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by: Mr. Mikel Tillman


Mr. Mikel Tillman
GPA 3.62

Brad Stoddard

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Brad Stoddard
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Mikel Tillman on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to REL 1300 at Florida State University taught by Brad Stoddard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/205644/rel-1300-florida-state-university in Religion at Florida State University.




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Date Created: 09/17/15
REL1300 Final Exam Study Guide Secluded by Himalayas large bodies of water and desert Existed separately from western world for centuries until the 1400s Oldest of the Hindu texts 4 classes Rigvedamost authoritative and voluminous Collections of songs poems ritual sacrifice spells sorcerers deities Main source for what day to day life looked like Written ascetics 1005 of years later Tell about Hindu philosophy and culture Path of righteousness Code of conduct Universal or natural law Moral law that guides spiritual disciplines Avatars give us this knowledge Cycle of birth death and rebirth reincarnation Atman wants to pleasure In order to escape the cycle abstain from pleasure When one dies and escapes Samsara and becomes one with god 3 specific aspects of the universal supreme god 1 Brahma 2 Shiva 3 Vishnu Worship of veneration Can be done anywhere Pilgrimage to four abodes not required but if you can great Basis on Hindu social structure You are born into certain groups and you cannot move to different groups Absolutely considered part of the Hindu religion Founder of Buddhism 1 Old man 2 Sick man 3 Corpse 4 Dying man 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 s Suffering Arising of suffering craving End of suffering no craving Way to enlightenment How to achieve enlightenment Reality is illusion Good intentions Do not speak in a hurtful way Do no harm Nonharmful livelihood Making an effort to improve Clear consciousness Correct meditation Not having too much but having enough to get by Bodhi spent his life teaching the middle path after he became enlightened llSchool of the elders Oldest surviving branch Monks llThe greater vehicle Everyday life Most Buddhists 2 goals 1 Achieve enlightenment 2 Stay in society More important to the west Discourse of Buddha and disciples 2 PM 5 i The west s only source of Buddhism came from him Many problems with information he gave to the west Soul goes into one of four lives 1 Hell beings no soul Subhuman plants animals Human 55 J Superhuman bodiless souls to achieve enlightenment 1 2 3 4 5 Nonviolence Truthfulness Nonstealing Celibacy Nonpossession or nonmaterialism o 24 teachers but over 2000 years since the last 0 Goal to achieve enlightenment and teach others o 24 h and last Tirthankara 0 Made idol for Jain beliefs 0 At age 30 her had a vision and devoted his life to helping others 0 While still in the womb he brought peace to his mother s village m 0 Fully clothed in white 0 2000 male and 10000 female 0 Less than 1 of Jains 0 Naked 0 About 500 male and 500 female 0 Way more ascetic Nonviolence 0 Punjab India 0 Center of Sikhism EHJU Lu 0 Leader of Sikhism 0 Had a vision and said llThere is no Hindu there is no Muslimquot This was considered to official start of Sikhism 0 Had 5 journeys spreading his teachings 0 Had 2 sons but neither were fit to lead 0 Meaning purethose who have been baptized 1 Uncut hair 2 Small comb 3 Iron bracelet on sword hand 4 Dagger 5 Undergarment 0 One of the philosophers and member of the government 0 His students were members of the government as well 0 5 classicsAnalects teachings 0 Path that leads to harmony o Communist o Antireligion 0 Similar to caste Everyone plays a part in society 0 Afterlife with ancestors where the living can appeal to them 0 Leads to filial piety Opposites feeding into each other Show respect to living and dead family Working to achieve harmony Emperor is at the center of religion Everything done is to uplift the emperor Emperor descended from god Japanese deities Way of the gods nature ancestors 0 Record of ancient matters 0 Early Shinto history 0 Emperor at the center 0 Small military leaders related to the emperor 0 Emperor Mutsuhito o Meiji llenlightened rulequot 0 Emperor created office of Shinto o Shrines fell under state rule 0 Ordained priests liiwipjy i39w wmm 111 0 Emperor during the Meiji Restoration 0 Japanese Shinto festivals 39 5 mil o Founder of the Mormon religion o Nauvoo Illinois 0 Builttemple 0 Start religion eventually kicked out o Took over as leader of the Mormons after Joseph Smith s death 0 Very popular 0 Plural marriages continued and the Mormons became