CHLD GRWTH & DEVEL
CHLD GRWTH & DEVEL CHD 2220
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Cole Bernhard on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHD 2220 at Florida State University taught by Murray Krantz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see /class/205590/chd-2220-florida-state-university in Economcs at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
of changes that lead to skill irreversible Can only be turned around by very action you direct toward your child has some important reaction in the child 0 Outcomes of development occur when entering in the transactions encouraging change and prepared to grow with them Cause and effect explanations doesn t capture the complexity of children s and Risk of development threatens to undermine development and sacrifice the child s potential from outside context 0 Resilience to over come risk improves our develpoment Opportunity supports development and promote the realization of the potential 0 Vulnerabilit fall victim to risk slows down development Broaden their 50012111 development 0 Consequentia changes keeping pace of the development of other people I Some comes naturaland some is forced I Ex mother going through metapause Developmental change requires its body weigh W 0000 w L lkmg start around 1213 months 90 3 independ I 90 of babies start to walk awl involves arm v ul39lllll tm parents daycare The ancient Hindus believed that three things were necessary to have a baby The father contributed white semen to form the child39s bones o The mother provided red semen to produce the skin the hair and the iris of the eyes It was left to God to provide the e ression of the face and the c 0 Inner liang of the walls for the pathway of the uterus w1th cells that produce mucus and the cervix to rotect the s stem Cervical mucus is discharge JV 1 Ovulate egg released works its way down to uterus eventually lmplantation when the fertilized egg attaches itself to the wall of the uterus which is turned into pregnancy Time of implantation about 7 days I Failure rate of implantation 50 O I J i o If there is no pregnancy your cycle will move on to a point in which you will have your period All that excess blood in the endometrium and all those cells will get washed out during your period SOMETIMES those cells don t wash out in that cells sometimes the cells back up and land in the fallopian tubes if that happens there is going to be mitosis duplication of the cell then you get a build up of endometrial tissue in the fallopian tube which will in turn block the tube rendering a woman infertile endometriosis O o The egg is a we cell and needs to be nourished and hydrated which is what the interior lining of the fallopian tube does Eggs have a 24 hr lifetime Has carried all your eggs since the day you were born Cysts little bubbles that have some uid in them cystic disease of the ovary can start covering the surface of the ovary making ovulation difficult to take place some of these c sts could be cancer but mast majority are benign Pituitary glands secret hormones that affect and stimulate O 0 Outer Labia Vagina Muscular organ so it can contract and loosen up Secrets uids from the cervix and some are vaginal discharge 15 inclass infertility rate Managed Care system Medical care is very expensive Need to decide whom having kid with because its important for the baby TRUST Male R reductive S stem If too cold the scrotum will contra warm them and if it s too warm lllh test for fertility of the male ate problems not permanent Athletes jockey shorts raise temp and reduce sperm count I Smoking marijuana reduces sperm count worst one Alcohol reduces fertility Long distance bike riding Laptops Physical assault or injury to the testicle which can cause scar tissue on the tubules and clogging of the tubules which can be irreversible Getting overly exciting cre I I 2 trimesters 3month of prenatal development I the first two weeks of the prenatal stage 0 Cells begin to divide rapidly and differentiate into distant layers that will eventually form individual or ans s quot 39 ltL llliH 39 w It I 2 H begins at the end of the 8 week following conception o Organogenesis during this 6 week process all of the organ systems of the baby are formed one inch long With one exception the genitals are not formed 30 weeks long vulnerable period with less dramatic but still significant risk for fetal development 1Mu um No longer prescribed to women who may be pregnant because it harms the fetus ruuam Babies appeared normal at birth but later on in childhood they were diagnosed with vaginal cancer inausea and cant do anything about it Was used to calm them down except it attracted the organs of the baby arms and legs had a SURGICAL af ect I Chemicals 0 Cocain affects the baby VERY powerful this is what makes our make up and cremes smooth to put on your skin solvent for most finger nail polish Two compelling reason to expect maternal stress I 1 Stress hormones released into the bloodstream and increase blow flow to the muscles and bran and decrease blood flow