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Civ 040212 Papers will be taken electronically can turn in drafts for review before the due date The Rise of Macedonia and Alexander the Great Alter the Peloponnesian wars Greece was unstable power was being shifted by Sparta Greece was weak all around Sparta was in control but not powerfu Shift from city states to empire with the rise of Philip and Alexander Army philosophies shift from compulsory to mercenary Macedonia Considered barbaric quotbarbarquot as a phonetic description of other languages different from Greek civilizations social structure centered on warrior nobility not many sophisticated refinements Philip of Macedon Ruled 359 336 BC was in the right place at the right time eliminated rivals and acquired power successful because he had charisma and a quotmachiavellianquot sense of politics Swiss army knife knew how to manipulate his enemies strategically and mentally studies strategy well and learns from weaknesses and strengths Policies likes Greek culture wants to adopt it into Macedonia makes Greek the official language in his courts he wants to be able to control other rivals and maintain power so he allows nobles to send their sons to his court quotvelvet rope hostagesquot security that nobles will not rebel He realizes he needs to build an army creates an infantry with a modified phalanx longer spears employs various soldiers with various skills to diversify his army used technology carried a core of engineers began work on catapults soldiers respected him because he lived like they did and fought with them Alexander Olympias was his mother twisted girl Philip could not get along with her so he married other women before his death he divorces Olympias she decides to protect her son she convinces his most recent wife to kill herself and her baby Olympias tells Alexander that he is the man to lead Macedonia Rumors began to arise in Greece Demosthenes vs Isocrates Demosthenes said the Macedonians were headed for Athens Greece became lulled by Isocrates who said they should ally with Philip against the Persians Macedonia takes over 338 BC Chaeronea is defeated with complete victory Philip wants to integrate Greek culture Philip creates the Hellenic League he calls himself quotHegemonquot head of the Hellenic League he allows people some Autonomy the same governments rule the city states but he tells them to report to him Alexander Ruled 336 323 BC he takes over his father39s rule he hates his father he decides to murder his father while Philip is at the wedding of one of his daughters killed by one of his own bodyguards Alexander proclaims he is king in 336 BC Greeks begin to doubt Alexander39s rule and rebel Alexander marches and destroys the city of Thebes Greece settles down Alexander would not have been so successful without the legacy his father left him strong army with diverse powers tight control over homeland nobility strong desire to be a part of Greek culture already in control of most of Greece when he started Alexander moves to conquer Persia he helps the Ionian Greeks become free from Persia Crosses the Hellespoint with over 30000 troops at only 22 years old moves south and conquers Egypt in 332 calling himself Pharaoh Persians are defeated in 331 at Guagamela military support decides that they have no chance and kill their own king to allow a takeover He wanted to conquer Asia and India he thought Asia was fairly small took a group of scientists thinkers writers etc to record the cultures he encountered 327 BC Alexander enters Khyber Pass most people accepted invitations peacefully Porus holds up a fight and is defeated but informs Alexander that he is mistaken about the size of Asia many soldiers are homesick and his army rebels at the Indus Valley Taxila in 326 BC they demand to go home they pursue the southern route back assuring their conquests Alexander39s death shot by an arrow while climbing a wall to a city pulls the arrow out at the objection of his doctors and gets an infection and dies Three generals in Alexander39s army take over the empire in pieces The Hellenistic World 323 30 BC Cleopatra is the last independent ruler of Egypt until the 20th century Hellenic only the Greek world Hellenistic the Greek culture and its impact on other cultures Gandhara school Indian subjects with Greek architecture Characteristics Many people in the Hellenistic world did not like the Greek culture period of optimism to a period of pessimism the transition was viewed as a decline shifted from small governments to large empires shifted from tightly knit cities to cosmopolitan cities monarchy rules again squelching citizens39 voices in government cultural centers shift from local cultures to diverse cultures Alexandria is a prime example religion shifts from traditions to mixed cultures ex Egypt now has Greek names for Egyptian gods Points of Contact Greek is the common tongue throughout the empire trade networks traversed the territories the legacy of Alexander links areas together After Alexander Political Divisions Three generals divide the land Ptolemaic North Africa to Palestine Selucid Asia Minor to Bactria Antigonid Old Hellenic League Mainland Greece 240 BC things begin to deteriorate regions divide and become separate again Spotlight Ptolemaic Empire Ptolemy and his family are Greek ruling non Greeks Cleopatra was the first ruler in her family to learn the native language Egyptian in addition to Greek married her brother she was 14 and he was 12 Major centers of learning and the arts in Egypt Alexandria became the jewel of this region for its contributions to art and science Libraries and museums Cleopatra was a Greek Wow Man people get worked up over races Yeesh Civ 04 02 17 The Hellenistic World Recap Hellenic vs Hellenistic Gandhara Pakistan school of art Greek meets India Characteristics shifts in behavior and ideals general downturn trade and connections still in place Spotlight Ptolemaic Empire Alexandria Libraries Museum Lelt education and economy alone for the most part Attempted to standardize written Greek Chandagupta Maurya Developed the Mauryan empire Controlled greater India Alexander influenced a greater area than he had control over Changes in Philosophy Cynics many people were cynical most people were concerned about their own well beings Diogenes 400 325 cynics distrusted humans and human motives disliked all things material argued for living by animal instincts conducted his entire life in public and he was married at least once quotgrass rootsquot movement Alexander asked Diogenes for advice and was retorted for standing in sunlight Diogenes was revered as a wise man by some Stoics believed in participating in public life said it was man39s place to understand and unravel the divine plan of the gods Zeno 335 263 Marcus Aurelias was also a stoic Epicureans quotwanting the bestquot in modern context Epicurus 341 270 believed no pleasure and no pain life is painful don39t waste your energy spend your time in tranquility and freedom from pleasure and pain