less popular because of it o 1890 government took assets llllDi iv E r o Era when Mormons were flocking to Utah after Joseph Smith s death ii39 llv lml l39 o a o Mormon equivalent to the Bible 0 Science fiction novelist o Theory s about mind in A Standing 0 Started scientology o How past trauma influences us 0 Used to help get rid of trauma 0 Very similar to sociotherapy 0 Soul true identities o Limitless it can do anything o NonEuropean immigrants doubled o Brought native cultures 0 Their cultures blended with ours o Attempt to reconcile contrary beliefs o Jonestown 0 Christian movement based in San Francisco 0 llDon t drink the KoolAidquot o 3 dozen women lived with him 0 Executed Sharon Tate 0 Race war to end the world 0 Used for mapping religious movements 0 The further away you moved from the church and the mainstream the more tension you had with society o Originated in New York in 1966 o Westernized Hindus 0 Soul is trapped and reincarnates into one with Krishna o Founder 0 Born in India 0 Attended Scottish College 0 1950 vow of Renunciation o Commentaries about Vishnu o Becomes a monk o Attracts 1000s of hippieshuge movement 0 Formally founded in 1966 0 Set forth by Swami o 4 main rules 1 No meat fish eggs 2 3 4 No illicit sex No gambling attached to the world No intoxication 0 Nature is part of the divine o 5 million worldwide 0 Polytheisticexpressions of 1 god o Publicized Paganism movement 0 Cofounder of church 0 American psychic o Healed people while they were hypnotized o Considered himself a devote Christian but was rejected by the church so he and his followers started their own community 0 When he first became a hypnotist that was the official start of the movement 0 Refused to predict the economic market Association for Research and Enlightenment Readings and Authors to Know about take note of specific views of each author Excerpt from Religion and the Religions in the English Enlightenment by Peter Harrison quotIntroductionquot from Imagining Religion byJZ Smith quotThe Rationalism of Western Civilization by Max Weber quotIntroductionquot from The Invention of World Religions by Tomoko Masuzawa quotIntroductionquot from Orientalism by Edward Said quotThe Invention of the Middle East Religion and the Quest for Understanding the Muslim Mind in Situating Islam by Aaron Hughes Pages 179 in Curators of the Buddha by Donald Lopez quotProblems of the Category 39Religion39 in Japan by Timothy Fitzgerald quotOf Churches Sects and Cultsquot in The Future of Religion by Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge quotReligion Religions and World Religions Religious Studies A Critiquequot by Timothy Fitzgerald 831 Cambridge Platonists Philosophers at Cambridge Coined term religion 1600 s quotreligionquot referred to Christianity Robert Harris Objected to Cambridge Platonists Jonathan Z Smith Said religion only existed in the academy We use the term to help categorize activities 97 Max Weber Said west is fundamentally different from the rest of the world Pointed out that Europe was extremely influential despite its relative size 3 main differences 1 universals nature of the world similarities 2 empirical validity proof for understanding why 3 rational ordering reasoning Colonialism Europeans violently conquered foreign people amp land Implemented cultural views Took weapons 6 stages 1 Spanish amp Portuguese 141500s Americas some Africa 2 France Holland amp England more active l6l700s 3 Decolonialization 171800s 4 England amp France 181900s Africa India 5 Post WWL some decolonialization winners inherited losers colonies 6 second wave of decolonialization post WWII Decolonialism Countries gain independence 914 Funerary texts Pyramid texts writings on pyramid walls help king get to afterlife amp after getting there Coffin texts writings on coffins songs and spells more about royal people apart from pharaohs New funerary texts quotBook of the Dead copied on scrolls sold to people who can afford them Scrolls amp paintings all 3 eras wealthier people Foreign writers Plutarch NileEgypt39s geography Allowed for isolation and protection Nile overflowed every year replenishing soil Able to sustain large culture allowed for leisure and quotreligiousquot life Pharaohsacred kingship Pharaoh position appointed at birth or taken by militaryforce OsirisIsisHorus Osiris and Seth twin brothers Isis and Nephthys twin sisters Osiris marries Isis Seth marries Nephthys Seth gotjealous and killed Osiris Isis brings Osiris back to life and they have Horus Osiris becomes gatekeeper of undenvorld Isis becomes goddess of motherhood Akhenaten Forbade polytheism Monalatrist Egypt wasn t ready for the worship of one god Quickly overthrown left and built the city Amarna for