to the uterus which reduced the supply of oxygen to the fetus 2 The mothers anxiety may increase her use of alcohol drugs and cigarettes which all have been shown to harm the fetus o Menstration I The 15t 14 days foliar phase I Count 14 days from the 15t day of the period is that day you ovulate I More varz39a blc phase I The 2quot 14 days luteal phase I The more constantphase I The best way to count it is to go to the first day of your next period and count backwards 14 days I Body temperature I Women temp is about 98 1986 I lst phase your temp rises and falls I The day after you ovulate goes up about half a degree 0 Basil body temperature measured by waking up in bed and measure your temperature without moving first I g l I Has two hormones that gets secreted through your cycle 0 2 1 Uilzlra Q39lju l H yja c I The pituitary beg1ns to secrete a amount into your I Stimulates your ovaries to begin to ripen a bunch of eggs I The eggs go into a biological competition or who can ripen the best and the fastest I Then one egg will win and ovulate and enter in the fallopian tube and then maybe on its way to a conception I Ripens the eggs an encourages the competition it I Stimulate the ovary to start the process of ovulation I Causes ovulation o The egg is only viable for 24 hours 0 The only time during that month you can become pregnant 0 its an empty follicle that produces more estrogen and high levels of Progesterone goes into circulation and arrives at the endometrium to get prepared for the arrival of the fertilized egg for a bout 35 days Then drops in the uterus and oats around for another 35 da s Then lands on the wall of the uterus which is ready for implantations 0 You can ovulate any time during your cycle Genetic problems for the unborn baby netic transmission of characteristics from the parents to the offspring m cell nucleus that contain rodlike structures Each contains 23 matched pairs of chromos 46 total double helix is made up of two long molecular threads 39 se uences of smaller units 391 genetic material from the father h sical traits human traits outlined in the genotype Mitosis body cells Meiosis sex cells 0 Some genes are dominate in nature I If you inherit a dominate gene from your mother or father you will receive it curly hair i you have to inherit this gene from your mother AND your father for the gene to be expressed I If you inherit one of them you become a carrier and it will be transmitted to our offsrin m r dominant gene you will get it no matter What if one of your parents have it I Recessive disorders 4 of them I 1 baby does not produce an enzyme that breaks down a natural chemical disorder and begins to call mental retardation By the end of the first year of its life 0 The heel stick 7 a restricted diet for the baby ya medibolic disorder baby lacks the gene of an enzyme that breaks down fat molecules No cure but to prevent it from happening which is by 0 primarily in Jewish people who immigrated from eastern Europe 1 in every 25 Jewish American carry this recessive disorder abnormal blood cells Changes the shape of the blood cells It changes it by making it more likely to get stuck in capillaries which builds up and clogs the system And also it Doesn t carry oxygen as efficiently as normal blood cells 0 l in every 25 African American have it Man Hisanics have it from Cuba too I 4 KLENEFELTER S SYNDROME A second chromosomal abnormality is caused by the failure of the XY pair of chromosomes in the male to separate during meiosis so that the sperm cell contains both X and Y chromosomes instead of one or the other the XX chromosome pattern necessary for normal development of the fem ale is left incomplete a condition known as Turner syndrome FRAGILE X SYNDROM EnFragile X syndrome results from breaks or tears toward the outer limits of the long arms of the X chromosome 39 a to ensure wellbeing and the fetus wellbeing during pregnancy 0 getdnato find out if the baby s conceived to find out any disorders genetically o developed from the technology of sonar and that was developed in the 2nd H x world war I Forms of ultrasounds I Spinadefiea I Transvaginal 0 Procedures to get DNA A m39 m i39k iC l l i iAIH ls done at 16 weeks of pregnancy fetal stage A needle is put into an abdominal wall and extract a small amount of amnion uid and that is valuable because the baby is giving off skin cells culture the cells and then they can do the DNAanalysis o quot 26 weeks of pregnancy the baby can Labor process when deliver baby I Induce labor induction I Break amnioc sac uid that remains I Cesarean delivery I 3 stages of labor Labor is the process by which a woman gives birth to her baby Labor begins with the first true contraction of the muscles of the uterus and end with the complete delivery of the a erbirth Labor unfolds in three distinct stages Dilation and Effacement With the increasing pressure of the baby s head on the cervix it gradually begins to open or dilate Dilation proceeds until the cervix opens to 10 centimeters or appr oxim ater 4 inches in diameter This typically takes several