private study Skeptics if you cannot be certain of something withdraw from it did not believe in being involved with the public life Legacies of the Age Scholars argue about the influences some say Greek was a prominent influence Greek became the prominent language transformation from polis to metropolitan city Romans became the next major empire Islam as well The Western Neighborhood before the Roman Republic Greeks Magna Graecia influence from Southern Italy Celts Keltoi Not united or necessarily related more cultural relation Celtic is a linguistic reference loosely connected linguistically and culturally scattered 500 BC the Celts began to spread into Italy major trade with Massilia Marssailles Interacted with Gaul France 390 BC Celts were on top of Rome citizens evacuate and bought the Celts off to leave Romans built walls 300 BC they moved into Spain and Ireland some moved to Galatia Cisalpine Gaul loose kinship groups Four tiers King or Chieltan Warrior Nobility Men of Art Everyone Else Leadership is provided through patronage the chieftan must convince his kinship to stay with him patronage prestige goods like wine Polytheistic anthropomorphic representations of Celtic gods Druids mostly found in Gaul the Island of Britain and Ireland Judges and priests handled animal sacrifice disputes etc picked at a young age no dynasty or patriculation did not believe in a Heaven or Hell abstract afterlife Hochdorf Chieltan decked out with stuff after death no hunting or war supplies wagons Etruscans Etrurian language has not been deciphered took over Corsica Latium Po Valley 625 509 controlled Rome 12 independent city states connected via religious ties Veii 400 BC they no longer control other territories than Etruria Legacy Urbanized northern peninsula Transmit Greek culture Innovation in religion temples as major religious centers Jupiter Juno and Minerva used animal innards to tell the future 509 BC the last Etruscan king is kicked out Transformation I The Rise and Expansion of Rome Stories of Roman Beginnings Virgil says Aneas settled it Some claim Romulus and Remus started it Latium The 7 Hills of Rome Capitoline Hill Palantine Hiill etc 509 BC Tarquin is overthrown the last Etruscan king is kicked out and Rome beings itself Rome Becomes a Territorial Power 3 Stages of Imperialism Take over the Italian Peninsula Carthaginian Empire Greek World The Roman Army Hastati hired soldiers not always a phalanx Gladius Army was professional not incidental Legion placed the youngest first Hastati Principes are next then Triarii Legion spanned a mile or more Allies and Cohorts to the sides Took engineers and building supplies to create base camps when stopped solders were required to help build the base camps Legions were positioned throughout the Mediterranean world The Peninsula 509 264 BC quotexpansionist statequot not interested in protecting what they have but in expanding the Roman Empire Order of Conquest Three Tiered system Independent allies roman citizenship semi autonomous areas Latium 340 BC Eruria 264 BC Relatively easy ghting conceded to full citizenship Samnite Wars 343 290 BC relatively dif cult completely outnumbered the Romans but they won anyway Appian Way built as a military access road for this war Magna Graecia 280 BC not unified relatively easy Pyrrus responded to the Grecian call for aid with 25000 troops and elephants goal was successful but the cost was so great that it was pointless rumored to die by a flower pot to the head upon returning home Why did the Romans win Centralized government Good Empire Management Good Geographic Location Iberian Peninsula and Carthage The Punic Wars Most difficult wars in Roman history Carthage was the only major opponent the Romans had Punic is from the Latin for Phoenicians extremely costly over 1 million Romans died Carthage was very close to defeating Rome but never fully succeeded helped to de ne the Romans as they saw themselves The Phoenicians Carthage was a trading post for the Phoenicians Excellent trading location Ran into the Romans on Sicily Causes of the Carthaginian Wars Romans want Sicily and Phoenicians want to keep it Romans want to increase trading efficacy Romans desired military glory Romans disputed over a small city lst Punic War 264241 BC Romans win built a navy from scratch Many people in Carthage did not want war so there was not as much enthusiasm for victory on their side Romans were too strong for the Carthaginians the war was extremely expensive Carthage lost the island of Sicily and pulled its ships from the waters Lost naval supremacy in the Mediterranean Romans charged them with the cost of the war indemnity Great gain for Rome forced Carthaginians to withdraw great cost in manpower A Short Peace 242218 BC Carthage takes over Sicily again Hannibal is raised great general but never is able to defeat the Romans due to circumstance 2nd Punic War 218202 BC Exhausting for both sides Hannibal controlled the Carthaginian army but had no navy Travels with troops through Spain and over the Alps lost over a quarter of his men lands in Po Valley tries to convince Romans to rebel against Rome most areas rejected the suggestion Civ 04 02 19 Continued The Punic Wars represent the major struggle for empire in this era Romans want the Carthaginian Empire and Carthage puts up a good fight Romans stuck their necks out to start the conflict on Sicily People in Carthage did not want a war Carthage had less money to fight with Romans gain naval dominance in the Mediterranean by flushing Sicily and disembarking Carthaginian ships Jealousy in Carthage over the Roman rule sparked the 2nd Punic War Hannibal controls Carthaginian forces great general but never able to crush the Romans Hannibal marches over the North end of Italy and loses most of his troops People in Italy are more strongly banded with Rome Hannibal roams around Italy looking for the Roman army but rarely nds them Hannibal crushes most of the Romans in Cannae but cannot nish them off He did not come prepared to besiege a city so he did not pursue Rome directly Zama 202 BC Scipio quotAfricanusquot Conqueror of North Africa Fought to control Spain for Rome and then branch off to Carthage to draw Hannibal away from Rome Hannibal concedes by request of Carthage to return home and meet the Romans at Zama in 202 BC Romans win and end the 2nd Punic War Romans do not take Ptolemaic SpainEgypt 3rd Punic War 149146 BC quotAnd I think Carthage should be destroyedquot Cato Roman politicians want to decimate Carthage for PR The campaign is successful Romans now control the former Carthaginian empire and their own Major Effects Male population declines drastically by millions Hannibal destroyed land and resources in Italy while he was there economic nature of the Italian Peninsula changes in agricultural production shift from small farmers to plantation farming latifundia the ventures become capitalistic rather than survivalistic those without land or jobs migrate to cities cities grow slums The Peloponnesus and Macedonia Romans are fighting for