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by: Narciso Bayer PhD


Narciso Bayer PhD
GPA 3.84

Christian Vorstius

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About this Document

Christian Vorstius
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Narciso Bayer PhD on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXP 3604C at Florida State University taught by Christian Vorstius in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see /class/205608/exp-3604c-florida-state-university in Psychlogy at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Chapter 5 LTM 0 Types of LTM o Declarative general knowledge factual information experiences what where when who I Episodic memory for events experiences personal or general I Semantic meaning of things general knowledge factual information 0 Procedural how to do things motor skills riding a bike etc Explicit episodic and semantic recall Implicit procedural things that you can t explain how you do ie throw a basketball recognition 0 Encoding storage retrieval 0 Encoding acquiring information into memory process 0 Storage hold information in memory representation 0 Retrieval locating and accessing of information stored in memory process 00 0 Levels of processing 0 Focus on encodingprocessing I For example visualize how useful the items would be if you re stuck on a desert island This is effective because it processes the information on a much more deep and meaningful level as opposed to the shallow and superficial level of word length 0 The deeper the level of processing the deeper the encoding I Craik and Tulving 0 Ask about the word 0 Written in capital letters response 550 msMP 15 0 Does it rhyme with xxx response 630msMP 47 0 Would it fit this sentence response 730msMP 81 Response get reaction time Level of encoding determines the reaction time deeper encoding takes longer Recall test memory performance The level of processing that you re required to do has an effect on your response AND your recall 0 Distinctiveness and elaboration I Better encoding during deep processing due to o Distinctiveness stimulus is different from other memory traces o Elaboration richer processing in terms of meaning and interconnected concepts 0 Selfreference effect when you apply the word to yourself the memory for the word is even better because the self has an exceptionally rich set of cues that are distinctive I Selfreference instructions encourage consideration of interrelation between personal traits elaboration there is more rehearsal of things that are associated with ourselves I Recall is greater if you encode it relative to yourself 0 Encoding specificity recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context 0 Focus on encoding and retrieval I Geiselman and Glenny imagine that a familiar person was reading words that were visually presented either instructed to imagine a female or a male voice 0 Later male or female voice read some of the words back to the participants mixed in with other new words 0 Remembered words you had already heard better if the gender matched in both situations If given a rhyme test superficial processing can result in better memory than deep processing if retrieval emphasizes superficial information so deep processing is not always better because storage also depend s on how that information will be retrieved later 0 Problem often times when encoding information you don t really know what the retrieval context is going to be I Stronger effects in 0 Reallife situations 0 Recall rather than recognition tests 0 Situations that feel the same cf physical similarity o Situations that happened a long time ago 0 Mood dependency as a special case I If the context you re studying in matches context during retrieval you will have better recall I Better memory when your mood at encoding matches your mood at retrieval 0 Particularly when it involves reallife events and strong feelings Emotion o Positivity effect better memory for pleasant materials 0 Mood Congruency better memory when current mood state and toberemembered material are congruent if you are depressed you are more likely to remember negative things 0 More accurate recall when neutral stimuli are associated with pleasant stimuli o Unpleasant memories fade faster Explicit memory tasks conscious recollection and intentional retrieval of information that was previously learned 0 Recall write down as many words as you can remember 0 Recognition which of the following words were just shown in the list Implicit memory tasks when previous experiences aid in task performance without conscious awareness 0 word completion Fill in the blanks word completion had greater accuracyspeed for words that were presented before I repetition priming Name three parts of a car name three different kinds of pet name three things you might find in a house you name things more if you saw them in the list of words Amnesia o Anterograde can t remember anything after brain damage 0 Reterograde can t remember anything before brain damage 0 dissociation implicitexplicit tasks amnesiacs perform similar to normal controls on implicit but not explicit tasks Expertise and memory performance 0 strong relation between previous knowledge and memory performance 0 usually memory skills of experts are not generalized but related to their area of expertise deliberate practice is more important than inborn skills o own race bias we are better at recognizing faces from our own race 0 Autobiographical Memory Memory for events in your everyday life and issues related to yourself 0 Flashbulb memories I Same mechanisms can explain cases with better memory 0 Greater rehearsal more elaboration more distinct 0 Important consequences for the individual 0 Schemas I Consist of your general knowledge or expectation which is distilled from your past experiences with an event or person 0 consistency bias 0 source monitoring 0 misinformation effect view an event receive misleadingincorrect information about the event afterwards before recall mistakenly recall the misleading information o retroactive interference when previously learned material becomes difficult to recall because new recently learned information interferes with the old memories 0 eye witness testimony 0 Errors are more likely if I long delay between event and testimony I misinformation is plausible I social pressure to report an answer I witness receives positive