hours particularly for the first pregnancy As dilation progresses the walls of the cervix stretch over the head of the baby in a process called effacement The first stage of labor ends when the mother is completely dialated and effaced and the baby begins to move down into the vagina or birth cana Descent and Delivery During this second stage the baby will gradually move down through the birth canal and it will end when the baby is born Delivery of the A erbirth In the third and nal stage of labor a second series of contractions force out the placenta and what remains of the umbilical cord and amniotic sac episiotomy a surgical incision that widens the opening to allow the head to pass The episiotomy is performed only to reduce risk to the baby and to prevent the pain and injury that would result from a tear of the skin between the vagina and the anus Medications can be applied at different levels Local anesthetics provide pain relief in a very small area of the body For example a small amount of anesthetic can be injected into the cervix to relieve pain as the baby39s head begins to press down late in the first stage of labor Regional anesthetics provide pain relief in a much larger portion of the body but stops short of effecting the entire body of the mother The most commonly used regional is the epidural block which provides pain relief from the waist down In this procedure a hollow needle is inserting into the mothers lower back and anesthetic is infused into the hollow space around the mother39s spinal cor d This results in loss of sensation from the point of insertion down to the toes While the degree of pain relief is virtually complete the epidural may reduce the strength of contractions and the woman39s urge to bear down during the second stage of labor This slows labor and may require the use of mechanical means to assist the delivery Medically stimulated contractions can be especially painful and the drugs used may cause the mother s blood pressure to drop which in turn reduces fetal heart rate Poore et a1 1985 Systemic medications effect the entire system of the mother They can be taken intravenously or or ally andwith the exception of emergency situationsare used to reduce pain sensation and anxiety without causing loss of consciousness Fetal monitoring throughout all phases of labor the fetus remains dependent upon supplies of oxygen from the umbilical cord the lifeline between the placenta and the fetus which allows for exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother and baby The umbilical cor d like the fetus is being subjected to enormous pressure The cord must maintain this oxygen supply as it trails alongside the infant through the birth canal The fetus can safely withstand temporary interruptions in its oxygen supply eg during contractions but prolonged deprivation of oxygen greater than 23 minutes will result in a state of fetal distr ess Prolonged fetal distress can cause varying degrees of damage to the central nervous system and in extreme cases death of the fetus CAUSES OF FETAL DISTRESS There are many sources of fetal distress Rather than move into the usual headdown position for birth one in thirty babies will assume the breech position with the head up and the buttocks or feet or both down against the cervix If the fetus is in a breech position or has not quotdroppedquot when the bag of waters breaks a portion of the umbilical cord may enter the vagina before the fetus a condition called prolapse or pr olapsed cord When the fetus begins to descend through the vagina it will pinch the cord thus stopping the ow of oxygen This situation is a serious medical emergency that requires rapid intervention An insufficient supply of oxygen can also result from the decreased ef ciency of the placenta late in pregnancy or from premature detachment of the placenta during labor When the baby is starved of oxygen this is called anoxia Anoxia causes brain damage and is the primary cause of cerebral palsy Fetal distress can also result from Rh blood incompatibility or Rhdisease ELECTRONIC FETAL MONITORING Electronic Fetal Monitoring EFM includes the use of both external and internal devices to monitor the fetal heart rate Sensors can be applied to the mother39s abdomin or directly to the scalp of the baby39s scalp as it moves down the birth canal The response of the fetal heart rate to contractions can be used to identify fetal distress FETAL BLOOD SAMPLING A second technique for monitoring the state of the fetus is fetal blood sampling Here a sample of blood is taken from a small cut in the scalp of the fetus and analyzed for oxygen and carbon dioxide levels and other indices of distress The procedure provides a more accurate diagnosis of fetal distress than EFM does Avariety of medical circumstances may recommend that labor be initiated artificially in a process called induction If the pregnancy is at or beyond the fortysecond week induction is recommended If the amniotic sac has not yet ruptured the physician can induce labor by purposely breaking the amniotic sac This procedure