained for closer relatives I Problems for Kin Selection Humans often engage in apparently altruistic acts 0 Reciprocal Altruism I 39you scratch my back39 0 If the benefit received is largerthan the cost incurred then individuals who engage in such behavior will outreproduce those who do not 0 Indirect Reciprocation An altruistic act need not necessarily be reciprocated by the person directly but can be returned indirectly from other individua s o If you advertise yourself as an altruistic then individuals will be more favorably inclined to deal with you in future social exchange situation 0 Evidence I Students are significantly more likely to give to charity if they receive a pin or tag that advertises their participation I Males at the early stage of a relationship were more likely to give than those in a long established relationship Impressing current partner or demonstrating one39s generosity to a potential partner ParentingMating Tactics 0 Parental Favoritism mechanisms of parental care will favor some offspring over others 0 Sensitive to I Genetic relatedness of the offspring A man who discovered that his daughter was not biologically his cut off all ties with her 0 This supportsthe idea that a lack of paternity can be a huge factor in parental investment How do men assess paternity 0 Information about his partner39s sexual fidelity faithfulness o Perceptions ofthe child39s resemblance to 39 It is a cross cultural phenomenon that mothers and their kin attempt to influence the putative father39s perception of his paternity to encourage parental investment in the child Men39s perceptions of their offspring39s resemblance to themselves may also affect things such as family violence Stepmother and Stepfathers 0 Parental investment is less likely but not unheard of when one39s genes are not directly affected 0 Among the Hadza stepfathers invest lessthan genetic fathers do 0 Mating tactics of stepparents I Accepting the costs of courtship Child abuse and other risks of not living with both parents 0 Parental care should be viewed as a continuum o On one end there is extreme selfsacrifice forthe benefit ofthe offspring o On the other end there are events that inflict costs on the offspring such as child abuse 0 The more related one is to an infant the less likelythey will be to harm or kill the infant I Children living with one genetic parent and one stepparent are 40times more likely to be physically abused than children living with both genetic parents I Stepparenthood isthe single most powerful risk factorfor child abuse that hasthus far e n identified 0 Child homicide as a function of genetic relatedness to offspring I A child is more likely to be killed by a stepparent than a natural parent at all ages normally between 02 years old 0 1539 societiesthat practice infanticide I Adultery resulting in uncertainty of paternity as reason I Tikopia people in Venezuela 0 Men who married women who already had children by another man reportedly requested that they be killed as a condition of the marriage Stepparent relationships to children are the single greatest risk factors that have been identifies as leading to child abuse and child homicide Will increased parental care benefit offspring fitness It does not necessarily followthat a parent would invest more in a healthy child nor does it follow that they would invest more in an ill child A parent will be more likely to invest in a child ifthat child hasthe ability to convert given unit of parental care into fitness be benefited by the parental care Mothers direct more positive maternal behaviors to the infant that was healthier 0 Healthy Baby Hypothesis The health status ofthe child would affect the degree of positive maternal behavior I More maternal investment toward infants who are of higher reproductive value Investment in sons versus daughters the TriversWillard Hypothesis 0 Parents will invest more in sons when they are in good socioeconomic condition allowing him to do well in the mating game o If the parents are in poor condition and have few resources to invest then they should invest more in daughters limited resource more demand The Principle of Finite Effort T e effort expended toward caring for a child cannot be allocated toward other adaptive problems such as person survival attracting additional mates or perhaps investing in other kin 0 Proportion of births leading to infanticide is highest among the youngest women and lowest among the older women Ayoreo Indians and Canadians o A woman39s unwed status was declared a compelling reason for infanticide 0 Both age and marital status are positively correlated with rates of infanticide Parental effort versus mating effort n benefit more than women by gaining sexual access to addition mates additional children to pass on gen s o Paternity is generally less than 100 certain A man may or may not be supporting his genes being passed down whereas a woman is certain that she is supporting her genes being passed down 0 90 of single women are women I This indicated the preference among both sexes forthe woman to be the predominant care giver 0 Women s pupils dilated 17 whereas men39s pupils did not dilate at all suggesting that women were more interested and attracted to the pictures than the men were 0 Women can identify their newborn within 6 hours merely by smell whereas fathers cannot 0 Women can more easily detect the emotions that their infants are displaying 0 Women appearto have a host of parental mechanisms that are weak or absent in men 0 Aka Pygamies in Central Africa I Low status men increase the effort they allocate to parenting I Highstatus men channel extra effort into attracting additional mates 0 Even when men devote effort to parenting it may be used as a mating tactic rather than as a means to aid the viability of the child 0 A