RACEETHNICITY IN US
RACEETHNICITY IN US AMH 2097
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lila Pacocha on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AMH 2097 at Florida State University taught by Christopher Griffin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/205596/amh-2097-florida-state-university in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Japanese Americans 111 Key Terms Kenjinkai Issei Nisei Great san Francisco earthquake Gentleman s agreement Alien Land Act American loyalty league Generations Issei 1St The people that were actually born in Japan and move to America Nisei 2 101 First Jap children that where born in America Sansei 3ml Yonsei 4th Generation divide s in US one of the most well studied Kenjinkai Equivalent of Hquuan Japanese version of Hquuan Local Prefectures 0 County organization for Jap society 0 Take identity from Japan and in America they come together and maintain the old ties Local identity in Japan maintained in US 0 Share the same dialect personality Endogamous Until the 19605 0 They would publish their own newspapers establish employment agencies organize bank loans legal assistance Important part of communal aspect Group obligations Important organization for Jap Americans Start off as poor low wage farm workers but are so successful that in a decade 1910 Jap Americans beginning to buy own businesses very good at this Slowly over time the number of businesses increases One of the most successful communities for starting businesses Difference between chinese and jap chinese were more into opening food businesses while japs chose other kinds o By 1940 40 of the Issei owned their own business self employed 0 One of characteristics is celebration of education 1868 Meiji restoration emphasis of educating jap people in modern world 0 Even if they are farmers they are highly educated Iap Association ofAmerica Established 1908 Coalition of Kenjinkai Like the 6 companies not a local government Provided English language instruction translation legal aid child care ect Religion Shintoism Confucianism Buddhism These religions were brought over to america Remain religious ideal but also convert to Christianity interesting form of Christianity Nisei half are going to Christians 0 Maintain before philosophies while being Christian 0 They believe to be accepted to America you had to be Christian 3ml and 4 generations where Christians Very quick acculturation even though this is the case tremendous anti jap nativism nativism very important When jap arrive not really welcome seen as necessary evil Don t come in massive groups at first nativist have bigger fish to burn at first 1900 s there is a shift outside US growth ofIap empire 0 jap has completely modernized by 1900 o becoming a rival to America in the Pacific ocean o jap one of the most amazing stories in world history in modernization heavy industry in 50 years 0 very smart at learning of the mistakes the west made brought in best people to teach them how to do things 0 creates a tremendous amount of anti jap sentiment suddenly goes from hated unimportant group to a targeted group Iap migration almost entirely west coast War Iap Russia Iap always resource whore Almost everything they need to industrialize they have to import it Iap tiny Russia huge Japanese slaughtered the Russians in this war People where shocked and scared Europeans had not been defeated by a non European in 300 yrs before this Iap symbol of no colonialism until this point Becoming a rival far quicker than imagined San Francisco Earthquake 1906 Most famous in US history Devastation incredible Most important city on west coast at this time While trying to rebuild all this schools were heavily damaged in the Earthquake 0 White americans tried to not have their children miss school Try to kick out non white to have their children go to school Iap where very angry high value on education Get government to support jap immigrants America can not afford to blow off the jap at this point bc of their increasing power bc of trade interest in well being 0 lap and America form Gentlemen s agreement 1907 I In this agreement the jap agree to refuse all emigrants from going to America who do not have a work contract 0 Only the worker can come over the family can not I In return US allowjap children to go to school I Only includes jap children other children are excluded until space for them several years 0 O O O Race amp Ethnicity 32111 Japanese Continued Key Terms Pearl Harbor Executive Order 9066 Internment Camps ssei Nisei Alien Land Act Ozawa vs US JACL National Origins Act Korematsu vs US 442nd Alien Land Act 1913 0 CA farmers upset want labor not competition for land 0 ALA prohibits those ineligible for