is called the arti cial rupture of membranes AROM If AROM fails A hormone call Pitocin can be given intravenously to induce or speed up labor The dose can be varied to regulate the rate and intensity of contractions throughout labor Lauersen 1987 ASSISTING DELIVERY BY MECHANICAL MEANS EteXt notes and vocabulary for test 2 Chapter 5 Child proofing collective set of precautions THE BRAIN The brain begins to form a few days after conception through nerve cell production Neurons conduct electrochemical impulses Synapse microscopic gap between nerve cells that allows impulses to be conducted from cell to cell by chemicals called neurotransmitters Synaptogenesis increasing of synapses through first 3 years of life Nervous System evolving system of circuits that is designed with more potential capacity than it is likely to need or use Development process First is nerve cell production which then builds up pathways and synapses Second is the elimination process Use it or lose it principle If one part of the system is damaged or unable to function other parts will take over plasticity It is designed to manage the storage and transfer of all the information necessary to support the biological functions of bodily systems and the psychological functions of sensation perception learning and intelligence The brain has to have the capacity and be able to adapt to new challenges Pruning massive and continuous destructive process that eliminates synapses and cells that aren t stimulated Sensation ability to register information concerning internal and external events and transmit that information to the central nervous system Perception processing of sensory information by the brain Visual Preference Method researchers present pairs of stimuli to the baby and they see which stimulus the infant is looking at and fixating on 2 year old likes pattern stimuli EX Face and circles Method of Event Related Potentials electrodes are attatched to the scalp of the infant to measure change in electric activity in the brain in response to changing stimuli presented to the infant Monitors variation in brain wave pattern Habituation Dishabituation Procedure stimulus is repeated over and over again and when the infant habituates their response starring blinking reaching blushing heart rate respiration steadily decreases then the researchers subtly changes the stimulus to see if the behavior is altered if not then it wasn t perceived High Amplitude Sucking Technique a pacifier with an internal sensing device indicates when the infant s rate or intensity of sucking increases If it likes the stimulus it will increase sucking if not it will decrease THE EYE Retina complex layered tissue on the back surface of the eye made up of light sensitive cells and nerve cells Where light waves land Transforms visual information into neural impulses Objects are registered in a 2D image Fovea densely packed set of highly sensitive cell at the center of the retina Discriminates detail in objects Visual Acuity sharpness of vision Very low for infants because the retina and fovea are not mature 20500 vision Ciliary Muscles bend or focus light waves re ected off objects at varying distances toward the fovea Smooth Pursuit Movements tracking the movement of objects in space before this they do a jerking movement Neonates fixate on external contour of a complex patterned stimulus and ignore interior detail Separating the Figure from the Ground differentiating objects out as separate entities Elizabeth Spelke Innate to view objects as unitary and bounded Easier to separate out objects if they are moving Face a significant and frequent visual image that will give expression Its correlated with positive reinforcement and reduction of aversive stimuli hunger pain There is a preference for the human face especially the caregivers 3 types of visual information needed to form 3D perceptions Binocular Information each eye views nearby objects from a slightly different angle producing two retinal images that the infant must learn to blend into one image and estimate the distance of the object Kinetic Information when the head moves side to side objects nearby move more rapidly across the retinal surface then the more distant object They must detect and interpret this difference Pictorial Information provides distance cues Perspective objects of equal size are judged closer or farther away by their relative size in a picture Superimposition objects that block out the view of other objects are judged to be closer Visual Cliff studies depth perception by placing crawling infants on a sheet of plate glass that creates the illusion of a drop off Only walkers show a fear THE EAR Well developed before birth Pulsating sound through the mothers abs near their ears showed fetuses blinking their eyes or startling They respond to sound by changes in heart rate and brain wave activity Fluid in ears may disrupt hearing a few days after birth Neonates discriminate among sounds of different loudness pitch and duration Young infants can discriminate every phonetic contrast that