Mainland Greece and upper Macedonia while the Punic Wars are being fought they eventually win fought in the Aegean and surrounding land Transformation II From Republic to Empire Republican Government Social Structure Patricians Equestrian Order Plebeians Slaves Patricians claim to be descendant from the original founders of Rome they are the Aristocracy that make up about 10 of the Roman population access to the highest political offices only patricians can become consuls or senators passed on through family lines not related to economic status Equestrians were the cavalry in the military access to middle level positions in government no access to higher levels of government must marry into the patrician class Plebeians were the largest group of citizens not descendants of original Romans small wealthy commercial class but mostly lower economical standings little access to power at all they are still citizens which does give them some rights Patronage system connected people from different groups in society connections socially or politically to exchange favors ancient lobbyists The Roman Constitution Pre Republican Rome kings imperium Senate Tarquin was rumored to be removed because he raped a woman imperium was power over life and death of anyone in your kingdom you had ultimate power over your people the power was given and theoretically could be taken back Senate was an advisory body for the king not a political power of its own 509 BC Tarquin is expelled from Rome Republican Balance of Power Consuls were chosen by the Senate and given imperial power power to control civil issues Assemblies were groups with their own representatives and voices Centuriate Assembly drawn from the army Assembly of the Tribes drawn from the Tribal Units in Italy dominated by the upper class Assembly of the Plebs drawn from the common people Assembly of the Plebs did not allow any other members but Plebs major voice for change of Aristocratic control Senate sets public policy dominated by the Patricians about 300 members members were experienced in lower public offices and were elected Senate members were chosen for life Struggle of the Orders 494 287 BC 494 Tribunes established official spokespersons for the Plebeians Senate could not arrest him had the right to intervene street brawls to other assemblies became very powerful reserved for the Plebeians 450 Twelve Tables Plebeians move to record and publicize Roman laws evened the odds between the Patrician class and the Plebeians 445 Right to intermarry with Patricians Patricians without money married into the rich parts of the Plebian class and both gained social barrier removed 367 one Plebian consul now reserved for Plebeians 300 Plebian can now become high Priests 287 Lex Hortensia Any decisions made by the Plebs were binding for all of society power was completely realized with this act Internal Reform and Revolt The Gracchi Brothers Tiberius 133 Gaius 123 Important reforms to Rome especially about land tried to help but did not present reforms correctly connected through their mother to Scipio Actually Plebeians but had many connections citizens were required to own a minimum amount of land to join the army moved to lower the land requirement and ll army positions with those without jobs Instead of going to the Senate Tiberius went to the Assembly of Plebs with wide range land reforms land was redistributed socialistically Senate is offended and opposed the reforms forcefully Tiberius was assassinated Gaius decides to go to the Equestrians instead of the Senate or the Plebs offers reforms as a help to Equestrian social status Killed in a riot later Internal Revolt Spartacus 73 70 BC brought from Greece and trained as a gladiator decided to break free of the gladiatorial games revolted with great amounts of support freed slaves into a new army Romans sent a quotsecond stringquot army which was defeated Roman government scared and sent out good troops in 73 crushed by 70 any slaves that survived from Spartacus39 army were cruci ed Period of Civil Wars Marius 157 86 BC Army Reform famous soldier proven in Africa and Germany wanted to make radical changes to the structure of the Roman army professionalized the Roman army completely abolishes the property requirement soldiers were generally loyal to the state before now loyalty shifted to individual generals Massacre of 88 BC Mithridates was king of an area around the Black sea rumored quotwitch huntquot for Romans in that area Senate wants to send an army to take care of the problem they send Sulla instead of Marius Marius plays politically in the interim he grows distrust for Sulla in Rome Sulla becomes attached to the Optimates and Marius to the Populares Sulla is successful in his campaign against Mithrdates Marius takes over Sulla marches on Rome to remove Marius Sulla is the rst Roman general to march on Rome with a Roman army predecessor to Julius Caesar People were aware of the power of military leaders set bad precedent for power in government voices of factions in the government lose power Civ 04 02 24 continued Marius marches on Rome with a Roman army to establish himself as a dictator First Triumvirate 60 BC Major Players Crassus Populares Pompey Optimates was a well known and successful general not a great general just very successful not a great politician Julius Caesar Populares great general with a sense for politics all military men Pompey married Julius Caesar39s daughter all three were a bit paranoid of the others wanted to keep each of them in check each of them wanted the other two out of Rome Gaul Campaigns 5852 BC Pompey conspires to make Caesar go to Gaul with a great army Caesar wants to go in order to increase his empire Caesar goes to Gaul and takes the area establishes military dominance and goes home 52 BC Alesia rebels and Caesar returns Vercingetorix organizes a few tribes against Rome Gaul is defeated and Vercingetorix becomes a national hero Ast rix Comic strip in French Caesar now has a great army and a great success rate Crassus goes to Asia 5553 BC Crassus wants military glory as well and goes east to fight the Parthians which are much more dangerous than the Gauls Crassus is not successful and dies in a battle The Triumvirate is broken End of the First Triumvirate Pompey39s wife dies Julius Caesar has no more ties with Pompey that prevent his destruction Pompey becomes very scared of Caesar he convinces the Roman senate that Julius Caesar has dangerous intentions and convinces them to arrest him and try him for treason they send a message to Caesar telling him to return to Rome without his army Caesar breaks the Rubicon Rule he crosses the Rubicon with his army which was against the law in 49 BC Pompey no longer has the support of the senate he flees for his life Caesar follows him to Spain Greece and then Egypt the Egyptians capture Pompey out of fear of Caesar and deliver his head on a silver platter Caesar is horri ed Cleopatra was ruling Egypt at the time with her brother and tried to be more involved in the culture she managed to