RACEETHNICITY IN US
RACEETHNICITY IN US AMH 2097
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Battle of Bull Run happened in Virginia 1511861 2quotd1862 Theses were the two con icts during the American Civil War US vs Confederacy Union was unprepared and retreated into the woods Both sides were sobered by the violence and casualties of the battle and they realized that the war would potentially be much longer and bloodier than they had originally anticipated Lasted only a day the first time amp 3 the second time Both times was a confederate victory Irish Brigade consisted mostly of Irish Americans that served in Union Army during the American Civil War Famous war cry faugh a ballagh meaning clear the way Active September 1861 July 1865 They are infantrymen soldiers who are trained to ght on foot to engage enemy face to face quotDutchmenquot Patrick R Cleburne An Irish American solider who served in the Confederate States Army He was major general Nicknamed stonewall of the west for his ability to hold ground where others failed amp talent in foiling the movement of the enemy Others feared his ag Killed in 1864 in the Battle of Franklin Sand Creek Massacre Also known as the Massacre of Cheyenne Indians Incident of the Indian Wars that occurred November 29th 1864 A 700man force of Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho killing 70163 Indians John M Chivington led it Stand Waite leader of the Cherokee nation and general of the Confederate States Army during Civil War stand firm Emancipation Proclamation executive order issued by Abe Lincoln during Civil War It proclaimed the freedom of 31 million of the nation s 4 million slaves immediately freed 50000 of them with the rest freed as Union armies advanced Article 2 section 2 of the US Constitution January 151 1863 54th Massachusetts infantry regiment that saw extensive service in the Union Army during the American Civil War One of the first official black units in the US during civil war March 13 1863 August 4 1865 Freedman39s Bureau US federal government agency that aided distressed refugees and freed slaves freedmen in 1865 1872 Initiated by Lincoln intended to only last a year after Civil War but Congress passed an extension to aid former slaves through legal food housing education healthcare and employment key agency in the Reconstruction era assisting freedman in the south Appomattox Courthouse courthouse in Appomattox VA built in 1846 amp destroyed by fire in 1892 Location where Lee surrendered to Grant in 1865 ending the War Between the States County Seat until 1895 10 Plan December 1863 Lincoln offered a model for reinstatement of Southern states AMH2097 Exam 2 Study Guide Chinese Immigration Outline I Immigration by the Numbers II China in the 19111 and 20Lh Century III Early Chinese Immigration IV Mid20Lh Century Chinese Immigration V Life today comparable to other immigrant groups China in the l9Lh Century a Dynastic Power i Passed down through family kinshipslinkages ii Xia Dynasty came to power rst 21 BCE iii Shang Dynasty start to see beginning of written record b Qing Dynasty 16441911 i Lost power due to westernization and imperialism ii Patriarchal III Industrial based c Queue i Hairstyle for men with long ponytail ii Couldn t be cut iii Treasonous for not having it showed loyalty to the ruling family of the Qing Dynasty Queue Order iv Hairstyle let them immigrate to the US as they would still show reverence towards China Rebellion a Taiping Rebellion 18511864 i Civil War of China ii Hong Xiuquan fails civil service exam four times that is required for work visions of Christianity had to save Chinese people from oppression leads rebellion shaved their heads Queue appointed Yang Xiang iii Worship God Society was the name of the movement iv Attention in southern part of China where most trade occurred v Shaved their heads queue to show they don t support the Qing ruling vi Equality for men and women equal distribution of land forbid use of foot binding banning excess alcohol opium tobacco etc banning concubines vii Southern China very susceptible to change farming area low employment vii Yang Chin great military general defeated government troops in 1852 but is eventually defeated viii Qing Dynasty begins to have Western support with artillery due to them having Chinese investments FT War amp Major Charles Warden came to defend Shang Hai f rom these rebels which became known as the Ever Victorious b Boxer Rebellion 18981901 i Northern China ii Wanted to govern themselves iii In uenced by Taiping Rebellion iv Imperialism against the idea that colonization was taking over China govemment was becoming weak and relying on foreign forces v Spheres of in uence Map national alliance of 8 countries brought 20000 troops to China Qing dynasty doesn t officially support but gave money to fund the troops vi Qing dynasty ousted due to Republican Revolution vii Boxer Protocol calls for severe punishment on China due to rebellion c Republican Revolution 1911 i Wuchang Uprising workers and people uprise over governments handling of railways establishment of the Republic of China ii New Army of the Republic launches a coo against Qing military officials iii Sun YatSen father of the republic nationalist iv Republic of China result of nationalist uprising idea to become more democratic v Occupation vi Japanese are a problem to Chinese in China until 1945 Early Chinese Immigration a California Gold Rush 18481852 i Mined for gold in mass immigration to one area ii Some found no gold found other work iii Men with no plans of staying in the Us would send the money home iv Mining and building of the railroad sustained the Chinese rather than gold b Foreign Miner s Tax 1852 i Speci cally aimed at the Chinese for gaining taxes at those who did not have American citizenship ii Language allowed the government to get away over taxation iii Required payment of 3 a month through taxes these men would normally