they have been exposed to They respond in slight pronunciations of a particular sound in different speakers They also follow the direction of the sound but this will stop because it is initially a re ex done involuntary but through time it will come back again but it will then be a voluntary action TASTE Preference for sweet taste Develops rapidly and easy to recognize preference based on the baby s expression Sweet smile and sucking Sour wrinkled nose pursed lips and blink Bitter spit up choke Infants preferences and parents approaches to food selection have long term effects on food preferences later on in life SMELL Newborns can smell and it develops rapidly Pungent Odors turn away Sweet smell smile Bad smell wrinkle face Important role in breast feeding mothers and newborns bonding and preferred the mothers smell Re exes involuntary stimulus response patterns that is congenital in the nervous system Only organized observable behavior in newborns Plays a significant role in development Provide a survival value Ex Sucking breathing Birth re exes may be directly related to voluntary counterparts in later development Enables pediatricians to assess the infants neurological status because they depend on precise circuitry though the central nervous system neurological testing Provides specific behavioral response to a fairly specific form of stimulation Ex Puff air in eye it will blink All re ex patterns are functional at birth and some may disappear Not controlled by the brain s information processing center cerebral cortex Instead it is controlled by clusters of cells in the brain stem upper end of spinal cord Brain stem located just below the cortex and a highly developed component of the central nervous system at birth Its purpose is to receive impulses from sensory receptors and to transmit a second impulse to the muscle of the specific response No processing involved Rhythmical Movement Stereotypes repetitious movement patterns that help infants slowly learn to control their body Ex Banging arms kicking legs rocking body back and forth Three Representative Milestones Postural Control achievements include holding head steady while moving sitting without support getting into sitting position pulling to stand Keogh and Sugden Locomotion ability to move one s self from one place to another Begins with rolling from the supine back down to prone front down position Creeping stomach contact on the oor while pulling with their arms and pushing with their legs to drag their bodies Crawling baby is up on all four limbs with the stomach suspended above the oor Manual Control Improvements in hand control grasping holding handling and releasing objects Marked by the pincer grasp using thumb and one other nger Improvements in accuracy in hand placement Newborns start with visually initiated reaching an inaccurate swinging in the general direction of objects Visual directed reaching reaching for objects on the same side as the hand that does the reaching Too much stimulation can be overwhelming High motor retardation in orphanages because of the lack of stimulation and being constantly on their backs in a crib Experience plays a critical role in motor development Chapter 6 Leaming refers to any relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge resulting from experience or practice Habituation infant s tendency to respond less and less to a stimulus as the infant becomes accustomed to it Essential for everyday learning Helps babies deal with the complexity and intensity of stimulation in natural settings homes daycare supermarket It makes stimulation manageable helping infants adapt to diversity and intensity of stimulation Ex Shut down when over loaded Infants who habituate more easily perform at higher intellectual levels in preschool they tend to have a better vocabulary and they tend to do better on IQ tests Two forms of conditioning learning Classical Conditioning in which stimuli are manipulated before the response to induce learning Ex Nipple in the mouth has a natural tendency to suck or stroking head before breast feeding so then every time you stroke head the baby sucks Extinguishing the learned response stroking without delivering the stimulus milk surprises and upsets the baby It helps them discover order and sequence in events they experience Operant Conditioning in which stimuli are manipulated m the response to induce learning Stimuli and consequences follow the response Reinforcers consequences that will increase the likely hood of the behavior Punishers consequences that will decrease the likely hood of the behavior Ex Milk taste good then keep sucking but if it taste bad they will stop Helplessness where infants experience environments where nothing they do seems to have any effect Observational Leaming children observe the behavior of a model and the consequences of that behavior to the model so they leam how to perform the behavior and what will happen to them if they do the behavior Deferred Imitation the infant observes the model s behavior and imitates it late without the model present