quotbalance the budgetquot and was fairly well liked she realized that Egyptian independence was precarious she offered Caesar herself by delivering herself to his doorstep in a rug Caesar and Cleopatra have a relationship Caesarion is their son Caesar backs Cleopatra against her brother and she funds Caesar39s conquests Rome under Caesar 4844 BC Caesar rules Rome with a good bit of ease and sense he tries to make things better for the Romans Caesar extends the quotthree tier systemquot and extends full citizenship to some in Spain he pumps government funds into repairs to Roman territory and expansion he contributes the Caesarian calendar Conspiracy 44 BC Brutus and Cassius attempt to overthrow Casear and return rule to the Republic on the Ides of March 44 BC Caesar is assassinated under the statue of Pompey Brutus had a personal dispute with Caesar as well as a political dispute Caesar bangs his mother while his father is still alive the people turn on Brutus and Cassius soon after The Second Triumverate 43 BC Mark Antony Octavian and Lepid us take over rule Mark Antony was well liked Octavian was Caesar39s nephew Lepid us was a rich aristocrat Mark Antony took the east Mediterranean Octavian took the Europe and Italy and Lepidus west Africa Cleopatra had a son by Julius Casear whom she now feared for under the current political conditions she tries to preserve Egyptian independence by marrying Mark Antony Mark Antony was married to Octavian39s sister whom he divorced Octavian was now mad at Mark Antony Octavian took up more power in Rome and he broke out war against Mark Antony Battle of Actium in 31 BC is the final naval battle of the wars surrounding the Second Triumvirate this battle ended the Republic Octavian is the last man standing he tracks down Mark Antony and Cleopatra who have already committed suicide independently Octavian realizes Caesarion is a threat and kills the boy Octavian establishes himself as a dictator over the Roman Empire Octavian Augustus Augustus39 Principate Administrative Policies his policies set down the precedence for the Roman way he kept on the democratic feel to society Pax Romana maintain peace realizes that he must sacrifice some freedom of the people for peace he is backed by the Roman Legions Everything was inefficient and needed to be better he increased ef ciency and brought power to the center he altered the nature of the senate by ditching the members who did not agree with him he fixed the membership to 600 there are some elections but they are rigged he held that elections should be based on merit the offices were no longer based on family but merit power shifted from central Rome to other areas as well In the city of Rome he elected some of ces to take care of Roman business he established the Firemen and Police Military Policies he realized the Roman army could not be used to maintain all of the borders of Rome he establishes quotdefensible bordersquot he realizes that Rome can no longer expand 9 AD Teutoberg Disaster he marches and destroys 3 Roman Legions from Germany Augustus also finalizes the professionalization of the Roman army he supports decent pay and living conditions for Roman soldiers if you survive until you are 20 you gain pension Class ends early for office hours and paper discussion Civ 04 02 26 Class Business Exam may move to the 25th of March Thursday by vote of the class Roman Engineering Movie Questions Nova Documentary quotSecrets Of Lost Empiresquot quotRoman Bathsquot 1 What was the role of the bath in Roman Society The baths were social centers people enjoyed their time in the baths and were probably in mixed gender classes may not have been mixed but conversations were exchanged and probably politics were discussed 2 What was the Roman genius in civil engineering They exploited what they learned from other cultures they had concrete heating systems arches etc they took from other cultures and improved upon them 3 Why are the baths a good building for researchers to study The baths were a testing ground for Roman engineers to explore new techniques these techniques included arches heating systems and use of concrete 4 What did the use of the arch give Roman builders The ability to free enormous amounts of interior space by the lack of necessity for columns to support the roof they improved upon the Greek architecture 5 Alongside concrete and the arch what is the other major civil engineering contribution the Romans made How did this system provide for the city The aqueducts they provided water flow from distant areas and facilitated indoor plumbing The Aqua Claudia supplied water underground for drinking 6 What conclusions can you draw about the Romans from their bath buildings Romans were extremely technologically advanced the Roman aqueduct systems were not matched again until the 180039s their cultural practices were much more open than ours the Romans were never satisfied with a finished product and were always trying to improve upon the ideas they created 7 Did the bath work Do you think the Romans would have used the same solution had they had the technology to do so He bath worked after some problems were overcome with modern sealants the characteristics of the Romans would have dictated that they use the technology they had available Civ 040302 Class Business Exam is moved officially as per other note Pompeii Buried Alive Video 1 Why is Pompeii good for historical and archeological research The volcanic ash preserved the ruins and artifacts very well the eruption was so quick that most of the people were not prepared for evacuation and died within the ruins the people also ignored the eruption until it was too late and were caught in the middle of it this allows us to see many things that would not otherwise have been preserved quite like a photograph many things were left in place 2 What can the condition of teeth and bones tell us Health and social status slaves generally didn39t have great teeth but aristocrats had better physical conditions showed how people interoperated socially by how much damage their bodies took in their lifetimes 3 How does the documentary explain the prevalence of Greek artistic influence The decor was mostly Greek in these Roman houses Romans adopted Greek culture willingly and vigorously Romans were more practical Greeks were more artistic so the Romans mixed the best of both worlds like a trip to Disney World 4 How does the documentary describe the roles women played in this society Most women were subdued and secluded in a private area of the home aristocrats were charged with the day to day business and managing the slaves they did not have the same rights as men some brothels existed where women were given less rights even and were probably mistreated by their pimps Sexuality was much more open in society and marriage was not considered as sacred penises were prevalent in art 5 How did the Roman Empire supply its need for slaves Slaves were a product of war in many cases where they were taken from conquest of new lands slaves were forced