make 6 a month c People V Hall 1854 i Chinese can t testify against whites in California ii Race of people which nature marked inferior form of nativism Transcontinental Railroad 1862 a Covers frontier from east to west coast cost 136 million b 30 miles completed first year 50 miles completed second year c Went to China to recruit people to work on the railroad d Workers Wages i Paid for passage with form of indentured servitude ii Wage discrimination based on danger of job iii Treated inferior to white workers e Burlingame Treaty of 1868 i Between the United States and China ii Established formal friendly relations iii Gives China rights to have counsels in the US eminent domain over their territories and allowed for large scale Chinese immigration Review 1 How was China ruled as a country and how did that impact the people Dynasty hereditary monarchy People didn t like it s actions 2 What were the goals of the two rebellions we discussed The Taiping Rebellion Equality among classes and genders Christianity Only one spouse Removal of foot binding Caused by unemployment scarcity of food The Boxer Rebellion Nationalistic lines dealing with imperialism taking over useful parts 3 What was the initial motivation for Chinese immigration to the Us in the 19111 Century Califomia Gold Rush unsuccessful due to difficulty and had to find regular jobs supposed to be short term 4 Discuss some of the discrimination and prejudices the Chinese faced in California People V Hall Chinese couldn t testify against whites deeming them inferior taxed more paid less than white workers with more dangerous jobs Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 Increased immigration in California taking a toll ChineseAmericans citizenships can bring their families over from China a Discrimination i First federal law to restrict immigration based off of race and class for 10 years renewed inde nitely in 1902 b Passed in the Senate and the House i President vetoed it ii Goes back and becomes a law c Repealed in 1943 i Barriers were removed permanently d Angel Island i West Coast Ellis Island ii Most who arrived were removed because they couldn t prove they had family here Beginning of 201h Century Immigration a Immigration Act of 1917 i Asiatic Barred Zone Act ii Large region of Asia unable to immigrate to United States iii Wilson rejected the act but congress passed it b Magnuson Act of 1943 i Repealed the initial Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 allowing immigration for all Chinese nationalists Communist China a Chinese Communist Party CCP i Founded in 1921 ii Mao Zedong eventually took over iii Idealistic for youth iv Gradually increased control of China b Nationalists i Chiang KaiShek c People s Republic of China October 1 1949 i After WWII in battle of Nationalists and Communists it formed a communist country A New Wave of Immigration a Wealthy and welleducated b New Conditions i Factory Workers ii Chinatowns San Francisco New York Chicago iii Horrendous factories that weren t monitored or maintained Sweatshops Con ict and Life Today a Gang Violence i Americanbom Chinese ABC spoiled and privileged ii Fresh off the boat FOB lacking English skills and uneducated c Bad pay bad conditions i Group of people who s parents came over welleducated and wealthy but fall in social classes because children can t speak English ii Chinese for Af rmative Action iii Brain drain is when the smartest and brightest people leave the country Jewish American Outline 1 History of the Jews II Periods of Migration 1500 to World War II World War II to the Present 111 Prejudices IV Assimilation History of the Jews a Judaism oldest monotheistic religion in the world i Founded by Abraham in 2000 BC 4000 years old today ii Turkey to modern day Israel to Egypt where the Jews lived b Moses i 13911271 BCE is when he is known to have lived ii Finds out that he was born a Jew and decides to go back to his original roots iii Known as the one that frees the Jews from slavery iv Parting ofthe Red Sea v Wanders from Egypt in the desert for 40 days and 40 nights vi Goes to Mt Sinai and God gives Moses the 10 Commandments c First Temple of Jerusalem i Signi es the Kingdom of the Jews developing form King David and King Solomon ii 587 BCE Babylonians conquer and destroy the rst temple d Second Temple of Jerusalem i Built under Persian Rule ii Lived peacefully until 70 CE iii Jewish temples are destroyed by Roman Emperor Titus Components of Judaism a Sephardic Jews i Expelled from Spain during Spanish inquisition in 1492 and went to Africa ii Lease common Jew seen in the present US b Ashkenazi Jews i Came from Rhine River in Germany ii More familiar with today c What does it meant to be Jewish i Religion practice the religion Judaism believe in the Torah People of the book practice in Synagogues still waiting on messiah ii Race Supreme Court ruled that they were a race initially post WWII gets reversed in the 60s70s iii Ethnicity Secular American Jews that believed they were based on culture and ethnicity not as their religion Review 1Who are the two different groups of Jews we discussed How are they different Ashkenazi Jews live in central and eastern Europe Sephardic Jews that live in Spain 2 What is the difference between an ethnic Jew and a religious Jew You can be ethnically Jewish without being religiously Jewish Migration a Inquisition i Migrated from Spain to Brazil Group of 23 people ii Left Brazil to America Group of 23 people b Marranos i Descendants of Sephardic Jews ii Forced to publicly conveIt to Christianity and Catholicism in Brazil and Central America during the Inquisition period iii Would convert back when they could ee c Central and Eastern European Pogroms i Organized and officially encouraged attacks against the Jews ii This initiates people to immigrate d The Jew Bill i Maryland passes in 1826 which extends citizenship rights to Jews e 1924 Immigration Act i Limited annual amount