Imitation requires parents to repeat their modeling over and over as their infants get better at imitating them Memory records the results of our learning and stores it as knowledge Encoding process by which we store learned information Retrieval process by which we call up memories for present use Recognition retrieving information in response to a cue Recall retrieval of stored information without the help of cues Rovee Collier experimented with the crib rattler hanging about and using a baby s leg to move it She concluded infants are capable of recognition memory but only with assistance of a reactivation procedure which proves long term memory Piaget s view of infant cognitive development Infants are not passive they are active by nature requiring no stimulation nor reinforcement to be active Infants are curious and explorative seeking stimulation Sensorimotor stage of cognitive development happens in the first 2 years and it an attempt to come in to terms with the ever expanding world of physical objects 6 sub stages Re exes birth one month building blocks of intelligence Primary Circular Reactions 14 months accommodations in re exes once they discover that they can repeat certain behaviors without the recurrence of the stimulus Ex Opening and closing hand The first true form of a schema Movement for the sake of movement Secondary Circular Reactions 48 months new schematic form of noticing the effect of a repeated action and the attempt to repeat that effect The infant must accommodate to the schema to have a specific effect on the environment For the first time the object has some value to the infant so the effect the baby has on the object is not the action itself Infants sense they can in uence the environment There needs to be a reactive 39 and 1 I 39 39 Ex Ringing bell hitting mobile kicking crib tearing paper squeezing toys Permanence awareness that objects exist even if they are not being acted upon Reaches for object even if partially covered Will continue to stare in the direction that an object disappears in The Coordination of Secondary Schemas 812 months new form of schema that suggests that it appears in two forms Infants can solve problems using one schema and as a means to performing a second schema as an end The infant must learn to sequence and the infant may attempt to find an object that can be used as a tool or instrument They remove obstacles and an object must be mentally represented The first time infants are able to imitate invisible gestures gestures or expressions that infants cannot see themselves perform facials Tertiary Circular Reactions 1218 months infants can systematically vary existing schemas until they fit the requirements of a problem The discovery of new means though active experimentation the infants ability to experiment Interested in effects they have on objects as they vary their manipulations Trial and error solutions Experiments in order to see they become preoccupied with hours of grabbing tearing rubbing squeezing dropping and throwing discovering unique features and properties of objects and their relationship to other objects Object Permanence objects are permanent parts of the world whether they are seen or not and an infant will search for a hidden or lost object because they know it will not disappear Inventing of new means through mental combinations 18 months and up infants develop the ability to construct mental symbols that represent objects in the real world through a process called symbolic representation The rst 5 sub stages were action based because of the absence of mental symbols and symbolic representation Symbol something that stands for something else Images picture like symbols in the head and they represent objects in the immediate environment Very powerful because now the infant can mentally manipulate to solve a problem Symbolic Reasoning ability to construct images that accurately represent objects Schemas mental plans for the movement of their hands and all other body parts Piaget It s a plan for action and the action itself They organize the infants actions with respect to the object and it constitutes the infants knowledge of the object Accommodating expanding schemas to include new objects LANGUAGE Comprehension ability to understand language input happens 1st in babies Production ability to generate output that others can comprehend Phonemes smallest units of a language that cue changes in meaning to the listener Phonology attending and producing sounds and sound sequences appropriate to native language Morphemes smallest unit of meaning in a language It s a set of phonemes in a certain order Morphology system of rules governing the formation of the smallest meaningful unit of the language Semantics study of how words come to have meaning to the child Syntax arrangement of words into phrases and sentences Pragmatics function of language in communication and conversation Shaping strings of sounds that are gradually modified to approximate words and strings of words in to appropriate sentences Skinner Albeit Bandura theorist