man may put effort into the child in orderto attract that child39s mother become a stepfather to gain access to female I What are investment energies best used for own offspring or siblings offspring Summary 0 Females are more interested in parental effort of raising offspring whereas males are more interested in mating effort I Especially when the males know that child is not his he will care as a condition of courtship I This is not a universal behaviorstrategy of all males Marriage Practices Factors Influencing Attraction 0 Proximity I Mere exposure I More opportunities to meet interact I People are likely to live near people of similar economic social backgrounds o Physicalattractiveness I 39 evel of agreement across cultures I Certain features of face are reliably associated with attractiveness I Different cultures quotimprovequot beauty in different ways I Different body types arejudged to be more attractive in different parts of the world I Body type standards vary overtime o Similarity I Married couples report significant agreement about politics and religion I Friends were more similar in attitudes beliefs values and interests I We like those who are like ourselves I Romantic pairs are similar in physical attractiveness I Even college roommates preferto be of similar attractiveness I Sense of humor particularly important 0 Reciprocity I People like positive feedback I Even obvious attempts at flattery increase liking I Being liked leads to positive interpersonal behavior I Over time people prefer increasing affinity ratherthan decreasing affinity I Referred to as the quotcouple39s cursequot o Courtship I Women39s flirting behavior Smile Lift eyebrows in fast jerky motion 0 Open their eyes wide 0 Lower their eyelids Tilt head down and to the side 0 Look away I Female courtship behaviors were defined as that specific subset of nonverbal behaviorthat consistently resulted in male attraction 52 items identified I Courtship found to be more important than physical attraction for garnering male interest I Male courtship rituals Submissive displays palms up shoulder shrug tilt head Dominance displays entering person space putting arm around shoulder swagger Resource displays paying for food drink wearing expensive clothes bragging Male rituals harder to chronicle The less ritualized and more original his approach is the more likely a woman is to accept it 0 Ad hoc courtship by human males Love 0 Difference in brain activity I Love vs lust o VTA Ventral Tegmental Area I Viewing a romantic partner led to activation of the right VTA and right caudate nucleus past experience and present are combined I Where dopamine is made 0 The real chemistry of love I Neurotransmitters have a profound effect on sexual attraction Phenylethylamine PEA o Closely associated with intense passion and attraction o Surging levels accompany the initial elation and intense excitement and euphoria of new love 0 Chemicalsimilartoamphetamines Dopamine 0 Allied to pleasure reward and addiction 0 Its release produces great pleasure quottellingquot us what we like 0 Also similar to amphetamines o MRI39s ofthose passionately in love demonstrate that a picture of our beloved leadsto heightened activity in parts of the frontal love saturated with dopamine receptors Love Styles 0 Romantic partners tend to have similar love styles 0 Eros passionate love Love at first sight I 34 of subjects rate 39high39 on this scale Men typically have higher ratings 0 Storage friendship love I Very close friendship becomes love I 66 of subjects rate 39high39 on this scale I Women typically have higher ratings 0 Ludus gameplaying love I Flirtatious and not committed I 2of subjects rate 39high39onthis scale Men typically have higher ratings 0 Mania possessive love I Feeling of ownership over lover I 2of subjects rate 39high39onthis scale I Women typically have higher ratings 0 Pragma logical love I Cognitive appreciation for other39s quality I 17 of subjects rate 39high39 on this scale I Women typically have higher ratings 0 Agape selfless love Putting one39s lover above one39s self I 2of subjects rate 39high39onthis scale I Highly correlated with religiosity Triarchic Model of Love 0 Three aspects of love I Intimacy closeness two people feel psychologically how ell partners understand each other I Passion the amount of physicalsexual attraction and romance I Commitment the cognitive factors such as the decision to maintain the relationship I Intimacy liking I Commitment empty love I Passion infatuation I Intimacy passion romantic love I Intimacy commitment companionate love I Passion commitment fatuous love I Passion commitment intimacy consummate love Equity Theory 0 Economic model of love Rewards include love companionship consolation sexual gratification social acceptance Costs include work to maintain relationship conflict compromise sacrifice of other opportunities for relationships 39 quot 39 39 artner39s 39 39r 39 39 39 Comparison level average expected outcome of the relationship Comparison for alternatives expectation of what could be received in a different relationship 0 Investment what must be put into a relationshipthat cannot be recovered if the relationship ends Marriage What is marriage I Established legal parentage of children I Gives spouses rights OOOOO I Genitorthe biologicalfatherofa child I Pater the socially recognized father of a child 0 Incest and Exogamy xogamy the practice of seeking a spouse outside one39s own group I Incest having sexual relations with a close relative Incest taboo is a cultural universal What constitutes incest varies widely from culture to culture 0 Crosscousin marriage and incest taboo Parallel cousins children of two brothers or two sisters I Cross cousins children of either a brother or a sister depends on sex 0 Patrilineal decentgroup identity and