of immigrants from 2 of 1890 census ie Germany7100 Germans only 2 Germansyear would be admitted into the United States f Jewish Women i Active during Progressive movement i 1902 Kosher Meat Boycott tried to block and beat people from entering butcher shops lasted 3 weeks until brought back down to reasonable price ii Triangle Shiitwaist Factory Fire 191 1 146 people die and majority were Jewish women in factory women have been trying to unionize beaten back down only 1 exit which eventually led to safety measures iii National Council of Jewish Women founded in ChicagoiVolunteer Organization oldest organization 90000 nationally currently World War II to the Present a Nazi Germany and the Holocaust b Refugees i Annually 8000 Jewish Refugees immigrating to the US c Establishment of Israel d Soviet Union Russian Jews i Hard to get out during Stalin s tenure Prejudices and Assimilation a AntiSemitism i Steretyping prejudice or discriminating against people for being Jewish b Communist sympathizers c Jews and Business d Con ict between AngloSaxon culture and Jewish Heritage Ellis Island Outline I Immigration process prior to Ellis Island II Establishing Ellis Island III Ellis island Experience IV A Brief History of Ellis Island Castle Garden a Manhattan NY i August 1 1855Apri1181890 ii 8 million immigrants iii 1882 Immigration Law Site is Chosen a 27 acresil mile from Manhattan i Construction begins 1890 ii Opens January 1 1892 b Annie Moore first person processed in Ellis Island bringing her 2 younger brothers to her parents who immigrated earlier Ellis Island Experience a 1St and 2quotd class V steerage i 1st and 2quotd class don t have to go under Ellis Island inspection b Steerage Experience i Crowded and unsanitary conditions c Bureau of Immigration i Later known as INS Island of Hope and Tears a Role of Inspectors b Medical Exams c Registration Italian Outline i Many people couldn t spell their own names so miscommunication occurred ii Asked 29 questions d Open from 1892 to 1954 i Processed over 12 million immigrants through Ellis Island ii 5 years after it was built 1897 a re occurred on Ellis Island and burned the immigration station down iii Caused a halt to immigration losing many records iv Closed for 3 years then reopened at the end of December in 1900 V After WWI United States became world power and had consulates abroad taken care of visas and inspections before they even came to country vi Only people detained at Ellis Island had problems with paperwork and war refugees displaced persons vii November 1954 closed as an immigrations station Immigration I Migration by Numbers II History of Italy III PushPull Factors IV Life in America V Modern ItalianAmericans 1876 over 45 million immigrated to the United States Population of Italy was 14 million at the time Only made up 15 percent of US population at peak immigration 2030 returned to Italy Family was still in Italy Couldn t own property in the city History of Italy a 10000 year history 8000 BCE b Remus and Romulus i Rome was found by twin brothers who were trying to determine who would name the city and where it would be built ii Fought each other to death Romulus won and named city Rome and built on Palentine hill wellknown legend c Romans ruled Italian peninsula for 800 years d Roman Developments i 4 BCE476 CE e Middle Ages i Small States Papal States not one uni ed country ii Catholic church received taxes iii Republics developed f Napoleon Bonaparte i Tries to conquer Italy somewhat successful but only 15 years of power ii Puts brother in power to occupy iii Helps push for uni ed Italy under one leader Uni cation of Italy a What was Italy before uni cation i 18151848 becomes uni ed b Sardinia i Sardinia and Piedmont were organized and had constitution with civil liberties to the people ii Parliamentarian government elected by people who met basic income level iii King Victor Emmanuel ruled Sardinia liberal idea for the time but still Monarch iv Count Camillo Benso di Cavour prime minister under King Emmanuel pushes for uni cation for Italy architect for Italy V Sardinia and Piedmont lure Austria into war defeat them and unify Northern Italy vi Nationalist uprising being led by Garibaldi gathering of people to March in Rome vii Italian uni cation done in 186061 viii Fascism rises during King Emmanuel II with rise of Mussolini Fascism is authoritarian and nationalistic rightwing system of government a Social organizationthat overthrows the president b Manipulates the pope with agenda through threat of force against Vatican City c Mussolini was deposed and killed in 1945 Review 1 What was Italy prior to uni cation Smaller citystates and republics Papal States kingdom of Naples and Sicily Uni ed in 1860 2 Who were some of the major players in the uni cation of Italy and what were their roles Cabor prime minister 3 What is Fascism Under who did Italy become Fascist Benito Mussolini in 1920s PushPull Factors Push a Uni cation i Southern Italians were poor fa1mers ii Northern Italians were merchants iii Southerners felt they were being controlled by Northemers b Population i Population increase in 1870s birth rates rose extremely high as death rates fell ii Poor comprised biggest population iii Illiteracy rate of 70 in southern Italy c Natural Disaster i Mt Vesuvius erupting burying town near Naples in early 20Lh century ii Mt Etna erupts destroying property iii 1908 earthquake killed more than 100000 people d Persecution i Italian Catholics exploiting other Italian Catholics ii Village ties opposed to nationstatecountry you live in Full a Employment i Migrated a few seasons and believed it was temporary to then go back to Italy ii Industrial jobs in factories and railroads iii Not enough jobs in southern Italy b Opportunity i Before 1900s Southern Italians were single male immigrants ii After 1900s came with their families for more permanent iii Take care of Italy with money would send 4 30 million to Italy