of social learning theory speculates that children listen to adult speech and rather than imitate directly they extract syntactic rules that organizes speech Then they use the rules to generate new sentences Expansion parents restate their child s utterance with the addition of missing words and complex linguistic elements Recasting parents reinstate the child s utterance into a new syntactical fonn without changing its meaning Chromsky all children master native language in an identical developmental sequence We are biologically programmed to learn language we just need exposure Nativist Explanation Language Acquisition Device LAD inborn faculty whose purpose is to discern a language s basic rules A way to learn language when child test hypothesis until he has learned all the rules Nativist assume infants have built in capability for learning language Language develops in 3 phases the first 2 years Prespeech 010 months critical developments are perception of speech hearing and lip reading production of speech sounds crying cooing consonantsbabbling canonical babbling repeating consonant vowels such as mama and dada development of gestures gesturing prelinguistic form of communication perfomatives nonverbal signals that conveys request to adults and direct adult attention to objects and events Ex Showing and giving objects to their caregivers pseudodialogues mock or conversations without words between parents and infants The Emergence of Naming 1018 months Fast mapping and the acquisition of new words first use of words with symbolic reference Associate particular sequences of sounds with concepts Fast mapping words that are both heard and spoken that begin to have referential meaning for the infant learn 9 new words per day Holophrase expression of a complete thought with a single word Dat means give me that rattle The Emergence of the First Word Combinations 1824 months Two word utterances express possession location existence question agent action and action direct object Telegraphic Speech utterances that string words together Omits less important words the a in on am will Parents in all cultures have a special way to talk to children They use shorter sentences higher pitch exaggerated intonation simplified syntax more repetitions and vocabulary Many objects end in y daddy doggie Motherese modifications in adults speech to infants or baby talk Parentese expresses the broader concept because everyone changes their talk to children Chapter 7 Emotions re ect the outcomes of our transactions Positive emotions when our environment is adaptive Negative emotions when our environment is maladaptive Charles Darwin father of evolution theory proposed that certain emotions are innate and universal in humans and animals Emotions are critical for survival and they allow infants to communicate their needs Two contemporary theories of early emotional development Discrete Emotion Theory differential emotions theory emphasizes the forces of nature It assumes infants are born with prewired system for experiencing emotions so there is no learning involved You judge babies feeling by their expressions Cognitive Emotions Theory emphasizes the effects of nurture It assumes that newborns are not prewired for discrete emotions and that babies slowly learn to experience and express emotions after 23 months of life as the baby develops a sense of self There is no relationship between expressive behaviors and subjective feeling of emotion in early infancy Parents teach their babies what emotions to feel Newborns feel 3 emotions Interest elicited by novelty or movement Distress painful stimulation Disgust bad taste or smell Stranger Anxiety by 8 months a distinct pattern by looking away withdrawing physically and crying when approached by unfamiliar adults The ability to read emotional signals is not universal Colic beginning at 3 weeks of age some babies display chronic crying and upset that persist for several weeks The causes and cures are unknown and obscure It takes a toll on the parents but it ends at the end of the third month Depressed mothers depress their babies your moods are contagious Display rules internalized expectations in a culture that guides one to the socially acceptable expression of emotion etiquette of emotional expression prescribed by gender social class age and situation Mutual Regulation Erik Erickson the emotional reciprocity between parent and child It is essential for healthy development and it fosters trust Optimal Stimulation recognizes individual differences in infant s thresholds and tolerance for stimulation and that these thresholds change throughout the day Arousal Modulation parents must learn to in uence their infants emotional state to match the emotional requirements of a given task ex Diaper change High risk babies are a challenge to seek mutual regulation they display abnormally high or low thresholds for stimulation there is limited ability to attend or respond to emotional signals from caregivers their emotions are difficult to read Temperament characteristic behavioral and emotional