to fight in the glad iatorial games most were kept on as servants as new lands were less and less available and the empire reached critical mass the slave population dropped and the empire fell 6 What was the Roman view on sanctity of life What does this tell us about the Romans The father had the ultimate power of life and death over his household there were not many absolute standards rather most was accepted by society there was really no consideration for sanctity of life in the Roman civilization it is argued that the JudeoChristian tradition is where our view of sanctity of life comes from Civ 04 03 04 Religious Practices in the Roman Empire Early Roman Religion Pontifex Maximus RomulusRemus founded Rome and defined himself as the religious leader set a sacred boundary that grew with conquest so territory was very religiously guarded Household gods there were small gods in the household that ruled over small things in life the families had gods in their lineage ancestors were revered as pseudo gods in a very religious context Vestal Virgins women who were taken into the temples and oversaw religious practices Policy on Foreign Cults Romans had a few rules about joining the Roman Empire no human sacrifices no ritual prostitution no mutilation most were accepted as long as they followed these rules The Greek Influence Ceres Saturn Flra Jupiter etc personi cations of gods gave the gures a more identifiable persona Hugustus39 Religious Policies Revival of Tradition by Augustus to return to the traditional worship channeled money into the repair of temples he gained public appeal with this tried to revive practices names himself Pontifex Maximus Cult of the Emperors established to signify that dead emperors should be deities deified Julius Caesar created a god out of a man Jews in the Roman Empire The Hebrews Migratory and Tribal at rst Patriarchal Abraham Abrahamic Tradition Judaism Christianity Islamic similarities Jacob moves to Palestine Israel establishes 12 Tribes part of the covenant of Go Judaism Moses establishes a set of laws for Judaism and records definitively monotheism for the Jews Yahweh YHWH G d sacred words to the Jews 10 Commandments shift to kings Covenant established with God on a personal level the Torah is recorded Before the Romans Israel 722 BC is attacked by Palestinians and the Jews are exported quotDiasporaquot Jews no longer live in Jerusalem smaller communities are formed around local temples Judah 568 BC the first temple is destroyed Jews spread throughout the Mediterranean as far west as Italy and as far North as Gaul Jews Under the Romans Maccabean Revolt 167 164 BC Jews are allowed to return to Jerusalem slowly Some Jews revolt against the Roman rule Tried to stop the Roman disrespect for their religion they were defeated Julius Caesar39s Deal asked for support against Pompey in return for protection offered lower taxes exemptions from military service and greater toleration than they had before cinagogs were allowed with free worship respected the Sabbath caused a time of peace for both civilizations Jewish War 66 70 AD Vespasian his son Titus want to crush the morale of the Jews the Second temple is destroyed they built the Arch of Titus to commemorate the Wailing Wall was the only piece left sent the Jews marching Jewish Diaspora 323 BC 500 AD Developing Divisions Sadducees landed aristocrats high priests literal to the Torah Pharisees willing to look beyond the torah believed in angels Essenes thought the whole system needed an overhaul produced the Dead Sea Scrolls may have prophesied Jesus Christ different sects disagreed about import of Gentiles and other issues divided the Jews39 attentions Mystery Religions Isis turns into a mother goddess figure often seen as a savior for mankind simple conduct rules be good be well later tried to ban the cult Mithraism popular among Roman soldiers came from Persia considered the god of light highlighted the values of the Roman army courage loyalty self discipline gave the soldiers something to be united by Christianity Public Opinions some considered this another mystery religion what set it apart was the return of the Savior figure Jesus was going to return had very infertile ground for spreading most Roman intellectuals considered it quotbackwaterquot because it started in Palestine not many people were willing to spread it some people thought it was just part of Judaism and identified it likewise some thought it did not offer anything that any other religion did not Early Movement Christianity had a very slow start but did grow some scholars note that it should be called a part ofJudaism that grew to its own religion Paul of Tarsus converted to Christianity died 62 AD was a Jewish Pharisee in Rome traveled all over the Mediterranean to spread the Good News preached that conversions of Gentiles was perfectly acceptable which allowed more people to join Christianity preached that outside influences could be bene cial including other forms of logic and thought supported communities in Mediterranean and Asia Minor most of his letters became part of the Bible Christianity appealed not to the aristocrats but the masses the common people including women helped to break the spiritual gender barrier Early Church Early church had a very negative opinions from the Romans had to practice in secret most of the time could not afford to have great church buildings or staff very informal Chi Rho becomes an early symbol for the Christian church Major centers of Christianity Antioch probably where the term quotChristianquot was coined as well as the Holy Hand Grenade Jerusalem Alexandria Corinth Rome North Africa at this point the majority of Christians did not live in Jerusalem but in the Western lands respective to there Hierarchy develops between churches slowly Apostolic succession was claimed by the priesthood to gain power over the church Peter was the apostle sent to Rome so the Roman priesthood claimed leadership of the Christian church here comes the Vatican Ordained priesthood kept teaching under scrutiny to avoid heresy in the church Why were the Christians Disliked Romans saw them having a spiritual monopoly on God they were offended that the Christians denied the validity of all other gods but the one True God they refused to be involved in state religions because they worshipped their God only some Christians had unusual rituals which gave Romans an odd stigma to all Christians talk about your misjudgments Oh wait it happens today too Persecutions sporadic Emperor Claudius expelled Jews from Rome to silence rebellions blamed for the Roman fire in 64 AD used as a scapegoat some people in the middle ages blamed the Jews for the bubonic plague usually taken into the hands of the governors rather than the emperors St Agnes St Cecelia early martyrs died for their faiths Birth of Monasticism the idea of withdrawing from society and denying human comforts battling evil in one39s own mind Ascetic Asceticism Stylites were the first major example St Anthony 251 356 AD tried to live like