which would not stimulate American economy iv Majority were southern Italian single males v Substantial education opportunity in the United States Life in America in the period of Early Immigration a Work i Shopkeepers merchants from Italy become shopkeepers shop owners ii Manuel Laborers particularly construction iii Female Work work at home laundry mending to maintain strong family ties iv Padrone f1nds Italian workers to railroads getting cut of pay middleman City Life a New York CityLittle Italy i Lower Manhattan ii Primarily Italian ethnic place to live with no requirement to assimilate b Kinship Ties c Housing i Tenant houses that were narrowly grossly overcrowded cramped poorly lit ii Outbreaks of disease Italian Catholicism a Jesuits b Going to church was a social event i Business deals were made Language a Majority did not speak English upon arriving Ma a Myth a Italian crime stereotype i All Italian men are part of organized crime false majority are not involved with organized crime ii Organized crime during Prohibition are Italians iii 1940 only 2 crime families crime rates were relatively low eventually 2 dozen families iv Many viewed this as the only way out of poverty Nativism a Emergency Quota Act of 1921 i Limited immigration to 3 of immigrant population of 1910 census intended for everybody but geared towards Italians b Immigration Act of 1924 i 2 of 1890 census of people from certain country ii Immigrants supposedly took jobs from natives c Racism i Blaming immigrants for taking jobs ii Spike increase in membership of Ku KluX Klan in 1920 s against Catholicism Assimilation a Family Ties i Patriarchal ii Second generation found it difficult to assimilate spoke English in school Italian at home b Marriage i First generation felt it was a family matter ii Independence of second generation men started marrying women not of Italian descent c National Italian American Foundation i Preserving Italian culture in America d Sons of Italy in America Eastern Europeans Who are the Eastern Europeans a Russiansilargest group of immigrants b Polish c Slavs d Jews e Balkans History of Russia a Slavic people or tribesi6th century i PanSlavism is a nationalist movement without the idea of forming nation because they protect one another of similar ethnicities b Russian Monarchy 16131917 i Romanov s Peter the Great tries to modernize Russia creates gateway to St Petersburg ii Alexander II known as the Czar that freed the serfs not free people that are tied to the land can t leave tried to be liberal have some reforms iii Emancipation of Serfs iv The Mir Revolution and the Soviet Union a 1917 Revolution WWI i February Revolution ii October Revolution Volscheks seize power and boot Romanov s out of power iii Reds iv White Russians in favor of the monarchy relatively wealthy and welcome in the United States were royalists b Vladimir Lenin i Ideas of Communism c Joseph Stalin i Totalitarian Dictator in 1924 but solidifies power in 1927 ii Instilled fear in every level of people iii Dies in 1953 Eastern Euro e a 19 Century dominated by others i AustriaHungary Prussia Germany and Ottoman empire control Eastern Europe ii Turkey controls southern Europe iii Russia controls northern Europe iv Territories weren t well defined until WWI b Conscription c SelfDetermination i Woodrow Wilson defined in his 16 points ii Countries began to assert themselves and right to form their own nation d Iron Curtain i Stalin takes over many of the countries in Eastern Europe during WWII Migration Period a Revolution 1917 i Most Russians migrated after 1917 White Russians aristocrats imperials ii Red Scare 19191920 migration of people who were poor Russians feared to in ltrate government and spread communism Purchase of Alaska i 1867 purchase Alaska from Russia known as Seward s Folly ii 1910 census only found 65000 Russians in the country iii Dukhobors and Molokans pacif1st groups migrated from Alaska to California and Oregon Orthodox Christians c World War 11 i Jews Yiddish ed from Nazi s ii PostWWII people that are eeing are known as displaced persons renounce their citizenship to their state iii Form ethnic enclaves d The Great Thaw i Cold War is thawing ii 1953 when Stalin dies the US and Soviet Union try to get along and tensions easy for a little e Polish Catholics i After WWII can t openly practice religion under communism 6 Review 1 What is panSlavism and why is important to understanding the Eastern European identity 2 How 3Doy Slavic brethren or ethnically similar duties of slavs to defend other slavs indicative of ethnicity over religion did the Russian Revolution shift society Provides this ethnic connection that s the same from other countries an ethnic tie It got rid of the monarchy White Russians and wealthy left to the United STates ou think there are any pushpull factors that can be attributed directly to the Russian experience The rise of communism Shifting of empires Idea of political immigration seeking political asylum Defection Japanese Immigration Outline 1 Immigration by Numbers 11 Japan A Short History 111 Japanese to Hawaii and the US Mainland IV World War II and Relocation Camps V Postwar J apaneseAmericans Migration by Numbers a 18681929 approx 231000 Hawaii b 18801920 approx 250000 mainland i Smallest group of migration so far ii Not colonized nor many invaders iii Homogenous History of Japan a Dynastic i Monarchy passes from father to son b Feudal Japan 11851868 i Serfs similar to in Europe with feudal landlords ii Were able to be free despite somewhat enslavement iii Families became powerful in this era iv There was an emperor but couldn t control feudal landlords c Isolationist Japan i Didn t trade with other countries ii Rice diets d Christianity i Catholic Jesuit Christians make way to Japan through China ii Francis Xavier leads a mission to Keyoto successfully converted 100000 people to Christianity in 1500s 1587 edict issued that Christian missionaries were