feedback 0 recovered vs false memory perspectives o Recovered I hard to test in the lab I some people with documented abuse hospital or other legal documents fail to recall the abuse when interviewed as adults eg Goodman et al 2003 I betrayal trauma I actively inhibiting memories of abuse in order to maintain an attachment to the adult 0 false memory I intrusion errors strong association between probes and falsely remembered item I other studies created false memories for childhood events that never happened 0 percentage of people who actually remembered false event was smaller than percentage of people that did not quotrememberquot I many quotrecoveredquot memories are actually incorrect memories constructed Chapter 6 Memory Strategies and Metacognition 0 memory strategies 0 divided attention I memory performance is reduced if divided attention during encoding phase I introverts are more distracted from their study by background music 0 Levels of processing I Deep processing o Deeper encoding typically results in better recall 0 organize information 0 make meaningful distinctions o elaborate o relate to self I Encoding specificity recall is better when encoding and retrieval conditions match 0 Overconfidence overconfidence on estimates of overall performance 0 Practice I Total time hypothesis the longer you spend learning material the better your memory will be for that material depends I Deliberate practice activities deliberately designed to improve performance appropriate difficulty feedback repetition opportunity to correct errors 0 physically effortful high concentration low enjoyment I Massed no or very short rest between trials I distributed practice rest between trials offers superior performance and learning I Testing effect boosts long term memory recall 0 mnemonics 0 visual imagery I visualize the toberemembered information in a picture or scene I make the tobe remembered items interact within your image I especially helpful if the image is bizarre 0 keyword method I tobelearned word rodilla knee I 1 identify a keyword similar to the target eg rodeo I 2 link the keyword to the meaning of new word using an image eg rodeo rider with his knees in the air 0 method of loci I associate the tobelearned items with a different physical location I visualize a series of places that you know well in a specific sequence I create a visual image of the toberemembered items I associate each items in order with the places you identified 0 organization 0 chunking put them into easy to remember chunks o hierarchy technique upsidedown tree of categorization 0 first letter technique acronyms I you recall the word to which the first letter refers only about half the time o narrative technique I create a story out of the toberemembered words I six times more likely to remember the words 0 multimodal approach 0 0 multiple factors are important to maintaining and improving memory I physical condition eg sufficient sleep good health I psychological wellbeing eg depressed individuals generally exhibit poorer memory Gilbert 2002 I flexible use of multiple techniques to aid memory 0 mindful ie flexible use of different and new methods rather than mindless ie routine use of same strategies 0 prospective memory remembering to do something in the future 0 errors are more likely when ongoing activity is o automatic or highly trained fulfilling intent o eg driving home the usual route and forgetting stop somewhere in order to pick something up 0 very demanding establishing intent 0 Ways to increase I disrupt typical habit in order to remember I use of vivid interactive imagery I distinctive unusual reminder I use of an external memory aid to help you remember 0 metacognition knowledge awareness and control of your cognitive processes 0 tip of the tongue subjective feeling you have when confident that you know the target yet you cannot recall it I people know enough about their memory to judge that they know the word I this knowledge is fairly accurate 0 5070 accurate on first letter ID 0 4783 accurate in of syllables eg Brown 1991 0 often successful word retrieval within 2 minutes I about 1 tip of the tongue experience per week more frequent in bilinguals o feeling of knowing prediction about whether you could correctly recognize the correct answer to a question I more conscious you reflect about whether or not you know something 0 metamemory knowledge awareness and control of your memory 0 overall vs item by item I item by item paired associate learning task Lovelace 1984 when likelihood of correctly answering a question was rated as high recall of that item was also high I overconfident on estimates of overall performance ie how do you think you did on the test I relatively accurate at predicting which specific items they might have answered correctly ie did you answer this question correctly 0 overconfidence overconfidence on estimates of overall performance I People who are most effected by overconfidence 0 students in the bottom quartile 0 individuals with fixed IQ viewpoint o judgment more accurate if delay between learning and prediction 0 allocation of time to task task difficulty I easy tasks allocate more time to difficult items I difficult task focus on items you are likely to master 0 metacomprehension thoughts about comprehension ie the extent to which you understand something 0 rate confidence of correctness of comprehension question I correct answer confidence 73 I incorrect answer confidence 64 Pressley amp Ghatala 1988 0 not very good at estimating our level of comprehension Chapter 7Mental imagery and Cognitive maps 0 mental imagery strictly topdown used to navigate and reach find and identify 0 mental rotation I time to rotate Shepard and Metzler 0 measure time to make judgments o examine pictures and say whether they were the same or different 0 reaction time increased as the degree of necessary rotation increased 0 considered to be mental rotation 0 showed that imagery could be studied subjectively I Cooper and Shepard o Hypothesized that more preparation time less reaction time 0 give advance information allowing for varying times to start rotation before stimulus onset 0 proved their hypothesis 0 analog vs propositional code debate 0 analog code Kosslyn et al 2002 I images are stored in an analogous form to the realworld object to which they refer I physical resemblance to the realworld object o propositional code