style of the infant It is deeply rooted in biological inheritance and it is stable over time but modified by experience It provides preliminary outline of infant personality Three distinct temperament types Difficult child withdraws from the unfamiliar adapts slowly negative mood high activity level and at risk for behavior problems Easy child relaxed with new situation copes well with change positive mood and low to moderate intensity Slow to warm up child inactive somewhat negative mood doesn t do well in new situations and doesn t respond well to change Goodness of fit extent to which the temperaments of parents match the temperament of the infant Less fit is when con icts arise Cognitive Emotions Theory infants learn to express themselves emotionally and temperamentally in social relationships but cannot do so until develop some sense of self Margaret Mahler develop a sense of self the first 23 years through hatching The infant doesn t conceive the self separate from the mother 6 months separation begins Infant compares mothers features with others and baby becomes more independent This leads to establishing a true relationship Sensitive Period immediately after the birth during which the mother and baby form a bond that is essential to healthy personality development Separation or disturbances would have consequences in long term social development Attachment refers to the enduring relationships that gradually emerge in infancy between caregivers and their infants Quality of care impacts quality of attachment Behaviorist Perspective infants are born without the ability to feed ore protect itself so they are totally dependent on caregivers to provide nurturance and protection Primary drives the basic needs Secondary drives the mothers presence mother satisfies primary drive Dependency trait like component to be close to the mother Explains attachment Operant Conditioning infants stay close to parents because parents reinforce their needs Monkey study showed none of them wanted the wired mother they wanted the soft one Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud described significance of mother as unique without parallel established unalterably for a whole lifetime the first and strongest love object and prototype of all later love relations Oral Stage rst 2 yrs when infants derive pleasure from sucking and good mothering provides oral pleasure from breast Trauma intense anxiety from disruption or termination of the mothers role in providing oral satisfaction Oral Dependency permanent residue from being traumatized Insecure adult personality Sense of trust establishes a foundation for all future social relationships Erickson Trust integrated set of beliefs attitudes and expectations that express a positive confident and optimistic view of the world He believed mutual regulation is essential for personality development Ethological Perspective evolutionary perspective for the best infant survival is to stay close to adults The mother is a secure base for the infant Intemal working models mental representations of the relationship between one self and the caregiver include the assessment of caregivers availability and responsiveness Strange Situation laboratory procedure that exposes the infant to sequential episodes of separation and reunion with the parent under conditions of increasing stress Stress is induced by a stranger Four qualitative patterns of attachment relationship Securely attached infants show some distress when mothers leave the room and are relieved when strangers leave Mother reunion is a secure base that stops crying Avoidantly Attached infants show no distress at their mothers departure or at the departure of both the mother and stranger Mothers are not secure base Don t like being left alone No reaction to mothers return Ambivalently Attached stay close to mother before separation and are greatly distressed throughout the study At reunion they continue to cry They cling to their mothers and push them away Mother is not a secure base and infant will not continue to play DisorganizedDisoriented Attachment share a tendency to display certain unusual behavior Parenti ed reversed roles with their mothers Sensitive Care mothers who read signals of distress and discomfort adjust the behaviors quick and constant response handle them with love and care efforts to time their behaviors to suit their infants and close physical contact securely attached infants Mothers of avoidant attached are less sensitive they fail to meet needs they are unreliable and they over stimulate infants Mothers of ambivalent attached infants under stimulate their infants and they are not responsive Temperament and stress determines quality of attachment Childrens behavior must be evaluated in its cultural context Couvade set of rituals that signify the father s deep involvement in the birth process Engrossment fascination in their newborn babies kissing them talking to them and touching them Fathers spend more time playing with the baby rough play
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