citizenship form purchasing land 0 Most western states pass similar laws 0 1923 SC upholds constitutionality of ALA o Tried to limit amount of land that noncitizens can buy alien and immigrants 0 Already couldn t be seen as citizens 0 CA is one of the 15 but not last 0 1923 Supreme Court upholds constitutionality of ALA if you are not citizens you don t get our rights Not equal Ozawa vs US 0 A second generation Japanese NiseiOzawa goes to supreme court and sues to get all benefits of citizenship in 1922 0 Supreme court rules that Japs are unasimable to US society 0 Japs aren t going to be considered white 0 Japs considered lesser people Japs form organization to protect themselves Japanese American Citizens League JACL o Founded in 1929 to protect JapaneseAmerican citizens from the govt National Origin Act s passed in 1924 immigration restriction legislation Limits Jap immigration all immigrants in 1924 2 of 1890 slow immigration overall in US NOA stops what little immigration there had been from the Gentlemens Pact To demonstrate the loyalty of Japanese and JapaneseAmericans to the US govt Trying to show they are good citizens ADL around today to protect Jewish Americans JACL kind of does the same thing JACL is not in favor of internment but they end up helping the govt convince Japanese to enter the camps Pearl Harbor 0 Dec 7 1941 Japs launch string of attacks against US stronghold 0 Prior to Pearl Harbor US knew Japs were going to attack but were not sure of wherewhen it was going to happen 0 On Dec 7th Japs launch 2 waves ofattacks on Pearl Harbor to make sure US fleet in Pacific would be destroyed o Japs try to take land for themselves in the Pacific 0 We had an embargo with Japs before PH 0 On Philippines on Guam 0 US is at first in shock was a racist war US didn t believe Japan was capable to launch so many attacks at once Underestimate Japan 0 JapaneseAmericans in US are devastated by Pearl Harbor attacks knew it was gonna make their situation in US worse 0 Stories of Japs celebrating the deaths of US ppl causes hatred Japanese American Internment 0 Franklin D Roosevelt issues Executive Order 9066 o Evacuation of Jap and JapAmers living on west coast into interior of the country 0 120000 Japs and JapAmers are placed in internment camps 0 23 of them were living in Hawaii and were not subjected to internment 0 To make US feel safe Executive Order 9066 0 War Relocation Authority they had 48 hrs to sell their belongings homes and businesses to move to relocation zones 0 Japs and JapAmers loose S 0 40k ssei 0 70k Nisei 0 March to May 1942 We are sending Amer citizens to war camps The govt tries to sell it VideoJap Relocation Japs in LA Fear ofJaps being loyal to Japan and not the US AMH Key Terms Iap Internment camps Pearl harbor Chinese Communist Revolution Yellow Power Laws Displaced Persons Act 1948 McCarran Walter Act 195 2 Immigration nationality Act 1965 Western Hemisphere 1 120k year Why does US let so many Asians in 0 Cold war 0 After wwII 2 major powers in control I US and soviet Union 0 Soviet Union Communism 0 US Capitalism Democracy I USSR starts making other Asian countries communist 0 Korea Vietnam China I We want Japan for ourselves that is why we are so quick to forgive the Iaps we also drop 2 atomic bombs 0 We open relations with lap and lap immigrants 0 China does become communist after WWII I Mao overthrew Chinese gov created communist regime 0 We open doors to chinese immigrants who don t want to be communist o safe haven for democracy US 0 Pearl Harbor 0 Chinese look like Iap but after pearl harbor they would walk around with signs saying they hated jap 1 Pearl harbor helped chinese American immigrants get respect from WASP 0 Chinese and US have similar enemy jap 0 Chinese 0 For sake ofworld war 2 communist and non unite against jap o 2 After WWII communist win Mao 0 Those against communism go to US I These immigrants are different 0 3 New Chinese community 0 I Not going to get along with previous chinese immigrants 0 Why 0 They came from all over china 0 Liked by US citizens more assimilate 0 0000000 Japan Ways they assimilate 1 Education very successful 2 Skilled labor doc lawyer 3 Culture have kids mainly integrate Ways they don t assimilate 1 Language is kept 2 Endogamy 3 Religion 0 Not similar to Chinese 0 1 W11 I very good soldiers comatose pilots built planes for one way trips so you can slam into US planes I Iap are loya good soldiers faught well US Impressed I After Iap surrender we occupy them with our troops 0 They are very compliant 0 Give up all weapons ready to make peace 0 exogamy Iap women coming to US with soldiers married 0 anti communist I After WWII we want peace to go against communist I We welcome their immigrants o 2 Laws I 1945 