doing more harm than good and expelled iii Ifyou convert back to Shintoism then you will be killed e Commodore Matthew Perry 1853 i Sailed on warships into Tokyo Bay to coerce Japanese to sign trade treaty with United States known as gunboat imperialism ii After signing Japanese became more imperialistic where they look for oil in China and other commodities in Korea and IndoChina iii Empire of Japan power ends at the end of WWII in 1945 becoming democratic Japanese Migration a Hawaii i Popular destination for Japanese migrants ii Labor opportunity sugar cane plantations brought over by labor contractors b Sugar Cane Plantations i Hard expensive to import from Caribbean easier to go to Hawaii and get sugar cane ii Labor intensive and complicated iii US annexes Hawaii when they realize Japan is getting closer to taking over iv Entrepreneurial colony of sugar cane farmers c Mainland Migration i Occurs after 1880 to 1920 high point for immigration ii Many more Japanese immigrants coming who were not farmers or laborers rather shop owners and tradesman iii Hawaii becomes annexed in 1898 and becomes a state in 1959 d Gentlemen s Agreement 1907 i Teddy Roosevelt strikes agreement with emperor of Japan ii Segregate Japanese from white American children in schools iii Japanese don t want a Chinese exclusion act want children to get the same education as white Americans iv Japanese stops giving out passports Social Problems a Picture Brides i Picture would match couples based off of features ii Marriage would occur while woman was still in Japan and man in United States iii Marriage needed to be official family would stand in for the man b California Alien Land Law1913 i Effort to eliminate the Japanese as a competitive force ii Prohibited nonwhite immigrants without citizenship from owning land in California Effective until 1952 c Generational Differences i Issei 1St generation Immigrant born ii Nisei 2quot generation US born Children who occupied two worlds 1 Traditional Japanese maintained by their parents Issei 2 World they lived in that was Americanized iii Struggled over complex culture Issue of assimilation iv Most likely spoke English opposed to Japanese v Most likely practiced Christianity opposed to Shintoism World War II and Intemment a Executive Order 9066 i President Roosevelt authorizes US military to evacuate people from military areas and provide accommodations for them elsewhere directed towards Japanese Americans ii Most of California and Oregon declared themselves military areas b Military Areas i Hundreds of Japanese were uprooted and moved to these areas in the Midwest c Concentration Camps Relocation or Intemment Camps i Lasted until 1945 Week 2 Concepts Themes N 4 V39 0 Transition 0 Immigrants how to t into American Society 0 Multiculturalism o How Melting Pot Came to be 0 Assimilate o How they came to be 0 General Assimilation Culture 0 How their culture affects their assimilation Ethnicity 0 Heritage US Constitution 1787 a Article 1 i Slaves counted as 35 ofaperson ii Slaver trade was permitted till 1808 b Immigration i Alien Sedition and Neutralization Acts 1 Alien 7 gave president right to expel foreigners What de nes a person s race a Susie Guillory Phipps i Sues the state of Louisiana in 1980 ii She wanted a race change from colored to white on her birth certi cate iii 1970 Louisiana Blood Law stated that if there was 132 of African American in you it designates you as colored 1 Known as the OneDrop Rule Race 7 a category of human beings with distinctive physical characteristics transmitted by descent and set in racialized hierarchy a 1617Lh century race kinship linkages b 18111 to present race physical characteristics Racial Hierarchy 7 A stratification of and substantial inequality among physically distinct groups a Johann Blumenbach 7 German anatomist 7 1795 i Caucasians Europeans ii Mongolians Asians iii Ethiopians Africans iv Americans Native Americans v Malays Polynesians Race Scienti cally Categorized a Biological Race Initiatives i Nature determined race b No biological distinction but people thought that until the 20Lh century i Biology does NOT equal race 0 Ideological Racism 7 considers a group s unchangeable physical characteristics to be linked in a way to psychological or intellectual characteristics and that on this basis distinguishes between superior and inferior racial groups Racist ideology 7 real physical traits linked to cultural traits that a dominant group deems undesirable Racialization 7 process by which the dominant white group especially elites have de ned and constructed certain groups as being racially inferior or superior for the purposes of societal placement and group enrichment segregation or oppression a Today race is a social construct Racial group 7 social group that people decide to single out as inferior or superior based off of real or alleged physical characteristics selected subjectively Ethnicity a Origin of Word is Greek i Ethos Nation b De ned as a group socially distinguished or set apart by others or by itself primarily on the basis of cultural or nationalorigin characteristics c Ancestry 11 Ethnic groups a Minority or subordinate groups are singled out because of looksculture b Dominant groups 7 group with greatest power amp resources c Ethnocentrism 7 belief that one s particular ethnic group is more important and all others should measure up to it Cultural Distinctions a Culture 7 shared values symbols of peoples and understandings b Multiculturalism c Stereotypes 7 an overgeneralization associated with racial or ethnic categories that goes beyond existing eVidence gt1 9 0 O N REVIEW How has the de nition of race changed over time o 16111 and 173911 centuries o Kinship linkages o 18111 century through the 20Lh century 0 Physical Characteristics 0 Based off of biological in uences 0 Today 0 Selfde ned 0 Social construct Racial Hierarchy 0 Based on physical differences between groups of people 0 