this but society followed him where he went and basically defeated the purpose Roman Intellectual and Entertainment Pursuits The Augustan Age Bread and Circuses The Augustan Age Augustus39 Cultural Policies Patronage he used money to fund the arts etc Maecenas was created to take care of funding stuff allowed these art performers to work while making a living automatically so that they could benefit society Poetry VergilVirgil 70 19 BC Rome needed an Illiad and Odessy so he wrote the Aeneid also wrote Eclogues and Georgics Horace 65 8 BC Satires and Odes meant to be humorous took Greek forms and adapted them for Latin Ovid 43 BC 18 AD felt he should write what he thought was best thereby losing some support from Augustus Ars Amatoria Art of Love manual of seduction instructed people on the art of committing adultery greatly offended Augustus because it stood for everything he wanted to suppress in Roman society exiled in 8 AD Metamorphosis used Greek mythology competed with Virgil almost 250 short stories over 15 books History Livy 59 BC 17 AD argued in the History of Rome that Rome was successful because of its values surmised that about 34 of the work has been lost to date recorded history up to about 9 BC used history to impart morals Bread and Circuses Social control policy on two fronts with goals to reduce rebellions Bread Panum feed the people39s hunger physically supplied the people with food at cheap prices Circuses feed the people39s desire for entertainment created the Circus Maximus chariot racing four major teams blue red green and white possibly very politically charged Colosseum Flavian Ampitheatre created the Gladiatorial games Acrobats Actors senators had the best seats in the house then the Equestrians then the Plebeians then the poor women and slaves socially the wives sat with their own class rather than with their husbands Gladiators were technically the lowest social class but they were very famous Civ 040316 Talked about Essay 2 Life in the Roman World The Roman Family Structure Familia the Roman Family included blood and non blood relatives slaves etc paterfamilias head of the Roman family the father had ultimate power over everything in the family patria potestas the power of the father absolute control Augustus39 Social Policies A Family Values Plan Tried to increase the birthrate in Rome decreased lengthy engagements widows needed to get remarried to get promoted set limits on some things to encourage marriage etc required Olympians to be married in order to compete in the Olympics double standard between adultery and marriage pushes broken contracts were punishable Roman Housing The Wealthy Single family homes Domus Villas etc had money to have separate rooms for specific things Normal People lived in Insulae apartments used mainly public facilities for faire de toilette Role of Women Women became more prominent as beautiful figures wealthy women were not as sequestered some received educations greater sense of sexual liberation marriages were quotprotectedquot by dowry there was a tendency to want to keep things on good terms to keep the socialpolitical ties together Growing Up in Ancient Rome Roman Names Boys Individual Gaius Clan Julius Family Caesar Girls Julius gt Julia Education Humanitas 7 12 Paedagogus basic skills etc taught Greek usually a young slave teaching meant to civilize the children 12 16 Grammaticus advanced stuff in an institution 16 Rhetoric most people were at least bilingual Slavery in the Roman World Multicultural not just one group of slaves they exploited whomever they captured with expansion of empire taxes and slaves increased after the revolt with Spartacus Romans were very cautious slaves had a wide range of skills Latifundia large plantations lots of slaves better than mines but still very hard labor Manumission granting freedom back to a slave it was possible to buy your own freedom Augustus39 Policies to quotmaintain the slave populationquot he limited the manumission power he also granted a tax on those who freed slaves improved the treatment of slaves people could no longer mistreat slaves without a due cause complaints were possible to file to a magistrate Transformation III The Crisis of the Third Century Crisis of Leadership Succession Problems Marcus Auralius r 161 180 AD the last emperor that benefits from succession Commodus r 180 192 AD insane thought he was the reincarnation of Hercules very popular with the army but not very smart assassinated in 192 AD the army now dominates the power in the Roman world Collapse of the Civil Service primarily manned by local aristocrats They are no longer interested in being part of the civil service the government attempted to force people to do things but did not have the backing of the army civil service no longer benefits with the same wealth or prestige The Army 180285 AD At the Top major generals are all competing for supremacy they all bid for emperor Decline in the ranks Roman soldiers no longer enjoy service in the army and soldiers are recruited from sources that were not desirable Eastern Border the Sassinids the eastern front presses more pressure against the borders The Danube The Goths the Goths press southward towards the Roman border Britain Dadrian39s Wall 122 AD the wall was built as a northern boundary eventually overtaken by the Antonine wall farther north in 142 AD both walls protected against Scotland whom the Romans did not want to deal with Economic Breakdown Expenses are rising income is falling with less conquested territory taxes wane the larger borders suck up more money as do panem et circuses Wealthy people are leaving the cities making it harder to tax them in ation is also high Social Breakdown Rule is being taken over by people of little respect increasing the general contempt for government and other social bonds Papers were passed back Civ 040318 Class Business Exam next Thursday worth 100 points using sources from the syllabus Tuesday will be open for questions after nishing lecture material Online chat session on Wednesday for test help Continued Diocletian39s Solution r 284305 Government Splits the territory into two administrative units called the tetrarchy the east fares better than the west in general line splits through Greece north to south Tetrarchy Structure Augustus big guy ruler Caesar ruler apprentice trained to be the next Augustus a set for each half west and east rulers stayed until they wanted to retire problems for appointments of Caesars other than family and for rites of succession after a ruler retires or dies Local Government Diocese created regionally ie Gaul Spain etc Economics New taxes to generate more government income taxed land in the country outside the city boundaries goods taxes were introduced Edict on prices effectively freezing wages as well theoretically socialistically this system works and everyone can afford what they need to survive Social Aspects tries to fix the declining social situation freezes the social status of every family etc also froze slavesag ricultural workers