Week of Notes 4
Week of Notes 4 403-2B
Popular in International Relations Seminar
Popular in Public Relations
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dora Notetaker on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 403-2B at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Nikolaos Zahariadis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see International Relations Seminar in Public Relations at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Reviews for Week of Notes 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/17/15
PSC 403 Seminar in International Studies Dr Zahariadis Notes Set 4 Week of Sept 14 Tue Sept 15 Extra Credit Opportunity Attend the lecture by Dr Zahariadis about the Greek Crisis on October 7 at 630pm in Education Building 230 A 2 page paper is due on the Friday of that week in Dr Z s office not by email 1 page should be a reflection so what the speaker said and 1 page should be your reaction to the speech You can get up to 5 points for this Democratic Deficit o The EU s biggest problem is that it does not have democratic legitimacy but it does make decisions on behalf of the European public 0 This problem came about due to the European Parliament 0 Which is the legislative part of the EU 0 In other real European parliaments the legislature are the direct representatives of the people and when a prime minister appoints his cabinet a vote of confidence must be passed by the legislature 1st democratic deficit problem Representation The European Parliament EP 0 Up until the 1990 s the EP had a consultative role but no real decisionmaking power 0 The decisions were made primarily by the Council of Ministers 0 But now they make decisions jointly Council of Ministers CoM It is composed of individual national government ministers These people are elected by voters but not for this purpose They are accountable to their own voters but not to the European public Until recently in the 1990s the CoM did not have transcribed records of their meetings 0 So this meant that their voters never knew how they made decisions 0 Nobody knew which countries were exempt from the decisions either 0 Ministers hid behind anonymity and would lie and say they voted for or against something when they didn t Now both institutions have to agree o If no consensus is reached the EP and not the COM decides the final solution 0 The EP has majority vote 0 The CoM tries to reach consensus between its members o It is difficult to do with so many ministers 0 So they end up making decisions that are very watered down So original democratic deficit problem 0 Decisions were made by people who were not elected for that role Modern democratic deficit problem 0 Decisions are made by people EP who are not elected therefore not accountable to voters 2nd democratic deficit problem Legitimacy 0 Even if EU decisions were accountable some things would be hard for EU citizens to accept 0 We ve seen this unfold in the EU crisis o It divided Europe into 0 1 Creditors o 2 Debtors c When creditors bailed out debtors they demanded something in exchange for the bailouts 0 Which were in the interest of creditor countries 0 Paying creditors sanctions reforms etc o Debtors resented this and did not want to pay when they already had so little and deflected the blame to creditors for making them pay so much 0 Their taxpayers resented this since they had to pay 0 Creditor countries resented bailouts because they did not want to work twice as hard to bail out lazy foreigners Theories of Integration But first what are theories Theory 0 A perceived way of explaining how the world works 0 By definition they are simplifications 0 And these simplifications rest on assumptions Assumptions 0 Statements that we take to be true 0 For example assumptions about human nature humans are naturally violent and aggressive c We rarely question these assumptions So theories are built on assumptions and adopt concepts then build hypotheses Concepts 0 They are factors or variables o For example power Example Assumption People are aggressive by nature Concept Power is important in this dynamic Hypothesis The more power a person has the more likely they are to attack me Theory This dynamic can be used to explain conflict Only hypotheses can be disproven 0 So A may not be after me but B may be o If the hypothesis is wrong you can adjust it or correct it What is European integration 0 Collaborative behavior in Europe among countries with the aim of reducing barriers to exchange 0 barriers national borders between countries 0 exchange can be economic policy contact btw people etc o Why is it moving this way 0 Why is integration moving away from war and toward the ultimate goal of a united states of Europe Theory 1 Federalism c We assume that integration does not happen during war 0 Federalism relies on economies of scale that are accomplished by bargaining 0 So bargaining is the ultimate drive that helps reach the goal of integration 0 We assume that countries can t accomplish their goals on their own 0 So they need help 0 And must bargain with others to reach solutions to help both parties Goals may vary 0 Economic 0 Security Problems under the Articles of Confederation in America that Europe knew about and had to correct 0 1 Currency 0 Not everyone had the same currency in Europe they did not recognise each other s currencies Without this there is no economic exchange So the EU s solution do away with separate currencies and create a single currency for everyone 0 2 Did not have the ability to raise a central military force to repel internal and external forces 0 In America militias o In Europe there was a need for security which allowed bargaining to move integration along 0 The Soviets were a large threat that the individual countries could not face alone I So needed