Important to this course because it s had a signi cant impact in our history English Immigration bP N N E Outline The First Immigrants Motivations for leaving England Later Migration and Nativist Reactions The Dominant Culture and English Americans Today First Immigrants a Spanish Arrived First b 350000 English by Early 18111 Century c 18201950 nearly 3 million English Immigrants d Practice of colonized migration 7 involved the subordination of indigenous societies Stereotypes of English Settlers a All Pilgrims b Religiously Strict c Escaping Religious Persecution d Get rich quick e Patriarchal f All drink tea 4 Distinct EnglishSpeaking Groups a Quakers i From North Midland England and Wales ii Arrived in the Delaware Valley 16751725 1 West Jersey Founder George Fox 1647 l Believed in equality across the board for men and women 7 he based Quaker religion off of inner light iv Radical in England v William Penn 1 The reason why Pennsylvania was named that Quakers settled Pennsylvania vi N0 minister that is going to be in charge vii No use of rank within the society N0 sacri ces iX Faced intense persecution in England and were pushed out X Tried to recruit people Puritans i Came to Massachusetts from 16291640 i Divine Mission iii Why leave from England iv 1607 7 Puritans ee to Holland v Radical known as Separatists v Church of England similar to Catholic Church 1 Felt the Church of England should reform further ii39 Fquot vii viii iX X Virginian Royalists 7 support the crown with money i i39 iii 0 3 1 Set out in 1620 to the New World on the May ower May ower Compact 1 First 100 people that settled there 2 Sets up a charter to live by by saying that laws that are voted in will be abided by everyone Live communally until 1623 Massachusetts Bay colony forms around them until 1691 From Southern England 1642 1675 The Virginia Company 1607 gt105 settlers 38 survived the first few months Start farming with tobacco to get rich Came for economic reasons Borderland Immigrants i ii ii 39 171 8 1775 Come from Borderlands of Ireland and Scotland Settle in the south along the Appalachian Backcountry 1 Settle further in away from water Socioeconomic status 1 Were poor and of lower classes so came to make money and create a new social status for themselves 2 Mainly farmers Distinct differences Form their own language 2 Don t socialize much with other groups 3 Have an idea of natural liberty 4 Protestant England a Protestant Reformation 7 1517 b England breaks from Rome 715291536 i Henry wants Pope to annul his marriage but the Pope refuses c Henry VIII heirs and Protestantism 1 ii39 Known as most Catholic sovereign but was the one that broke from the Catholic Church Henry VIII became the head of the church Queen Elizabeth is head of the Church of England 1 Made everyone become Protestants Has son Edward VI from the third wife but succession becomes an issue Edward VI Mary then Elizabeth is allowed to 2 Anglicism is popular under Edward 3 Catholic under Mary who reigned for five years 7 Known as Bloody Mary Protestant under Elizabeth who reigned for over fifty years which seals the deal of England being a Protestant country 4 5 Stuarts Take Over England a James I7 not religious i Believed in divine rights ii Didn t like the idea of Parliament or any type of government that tells you what to do Charles 17 personal rule Son of James I i Magna Carta says that there has to be a Parliament and gave them rights by eliminating the rights of the King and gave power to elites of the country ii Wanted sole religious and governmental power which sparks the Civil War in England c Oliver Cromwell 7 Lord protector i Creates Navigation Acts ii Begins mercantile system iii No freedom of religion if you are Anglican or Catholic Charles 11 i Return of the Stuarts ii Has no children e James II 7 Catholic i Navigation Acts of 1651 1 Requires all goods imported to England had to be on English ships Restoration Policies 1 Adoption of mercantile system 2 Wanted one amount of gold and one amount of silver 3 Government had monopolies placed taxes on lots of things James II establishes the Dominion of New England 7 only one body of government 1 From Boston 2 Sir Edmund Andros 3 Puritan church is no longer it is Anglican iv Glorious Revolution happens 1 1688 7 Parliament invites William and Mary of Orange to England and to rule while James 11 lives in eXile 2 Bill of Rights 3 Act of Toleration 1689 a Freedom of worship to all Christians except Catholics and Unitarians 4 All colonies went back to the way they were except for Massachusetts by 1691 6 Immigration after the Revolution a Revolution 7 1820 b 18201910 7 Industrial Workers i Ease of assimilation ii Cultural similarities iii Language Fquot 3 1 ii39 iv AngloSaxon 7 derives from Germanic tribes but came around now 1 AngloProtestants is the term used now 2 White AngloSaxons American Protestants referred to as being a WASP with a negative connotation 7 The White Race a 18111 and 193911 Century construct i English started this because they viewed themselves as Republicans of Virtue b white vs inferior races c Historical Precedent for racism d Whiteness i Becomes important in economy 8 Nativism anti immigrant ideology a Term from the 1840s i Advocates the protection of the native born peoplesinhabitants from immigrants that are seen as threatening and or dangerous b Alien Act 7 1798 i Gave president power to deport immigrants that were considered as a threat to the nation c KnowNothing Movement i Fighting immigration and Catholicism ii Started as a secret society but outed themselves by beating people up on the streets d Social Darwinism i Post Civil War ii Survival of the fittest 9 Nativism and Racism since 1890 a Henry Cabot Lodge i Senator who decided to create Immigration League 1 Literacy tests b Ku KluX Klan i After anyone that wasn t of AngloSaxon ii Had to be a white protestant c American Jobs 10 Dominant Culture a WASP Institutionalism i Legal ii