forced the aristocrats to be part of the civil service Constantine r 306337 His father Constantious Chlorous had been the Augustus of the West therefore he claimed he should be Augustus next even though he was not the successor he claimed the West and waged war to claim the east as well 337 he captured everything returning the rule of the Roman empire to a single dictator Byzantium Established as the new capitol granted access to the Danube it was no longer Rome therefore he was not bound to the same Republican rules also Constantinople Istanbul etc After Constantine Western Empire falls in 476 Romulus Augustus is overthrown by a German warlord no emperor is appointed in his place Eastern Empire falls in 1453 called the Byzantines had more money and generally less problems fewer serious foes the Ottoman Empire eventually overtakes them shrank slowly over time Development of the Early Christian Church Began as an quotunderground faithquot ministered to people in secret for fear of the Romans From Underground to Only Legal Background started in east Mediterranean and spread north and west primarily Constantine Allowed Christianity to be legal his mother was St Helena A Christian Constantine was rumored to find Christianity through practicality more than anything else Legend fo the Battle of the Milvian Bridge he faced an enemy larger than himself and feared he could not win saw a sign from God to paint Chi Rho on things to win he was victorious declared that Christianity was now an accepted religion for the Roman Empire Edict of Milan 313 now the communities of Christians were allowed to practice in public communities grew Constantine favored Christianity but did not persecute others he gave to many churches monetarily Reversal Julian the Apostate r 361 363 anti Christian Theodosius ruled 379 395 outlaws all religions except for Christianity outlaws pagan sacri ces non Christian ceremonies then all pagan worship Defining Doctrine Orthodoxy Heresy hairesis wrong belief de ned what they believed by defining what they did not believe Marcion ca 150 argued that Christianity should be restricted to Luke and the Epistles of Paul only many people objected that was too narrow the reaction defined what would become the Old Testament and the New Testament Marcion was declared a heretic Arianism early 4th century Arius wanted to combine Christian belief and Greek philosophy tried to apply logic to the idea of the trinity claimed it was not logical and that God39s dual nature was not logical either refuted both concepts and angered a number of people sparked the Council of Nicaea 325 established the trinity and duality in doctrine as well as other orthodoxy created the Nicene Creed now Romans looked at the Germans as both a disliked culture and a disliked religion Schism Donatism people cannot agree so they split into two separate groups Donatus traditores people in the early church that were persecuted and forced to hand over their texts one group thought they could not become part of the church again others believed they could be forgiven for their abandonment Donatism does not accept them Orthodoxy does Early Church Fathers Combining Roman governmental traditions with the church Ambrose of Milan c 339 397 original an administrator provincial governor of Milan church saw his abilities and made him a Bishop Ordained baptized and consecrated in 8 days in 374 interested in how things run rather than the faith itself Thessalonikan Massacre 392 demonstrated the power of the church to influence government Theodosius 1 orders the destruction of Thessalonika for their insolence he forgets about it and heads to Milan goes to Ambrose39s church Ambrose tells Theodosis he must take penance for his actions before entering he accepts this fate effectively the emperor allows himself to be judged as a simple Christian shows the power of the church over moral issues De Of ciis Ministrorum how to run the church written in the Roman rhetorical tradition St Jerome 347 420 translated the Vulgate Bible used Greco Roman ideals to help promote Christianity without trying to change the religion or adapt it for the culture horribly inaccurate translation St Augustine of Hippo 354 430 City of God man lives in a city of sin but God lives in a perfect world Confessions the first biography told how bad he was before he was a Christian and how good he was altenNards original thinker who wrote stuff good at fusing pagan structures with the Christian faith Rise of the Papacy Pappas the Pope position in the Church spiritual head Leo I 440 461 Petrine Theory surmised that because Peter was so important in the Christian church and Rome was the successor of Peter the Christian church should be centered in Rome Peter was the bishop of Rome Gregory 1 the Great 590 604 considered to be the founder of the papacy small almost political identity reorganizes the finances of Rome and makes the city more economically viable they become self suf cient reorganized farm lands and created serious income for the city frees Rome from Byzantine control influential in spreading Roman Catholic traditions sent people to England to convert them convinces the Goths to become Roman Catholic rather than Arian Transformations IV Germanic Migrations and quotBarbarianquot Invasions Barbarian Someone who does not speak Greek moved towards the Romans because they were pushed by the Huns who were moving West looking for new lands originally part of the power struggle for the East and lost Germanic tribes moved West and South as well hoping for Romans as an ally many ended up in North Africa Why these tribes did NOT want to destroy the Roman Empire they did not want the Romans as an enemy rather as an ally against the Ottomans and as a potential employer Germans became an integral part of the Roman army became a major backbone of the Roman Army became the defense of the Northern Roman Border Federated Status foederati reciprocal relationship status granted to the Germans which was somewhere between citizenship and benevolence tribes provided defense and allegiance Romans provided them free reign over their countries and establishment of their own communities with supplies from the Romans The Germans Germanic Society tribal a Comitatus quotfollowingquot gathered around a man as the head of the tribe women were considered so valuable in marriage that they were given presents instead of dowry Wergeld quotman moneyquot was the concept of paying money for life if a wife was killed much money was required Ordeals were used to tell guilt or innocence ie dunking witches etc Civ 040323 Class Business Chat 8 10pm on Wednesday Evening Discussion board will be open and checked on Wednesday night as well Continued Germans decided that money was a better way of punishing people than jail time or torture Spotlight The Visigoths They were the first major Germanic tribe to become federated in 376 AD guinea pigs they moved south of the Danube and tried to settle down the Romans never sent them support to the extent that they promised the Visigoths began