1990190000ap come to the US I 1976 President Ford will make a national declaration that internment was a mistake I 1988 president Reagan is going to offer reparations for discrimination and for taking them to interment camps as apology 0 lap Americans come to US I 1 Education Tech Science 0 us loves this I 2 Yellow Power 1970s 0 similar to black power jap immigrants are going to say we are tired ofassimilation US culture embrace their past traditions proud ofwho they are I Much more assimilation thru exogamy 0 Starts with US soldiers AMH 32311 Immigration Law 19th century no laws barring people from coming into the country 0 only laws to become citizens 0 foreign concept Birthright citizenship people who are born on citizen soil are automatically American citizenship 0 Anchor babies once they become 18 they can pull other people 0 14th amendment all persons born or naturalized in the US and subject to jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the US and of the state wherein they reside I a foreigner isn t subject to the us in the same way Iohn Locke o Philosopher England 17th century 0 One ofmost important philosophers 0 Classical liberal I Induce facts on what he see s around him 0 quotwere did the first government come from his example starts off in the state of nature I example of markers acting in class 0 enforcers without borders how do we protect ourselves what is a citizen 0 Rights and privileges 0 See yourself different from the outsiders o A citizen is an inhabitant of a state government Well what is a state 0 Political unit which has a monopoly of legitimate violence over a given territory 0 Claimed the right to use violence since they claim an area 0 Early on we had empires Followed by city states Sparta Followed by kingdoms Then we got nation states Nation cultural unit State political unit Country land area Nationalism uniting too concepts nation states Citizenship types Japanese II Key Terms Matthew Perry Meiji Restoration Wakamatsu Colony Chinese Exclusion Act 0 What 2 articles talk about childhood perspectives 0 Indian school ones 0 Itoi article 0 Opening ofJapan 1853 o By force ended isolation 0 Matthew Perry was the one to defeat o Meiji Restoration 18581868 0 quotRevere the emperor expel the Barbarians slogan I keep power away from barbarians 0 Emperor did not have much power until this point Mutsuhito emperor at time I When restored to power he takes a new name quotenlightened ruler 1868 0 Change japans place in the world at this point I Before this they were very far behind 0 Japan evolves from a backwards country to a modern industrial power Japan modernizes through taxes Change in the tax system I Before restoration peasants paid taxes by giving percentage of their profits I 1873 begin to assess taxes based on the value ofthe land 0 good year ok bad year screwed paying same amount of taxes I 1900 100s jap farmers lost their land to tax delinquency 0 very large landless population 0 no food water housing or jobs 0 Extreme poverty leads to Extreme Politics I Meiji emperor opens up emigration I 100s start to leave their homeland O OO 0 Hawaii 0 Largest amount ofJap emigrants first came here 0 Native population decrease due to disease I 1750 250k I 1890 35k I James Cook group first brings disease over 0 Need labor for sugar plantations I Europeans establish sugar plantations thru Hawaii I 1886 1894 30kjap migrate 0 lap become larger ethnic group I 1941 160kap 80k Eur 70k Filipino 30k Chinese 25k Hawaiian 38k Mixed Huge amount go to south america 0 Peru Brazil 0 lap farmers go to south america and become farmers there Wakamatsu Colony est 1896 0 1st lap to come to Amercia go to West coast 0 nearsacramento California 0 focused to develop exotic items I silk tea grapes tangerines 0 doesn t last very long I suffers from drought I internal fighting before 1890 not seen a lot of migration 0 do see jap students coming to universities o in ux European and American universities with jap students trying to learn about western technology and politics 0 send most intelligent men and women to bring back to japan knowledge Businesses love cheap chinese labor 0 Do not have chinese immigrants anymore bc of Exclusion act 0 So they look to the jap From 1890 1924 279k from Japan plus 1000s from Hawaii 0 National Origins Act shuts down all immigration Most immigrants come over for farm labor jobs When they come over to america they intend to make a permanent migration Iap are very ambitious and saving money tend to work in groups 0 Work in groups for business protection Iap farm labor where considered very good Iap underbid their competition for jobs 0 By the early 1900s they had monopolized the industry in California
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