each other Why did federalism never happen in Europe 0 Because of national cultures and historical issues 0 People still didn t trust each other completely 0 And because of the US 0 The US s wanted to hold back the Soviet threat so they had a large military presence in Europe 0 Which meant that the European countries did not have to raise their own forces or pay for it So there was no incentive for that type of integration Instead they created an alliance NATO which the US funded and ran so the Europeans could sit back and not have to deal with it Thursdav Sept 17 2015 Theory 2 Functionalism c We assume 0 1 People want more prosperity o 2 Technology constantly advances 0 And these things will lead to integration 0 Functionalism tries to explain integration with the constant advancement of technology and how it is causing integration as more people want prosperity Examples of technology change in Europe 0 IPU International Postal Union 0 A need emerged for written communication 0 Mail used to be delivered on horseback people would give them to merchants or ship captains 0 But that is very inefficient difficult dangerous and not guaranteed to reach des na on c When you have masses using these services you have to regulate them 0 They standardized the size of the envelope 0 Set prices 0 Needed to pay where you are going to pay for mail that is going across borders 0 Railroads 0 Countries with railroads had huge economic growth other countries adopted them too Had to standardize travel which could now be cheaper and more comfortable And provided commercial opportunities for goods to move efficiently Needed to standardize width of train tracks I Why would they not standardize them I Because of security reasons I Trains allowed the transport of troops to the front quickly in WWII I But if you standardize train tracks this can work against you I So it didn t happen until the late 40 s early 50 s Functionalism says It says to focus on technology and that will give you more prosperity You will initially see integration in specific areas Post train tracks It tells us where and why integration will happen It says that integration is unidirectional o It only moves fonNard 0 And over time you will see more integration regardless of politics 0 Integration will spill over to other areas Functionalism helps explain INGO s International NonGovernmental Organizations 0 These are propelled by business 0 Businesses will lobby their governments to allow more integration 0 The rise of lNGO s due to technological advances Downsides of Functionalism 1 It is moved by business interest a But politicians often don t share in the enthusiasm b Because integration means giving up a little bit of sovereignty at a time over domestic business 2 It s unidirectional a This is not necessarily the case b Sometimes integration moves backwards c And the cost of more technology and more integration loss of individual privacy seen today in the technological age d And other types of integration exist besides technology like military integration i And we are not integrating in that area ii So functionalism is wrong about it spilling over to that field Theory 3 NeoFunctionalism o Emerged since functionalism was not a good explanation for integration 0 Politics plays a bigger role in NeoFunc 0 So politicians not business will choose to integrate 0 And you go from integrating the hardest areas to the easiest 0 You start with high political issues and go to low political issues 0 Helps explain why they started with steel and coal ECSC High Politics 0 Refers to significant aspects of the country 0 Security is a big high political issue 0 Defense armaments industry etc 0 These are things governments don t treat lightly and don t want to integrate Low Politics 0 Areas that are easier to integrate 0 Business social aspects So they started with coal and steel o Idea was that if you start with steel it will be much easier to integrate things like your automobile industry o If you start with coal you can move onto other areas like trade Integration of goods o It means that everyone s products get sold for similar amounts 0 But if your industry is not as advanced and foreign technology is better it will kill your industry Like importing foreign cars And it means the loss ofjobs 0 Companies can always move to other countries but individuals can t Drawbacks of NeoFunctionalism 1 It is still unidirectional a It assumes that since it s easier to integrate it will happen faster 2 It assumes that loyalty will also spill over from national to the international entity a But that is not the case even today 0 In the 1970 s and 80 s there was actually a backward movement in integration this period is called Eurosclerosis It was due to the energy shocks in the 70 s when the Arab members of OPEC imposed sanctions on the west and restricted the supply of oil Energy is so important that this cost spread to other areas In Europe some countries could cope with it and other couldn t They needed to find other sources of energy or make a deal with the Arabs Some went back to coal while others used nuclear power which has environmental consequences and it is dangerous I Great Britain had oil in the North Sea I France went nuclear I Germany made a deal with the Arabs o In Germany they had the rise of the environmental movement amp their Green Party 0 Environmental movements will likely emerge in places that are advanced and have already destroyed their environment from all the heavy industrialization 0 Their standard of living is higher so countries that don t have to worry about basic things like food can worry about the environment 0 Democratic countries will have environmental movements because consumers will demand it and they elect politicians O 0000
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'