to starve sold their children to Romans for food Rage to Rampage they decide to mount an army and attack Adrianople in 378 AD the Visigoths win they managed to kill the Roman emperor at the time Theodosius I r 375 395 AD takes his place he accepts defeat immediately he hires them instead of fighting them this arrangement worked for quite some time 410 AD Alaric39s Sack of Rome he decides that he has the qualifications to be the head of the Roman army when the idea is rejected he marches on Rome with German forces he tries to besiege the city on petition for generalship eventually they take the city the entire Roman empire was shocked Roman weakness was very visible by this Visigoths migrated through Gaul into the Iberian Peninsula out of the way Thread from the East The Huns Attila the Hun quotScourge of Godquot people believed that Attila was punishment from God on many occasions from Buda interested in establishing an empire saw that the Romans were weak but still a very large enemy he tries political alliance by marriage that fails over time he decides that the Romans are not upholding their part of the bargain he invades Gaul Battle of Chalons 451 AD ended in a draw Attila did not win so this was a minor victory for Western Europe Attila withdraws and regroups he returns in 452 AD he turns and goes home before attacking Europe conjecture as to whether he realized he was not prepared but there is a rumor about a conversation with the Pope Pope quotLeoquot about 470 AD stories began to circulate that Leo had help from Peter and Paul as angels to scare Attila he remarries in 471 and dies on his wedding night may have been murder may have been the fun and games or lack of sleep The Huns are one example of major invasions from the Mongolian empire they are never really secure that the invasions are over because they cannot tell what politics are like with the Mongols Britian Roman Britain 43 AD the first major Roman legions are sent to take over Britain Built Hadrian39s wall and then the Antonine Wall Did not proceed to Ireland for the weather Called it quotHiberniaquot which means the land of eternal winter Revolt of the Iceni 60 AD tried to make a deal with the Romans passed away leaving Boudicca in charge Boudicca refuses Roman rule they beat her and rape her daughters in public they rampage and Burn Camulodunum modern day Colchester they head to London but they do not burn it attempted to make a very large political statement by all this Boudicca realize they don39t want to be violated again and commit suicide when the Romans squelch the revolt Romans pull out of Britain shortly after at the same time as Aleric39s Sack on Rome Germanic Invasions First wave are interested in making money and getting out the Second wave is more interested in migration the second wave features different cultural groups the Angles Saxons Jutes and Native Britains The Heptarchy Seven small kingdoms in Britain Morthumbria Mercia East Anglia Essex Kent Sussex Wessex Alfred the Great Gaul Spotlight The Franks the Franks convert to Roman Catholicism they have a stronger relationship with Romans now first dynasty is called the Merovingians means quotlong haired kingsquot Clovis r 481 511 AD original worked as a Roman Deputy Governor in Gaul told the Romans they were better off alone and separated from them established himself as a dynasty and the Franks as independent he is paranoid about losing his throne and kills people that could succeed him converts to Roman Catholicism the Franks are not federated the Germans were a minority ruling over the Celts and the Gallo Romans surprisingly there was peace for the most part Exam Review Ptolomey family that ruled Egypt not interested in marrying into local aristocracy very chauvinistic proud of their country etc patrons of the arts stuff at Alexandria library was burned very insular Cleopatra broke that to an extent High culture with writers Virgil Low culture with Bread and Circuses Virgil wrote the Anead as an epic for the Roman People Aneas escaped the burning walls of Troy and founded Rome BampC was the idea of occupying the time of unemployed and impoverished common people to prevent an organized revolt sometimes gave out bread or froze market prices created Gladiatorial games to keep people busy Virgil was inspired by Homer and the Epic necessity for Roman Culture considered Homer an inspiration rival Marius and Sulla people began to distrust republican government both controlled large armies and positions in government used power to take over the government Marius realized that the army needed to be professionalized Sulla is the first major general to march on Rome with a standing army Took over and established himself as an emperor Saint Paul major contribution was realizing that outside influences could help Christianity grow ie Greek and Roman logical thinking allowed non Jews to join Christianity Gregory 1 considered the founder of the Papacy realized that the city of Rome was falling apart the Byzantines in Constantinople could not help them broke ties with Constantinople established Rome with a solid economy severed the connection between Rome and Constantinople ie the Byzantine empire reorganizes lands and turns the papacy into a separate institution Major Christian centers were across the Lavant holy lands and into Egypt and Africa major center in Antioch Jerusalem Damascus Alexandria etc not centered in Europe originally Diocletian xed the decline of the Roman empire by changing management tactics split the empire established the dioceses froze prices to overhaul economics social status was frozen to force aristocrats to civil service stalled the decline Gracchi brothers tried to use the power of the tribune to affect social change both failed because they screwed over the senate Religion in the Roman Empire State cults cult of the emperor took all religions in within very large boundaries had to play with the emperor39s rules first and foremost made the Christians stand out Augustus said everyone had to get married to increase the birthrate based certain statuses in government on marriage tried to limit the decline of the slave population by decreasing the ability to free slaves centralized power to himself left the senate but it was entirely sterile establishes the Cult of the Emperors made emperors all quotgodsquot put money into ancient Roman religious customs Major Roman Political Institutions the senate Imperium the right to rule and have your commands executed essentially a large scale of the Patria Potestas in families the consul of the plebeians the office of the tribune Characteristics of the Hellenistic World used Greek styles in other cultures statues etc the Polis becomes cosmopolitan OptimismPessimism people thought that the Hellenistic world was declining so they were very pessimistic about their futures Saminite Wars The Romans become the strongest power in the Italian Boot The test will be 50 multiple choice questions with possible bonus questions
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