incest amongthe Lakher I An incestuous union if occurs between father39s second wife39s patrilineage o Explaining the Taboo No universally accepted explanation for the fact that all cultures ban incest Crosscultural findings show incest and its avoidance shaped by kinship structures 0 Focus on risks and avoidance of fatherdaughter incest correlated with a patriarchal nuclearfamily structure 0 Focus on avoiding brothersister incest in societies that have nonnuclear structure 0 Instinctive HorrorTheory I Homo sapiens are genetically programmed to avoid incest Theory has been refuted I Specific kin types included within the incest taboo have a cultural rather than biological basis 0 Biologicaldegeneration The incest taboo developed in response to abnormal offspringfrom being born from incestuous unions I Decline in fetility and survival accompanies brothersister mating across several generations I Human marriage patterns are based on specific cultural beliefs rather than universal concerns about biological degeneration I We consider cousin marriage incest but it is the norm in may cultures the do not have terrible incidents of genetic problems 0 Attempt and contempt I Incest taboo originated to direct sexual feelings away from one39s family to avoid disrupting the family structure I The opposite theory argues that people are less likely to be sexually attracted to those with whom they have grown up 0 Marry out or die out I A more accepted argument isthat the taboo originated to ensure exogamy I Idea from LeiStrauss Incest taboos force people to create and maintain wide social networks Incest taboos are seen as an adaptively advantageous cultural construct o Endogamy I The marriage of people from the same group I Endogamy and exogamy may operate in a single society but do not apply to the same social unit I Endogamy can be seen as functioning to express and maintain social differences particularly in stratified societies I Homogamy the partice of marrying someone similar to you in terms of background social status aspirations and interests I Caste India39s caste system is extreme endogamy Although India39s varna and US quotracesquot are historically distinct they share a castelike ideology of en ogamy I Royal endogamy Royal endogamy is similarto caste endogamy o Manifest function the reason given for a custom by its native o Latent function the effects a custom has are not explicitly recognized by the natives In ancient Hawaii brothersister marriage was a part of that culture39s beliefs about mana and sacredness With European royalty the practice of endogamy was based on cousin marriage Royal endogamy also had a latent economic function Marital Rights and SameSex Marriage Rights allocated to marriage include I Establishing a legal father and mother I Giving a monopoly in sexuality ofthe other I Giving rightstothe labor ofthe other I Giving rights over the other39s property I Establishingajoint fund of property I Establishing a socially significant quotrelationship of affinityquot 0 Since samesex marriage is illegal in most states samesex couples are denied many of the rights of marriage I If samesex marriages were legal the social construction of kinship could easily make both partners parents O Durable Alliances The continuation of marital alliance when one spouse dies I Sororate the husband may marry the wife39s sister if the wife dies I Levirate this isthe right to marrythe husband39s brother ifthe husband dies 0 Divorce 0 O O O O Maters socially recognized mothers Samesex marriages have been recognized in different historical and cultural settings Bridewealth and Dowry Particularly in descentbased societies marriage partners represent an alliance of larger social units I Bridewealth a giftfrom thehusband39s kin to the wife39s kin I Dowry a marital exchange in which the wife39s group provides substantial gifts to the husband39s family I In many African societies cattle constitute bridewealth Plural marriage being married to more than two spouses simultaneously polygamy Polygyny a man has more than one wife Polyandry a woman has more than one husband Divorce tends to be more common in matrilineal than in patrilineal societies I Crossculturally high divorce rates are correlated with a secure female economic position I Political and economic factors complicate the divorce process The US has one of the world39s highest divorce rates Among the Hadza I Marriages are not arranges nor are there ceremonies based on cohabitation I Divorce is common no ceremoniesrituals I Serially monogamous I ntermarriage with other ethnic groups is rare I Age of first marriage is a few years earlierfor women 17 than for men I It is more common for couples to live with the wife39s kin through residence is flexible Pulral Marriages Polygyny Polyandry Even when polygyny is encourage most main remain monogamous Equal sexual ratios I The custom of men marrying later than women promotes polygyny Having multiple wives is associated with wealth and prestige O 0 You need formidable resources for a larger family Marriage as a contract among families families want to associate with important people Polyandry is quite rate practiced under specific conditions Among the Pahar is of India polyandry is associated with have a relatively low female population due to convert female infanticide In other cultures polyandry has resulted from the fact that men have traveled a great deal Tibet when brothers share a wife 0 OOO Brothersjointly take a wife who leaves her home to come live with them Marriage was arranged by the parents Eldest brother is normally dominant in terms of authority No attempt to link children biologically to particular brothers and a brother shows not favoritism toward his child even if he knows he is the real father
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'