Pylyshyn 1984 I images are stored in an abstract languagelike representation that describe the image I images are epiphenomenal ie added on later constructed 0 reinterpretation of mental images is quite difficult o it is not visual or spatial and it does not physically resemble the realworld object 0 Evidence for analog I imagery and distance 0 o Kosslyn Ball amp Reiser 1978 o Ss first memorize a map 0 imagine it and scan between 2 landmarks o Ss press a button when they quotarrivequot 0 greater distance longer scanning times Proven I imagery and size 0 Kosslyn o imagine a bee next to a rabbit o imagine an elephant next to a rabbit 0 Does rabbit have a pink nose 0 0 participants say they quotzoomed in to answer the question 0 rabbit next to bee 2050 msec RT 0 rabbit next to elephant 2250 msec RT 0 focusing on detail in a mental image is like focusing on detail in perceptual image I imagery and interference O o Segal amp Fusella 1970 o imagine item 0 visual eg flowers or o auditory eg phone ringing o secondary task try to detect faint stimulus visual or auditory o worse performance when same domain 0 interference O I imagery and priming O o visualize a certain letter 0 present dimly displayed letters that were difficult to see and asked subjects to name them 0 different conditions 0 visualize T H is presented 0 visualize H H is presented Farah 1985 0 results 0 faster RT when visualized and presented letter were the same 0 imaging facilitated perception priming I imagery and eye movements 0 Brandt amp Stark show checkerboard matrix 0 record eye movements while looking at stimulus 0 record eye movements while quotinspectingquot mental image 0 very similar eye movement pattern between viewing and imagery I imagery and fMRI O 0 Le Bihan 1993 o fMRI 0 look at patterns or imagine them 0 record from primary visual cortex 0 0 V1 dedicated to vision is activated when imagining visual stimuli 0 V1 is important both for visual perception and mental imagery I imagery and PET O 0 when forming mental images 0 selfdescribed quotvivid imagers show 0 greater blood flow to visual areas of the 0 brain than quotnonvivid imagers I imagery and TMS o TMS results 0 disrupting V1 with magnetic pulses causes problems with vision and with visual imagery O I imagery in visual neglect O 0 don t attend to part of the visual field 0 eat only half plate 0 shave 12 face 0 may run into things due to 0 neglect of one side of body 0 o ability to see was intact but 0 could not recognize any of the pictures copied O 0 poor at visual aspects good at spatial aspects of visual imagery 0 problems with judging 0 color What is the color of a football 0 lengths of animal tails Does a kangaroo have a long tail 0 showed relatively normal abilities in o rotations 0 mental scanning 0 relative locations of states I imagery in blind people 0 o scanning and distance in blind and sighted people 0 learn layout of 7 figures on a board 0 focus on one figure in imagination o imagine dot quotgoingquot from that to second figure 0 response time a function of distance in both blind and sighted 0 34 0 congenitally blind subjects perform as sighted subjects on 0 image rotation 0 image inspection 0 scanning O 0 when pointing to where the left and right sides of the objects would be 0 all subjects produced larger angles for the larger objects car vs table 0 sighted subjects produced smaller angles as distance to the object increased 0 blind subjects showed no influence of distance 0 blind subjects understood spatial extent biggersmaller but not visual property of size getting smaller due to distance perspective 0 evidence against analog I Santa 1977 geometric shapes vs words spatiallinear presentation 0 geometric condition 0 if image is stored in analog code spatial info should be preserved and facilitate response 0 faster response to condition 1 far left same elements same configuration than in condition 2 middle left same elements but linear configuration 0 verbal condition 0 words are read from top left to right bottom verbal encoding linear triangle circle square 0 faster response to condition 2 middle left same elements but linear configuration than in condition 1 far left same elements same configuration 0 43 I reinterpretation of ambiguous figures 0 Reed 0 o 14 accurate on star parallelogram task 0 55 across all stimuli Reed 1974 0 evidence against analog code 0 cannot make similarjudgments about physical and mental stimuli 0 images may not be stored as mental pictures 0 show subjects an ambiguous figure for 5 sec and tell them to create a clear image of the figure Chambers amp Reisberg 1985 0 remove figure and ask subject to give a second interpretation 0 015 could not do this 0 1515 could draw the figure 0 easy to reinterpret drawing I generation of mental images as construction process G vs L O 0 generation of mental images 0 pop to mind whole but experiments suggest they are generated part by part 0 imagine a blocky Lvs blocky G o faster on L 2 parts than 3 5 parts 0 mental model representation that depicts physical situations created from verbal descriptions knowledge structures constructed to understand your experiencesbeliefs 0 Spatial Framework Model I Franklin amp Tversky I abovebelowjudgments fastest I asymmetry effect I gravity I forwardbackward judgments slower I still asymmetry effect belly vs back I more interaction with objects in front than behind I leftrightjudgments slowest I NO asymmetry 0 affected by dimension abovebelow aheadbehind rightleft o cognitive maps your mental representation of the physical environment spatial layout relationship between objects rather than an image of the object itself 0 contain analog images and propositional code 0 imply possession of declarative and procedural knowledge I landmark knowledge features at a location I route knowledge specific routes between landmarks I survey knowledge relationship between locations in an environment 0 distortions in cognitive maps I 90 degree angle heuristic angles in a cognitive map are represented as closer to 90 degrees as they really are I symmetry heuristic we represent shapes as being more symmetrical than they really are I rotation heuristic we represent something that is slightly tilted as more vertical or more horizontal I alignment heuristic a series of geographic structures will be remembered as more lined up than they really are


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