Political b Language i National English Campaign ii No official language in the US Review What are the Four Distinct EnglishSpeaking immigrant groups 0 Borderland Immigrants o Quakers 0 Virginia Royalists o Puritans What even altered England s religion in the 163911 century 0 Protestant Reformation How was the religion of the people of England dictated o By the sovereign What is nativism o Antiimmigrant ideology How does the idea of whiteness play into the history of race 0 Deals with skin color White people become more superiordominant African American Immigration Outline 1 Early African Immigration 2 Controversy over the African Population a Civil War b Free vs Slaves PostCivil War a Immigration b Emigration c Race Relations 4 Civil Rights Movement and the 20Lh Century African Americans Today E V39 1 Early Slavery a 1619 Jamestown i First set come as indentured servants 20 Africans ii Their children are born free no matter what b 1626 New Amsterdam now known as NY i Chattel slavery 7 when people are treated as personal property and foughtsold as a commodity ii 11 slaves were brought to work for the Dutch West India Company iii Slaves brought from the Caribbean Islands mostly until more slaves were brought from Africa c halffreedom 7 had to pay an annual taX and could be called back anytime to slavery but had the chance to own their own homes and earn their own income d 1500s went to South America 1600s came to North America 2 Life in Africa a Matrilineal 7 Property and political status is descended through the mother b Hierarchical society i Priests and Nobility ii Farmers and Craftspeople 1 Men were doing more agricultural things iii Slaves 7 had rights not permanent servitude children normally didn t inherit c Polytheistic religion 3 System of African Slavery a Rival African Tribes i Conquers another tribe and sells them into slavery to the European Slave Traders b Process ofbecoming a slave i Sold as a group not individually until gotten to America ii 1 in 7 slaves die during transatlantic trip iii 1 in 10 ships had a slave revolt 4 Slavery in the Colonies a Triangle Trade Route i Raw Materials in the Americas goes to Europe ii Europe sends manufactured goods to Africa iii Africa then sends slaves to Americas b Growth in Eighteenth Century c Stable Crops 7 need for cheap labor to keep these running i Rice ii Cotton iii Tobacco d Tidewater South i South Carolina 1 Slavery most popular here 2 Had black majority population through the 18Lh century e Huge sugar population because that s what slaves are working with f 100000 slaves in West Indies 5 5 Conditions of Slavery Was for life Inherited c Considered property d Denied Rights e Coercion 6 Slave Codes a De ned the position of slaves b Varied from State to State i Dealt with on an individual basis if broken c What is the objective of the slave codes i Make them feel more inferior 7 African American Family in Slavery a Marriage i Slave codes prohibited it but they did it anyways on a smaller level b Slave Breeding c Black Male s role i Not recognized in society ii Only was for offspring as a sex partner iii No legal claim to the child iv Basically no such thing as a father to a slave child d Religion i Encourage to practice Christianity ii Owners used religion to subordinate their slaves 8 An Attack on Slavery a Act Prohibiting the Importation of Slaves 1807 i Pushed forward through Abolitionist societies b Abolitionist Movement i Morality of slavery ii Involved both whites and free blacks Fr iii Those that fought for this did not always believe in racial equality c Slave Revolts d American Colonization Society 9 The End of Slavery a January 1 1863 b Emancipation Proclamation by President Lincoln i Doesn t free border states slavery ii Freed Confederacy states c Legally ends with 13th Amendment and the surrender of the Confederacy in 1865 10 Black codes and slave codes are two different things a Blacks couldn t own farm land in Mississippi b Couldn t own city lots in SC 11 Plessy v Ferguson a Homer Plessy is 18 African American b Originates in Louisiana 12 Differing Opinions a Booker T Washington i Born a slave ii Tuskegee iii Policy of Accommodation 1 Wanted blacks to be educated but only if the whites paid for it b WEB Du Bois i Born Free ii Talented Tenth 1 Privileged blacks that received education should serve the other 9 10s that did not receive any 13 Great Migration a 19161930 b Demographic change c Redistribution of people to where urban jobs are available 14 Civil Rights Movement a Linda Brown v Board of Education Topeka Kansas 1954 i Got rid of the Separate but equal doctrine b NAACP c Ruling 15 Desegregation a Disagreement about integration b Southern Manifesto was signed my many senators that posed brown v board of education because they didn t want to get rid of separate but equal c Little Rock 9 i Orval Raubus ii Lost Year 1 For one year military accompanied minority to school but the Governor shut down schools the following year d Legislation i Civil Rights Acts 1957 amp 1964 l 1957 7 gives ability to vote 2 1965 7 outlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women racial segregation and ended voter registration requirements 16 Jim Crow Racism v LaissezFaire a LaissezFaire is more social much more veiled i EX crossing to the other side of the street if see a black person b Jim Crow Racism i Legally accepted and understood 17 Issues of whiteness and being Black a Whiteness i WASP b Brown Paper Bag Test i If you were lighter than brown paper bag than you could be a member of a frat or sorority c A Family Thing d Issues of color in 20Lh century i The Bluest Eye Irish Americans Outline Irish Immigrants by the Numbers History of Ireland Immigrating to the US Life in the US for Immigrants in the 193911 and Early 20Lh Century Legacy of Irish Immigration 1 Settled Appalachian back country 2 Earlier Ireland a PreHistory i 8000 BCE settled around b Christianity in Ireland i Had Paganism before Christianity ii St Patrick introduced Christianity in 432 CE c Norman Conquest i Henry 2 King of England lands a huge army in Ireland and takes over modern day Dublin by 1172 ii He makes it a territory of England 3 Reconquest of Ireland a Tudor Invitation i Henry VIII ii Conquers with military and establishes Ireland Parliament iii Tried to change to Protestantism but Irish are devoted to Catholicism 1 Would have their land taken away if they didn t convert b Stuart Rule and Rebellion i Penal Laws 7 got rid of rights of Irish landowners c Uni cation 4 Famine in Ireland a 18461851 population of Ireland seriously diminished b Potato Blight fungus Phytophthora infestans c Natural catastrophe 7 An act of God d The role of the British i Any food viable is being exported to England ii Saw it as an act of God punishing Irish for not converting so they didn t want to help 5 Immigrating to America a Death on ships i Sickness ii Starvation iii No clean water b Urban immigration i New York ii Boston iii Philadelphia iv Go because they need work 7 factories mines shipyards c A lot of women came over independently and entered the workforce instead of being housewives 6 Work in America a Jobs for Irish men 7 factories mines shipyards b Jobs for women 7 laundrists c Lowel Massachusetts i 8 in 1845 number of Irish mainly women working in these mills ii 50 in 1860 d Rate of Irish female immigration 39 Single unmarried women who did not have a goal to marry or being domestic wanted to be selfsufficient and independent i39 Inheritance laws in Ireland favored the male iii Daughters were a burden until they were of marriageable age in Ireland iv Had authority over their own life in America but helped their family out with their money they earned e Immigration in the South 7 No need for it i Civil War is going on down there ii South isn t industrializing 7 AntiIrish Sentiments a Religious Discrimination b Catholicism i Largest by 1860 denomination c Papist Plot i Theory that Irish were coming over just to convert everyone d Irish would keep marrying Irish 8 Hostile Discrmination a Harper s Weekly i Cartoonist Thomas Nast drew political cartoons that made fun of Irish 1 Ape Like Image b The Dirty Irish c Missing link idea is that Irish are missing link between Whites and Blacks d Irish were not considered white 9 Job Discrimination a Few Irish as drunkards and violent so they didn t want them in the workplace b NINA signs 7 No Irish Need Apply c Noteworthy Irish i Michael Cudahy 7 meat packing ii Victor Herbert composer iii Alexander T Stewart 7 owner of nation s largest department store Life in the US a Irish take part in Political Activity i First society to form powerful voting block ii Tended to vote for Democratic party 7 basically because of Andrew Jackson iii First minority group to exert any political in uence O iv Urban Politics were corrupt in late 1800s b Tammany Society i Underground group ii Group of IrishAmericans that wanted to stop discrimination iii Demanded that one be nominated for Congress iv Eventually start to support IrishAmericans that have a potential to win V William Boss tweed 39 Helped elect first Irish Catholic mayor 1 William Grace in 1890 of New York 2 Helped have larger role in American politics c Molly Maguires i Group that originated in Ireland ii No evidence that they existed in the US just hearsay iii Secret Society iv Group known for vigilante justice d Upward Mobility and Assimilation i Alfred E Smith 7 First Irish and Catholic Candidate for Presidency ii Catholic Irish President 7 JFK iii Emerging Business Class iv Religious Conversion V Language Barriers S Review 0 When did the largest group of Irish immigrants arrive in the US and why 0 18461851 after the Potato famine o What was some of the push factors that led the Irish to immigrate 0 Potato famine o Miniature ice age 0 For better jobs and economical improvement 0 How as immigration of Irish women different from other female immigration 0 Came over independently with no real intentions of a family because they were known as daughters with no values in Ireland 0 Why was Irish immigration different than other groups we have discussed 0 Potato famine pushed them out 0 Wanted to change religion 0 Discriminated more in US Germans History of Germany a Country does not exist until 1871 b Germanic Tribes i Not all similar ii Not same politically or ethically c Holy Roman Empire 9621806 i Holy Roman Emperor was anointed by Pope to protect Faith 1 Charlemagne was rst Emperor 2 Otto the Great 962 returned it to Germanic area d Reformation i Martin Luther e German Uni cation i Otto van Bismarck 1 Minister who takes of ce in 1862 2 Orchestrated the entire uni cation of Germany ii Austrian Presso War and Franko War helped unify iii Peace Treaty signed in 1871 between French and Germanic tribes which caused France pay 5000000 franks for the war 2 PushPull Factors a 181 and early 19111 century i Religious Motivations 1 Lutheran Groups 2 Anabaptist b Mid1939h and early 20Lh century i Political Motivations 1 Failed 1848 Revolution 2 AntiSocialist Law 18781890 ii Economic Motivations 1 Heritance Law 3 Life in the US a Where to settle i Farmers 7 rural areas ii MidWest b Goals of debtfree ownership i Wanted to purchase farm and pay off debt very quickly c City Workers i Worked in city for a short time to save money and buy farm 50100 for a farm in 1850 d Family Ties 4 GermanAmerican Life a GermanAmerican Clubs i German socialization 1 Helped by giving nancial assistance to those coming over ii Crosscultural exchange 1 Wanted to use festivals and parades to promote their heritage b GermanAmerican Politics i Lack of Political Alliance ii Xenophobia 7 fear and hatred of strangersforeigners or anything that is strangeforeign 1 Five year period to wait to vote but Germans were able to vote a lot quicker 7 4 months into their time being in the US 2 136 49 million immigrants were German speakers over a 30 year period