the worship of one god 919 Zarathustra Born into family of warriors Trained as priest Left family at 30 to meditate had visions Created traditions later associated with Zoroastrianism probably rst monotheistic religion Died in battle Ahura Mazda Highest god Creator of heaven and earth Morality important Judge of the afterlife Only one worthy of worship Found in the Kingdom of Truth Aura Mainya Evil Found in Kingdom of the Lie Opposite of Ahura Mazda King Vishtaspa Adopted Zarathustra Made Zoroastrianism official religion of his kingdom Dualism Belief or notion in 2 opposite amp opposing forces 2 principles that work in the world Good Ahura Mazda vs evil Aura Mainya The Avesta quotBook of the Law Most accurate record of Zoroastrianism 921 Homer Writer Heroitendency Gods frequently intervening in human life Either help or completely hinder humans Gods not to be relied on for help Zeus Supreme diety in Greece Father of other gods Loves human women God of thunder Mystery religions Late archaic period Private secretive social groups Initiation required Worshiped deities in private Romulus and Remus Founded Rome Killed king of city now Rome Fought each other to name city Romulus won Rome Jupiter Main supreme god in Rome God of thunder amp sky Julius Caesar 926 Torah First 5 books of Tanakh Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Yahweh Formed contract with Jews If Jews worshipped Yahweh they would be favored by him At no point does he claim to be the only god Mosaic Law 613 laws explaining what it means to be a Jew Julius Wellhausen Published Documentary hypothesis Read Torah and noticed Different names for Hebrew God amp different themes in Torah Grouped the texts together in terms ofwhat name of god appeared Said there were 4 different writers of the Torah Editor reconstructed 4 documents into one Hypothesis still believed today Diaspora Jewish community outside ofIsraelJewish land Under Zoroastrian control Created new beliefs in traditional Jewish beliefs Ezra amp Nehemiah Returned from Diaspora Ezra instructed by king to go to Israel to teach laws onahweh to Jerusalem Took with him quotBook of the Law of Moses some version of the Torah Nehemiah brought back to Jerusalem to be governor Built wall and had priests read torah When Jewish community took modern form 928 Masada quotFall of Masada 960 men women and children Fled to Masada to be out of Roman army s reach Romans built ramp Before Romans reached them they committed mass suicide Official end of Jewish resistance amp beginning of Roman rule Dead Sea Scrolls Source of Judaism Oldest biblical writings we have Written in Aramaic Greek and Hebrew l quotbiblicalquot manuscripts 2 quotApocryphalquot or quotPseudopigraphicalquot manuscripts 3 quotSectarianquot manuscripts Pharisees quotwinnersquot Believed in written and oral Torah of equal authority Not priest upper lower class Moses Mendelssohn Popular Jewish leader quotFirst modern Jew Created reformed Judaism Reform Judaism Embraced enlightenment philosophy and Jewish practices Emphasized ethical component and spirit of law Relaxed men and women separation Hated by traditional Jews Most popular form ofJudaism today OrthodoxJudaism Against reformed Judaism Very conservative Not about quotthe spirit of the law about the words on the page Still survives today Zionist says land mandatory for being Jew movement grew out of Orthodox Theodore Herzl Zionist Tried to get land back Land returned after Holocaust 103 Synoptic Gospels Matthew Mark and Luke Very similar to each other Paul Head of Jesus to gentile people who aren tjewish movement Told Jews about Jesus Nero666 Fire in Rome suspected and blames Christians Emperor of Rome Literally insane Destroyed temple ending Second Temple Era Desemated Israel Supposedly the antichrist Iraneous Argued against Gnostics 3 things to be Christian orders of ministry canon l authority rule of faith in Jesus Constantine Conversion said to be political Chose Catholicism over Gnosticism because Catholics upheld the hierarchy Changed part of Christianity Edict of Milan Marks Roman Empire s final abandonment of the policies of persecution of Christians Signed by Constantine and Licinius Council of Nicea Issue of Arianism Sponsored by Rome to define Christianity and Catholicism Theodosius Made Christianity official religion of Roman Empire Said Heretics Gnosticism was dead 105 Gnostics Gnosis knowledge Group claiming to have quotsecret knowledge Met with normal Christians then met separately Predates Christ Christianity Groups embracing Christ most popular groups Believed in God Head made Sophia making other deities with her Sophia made Yahweh who gotjealous and created Earth telling Earth he was the only god Humans have divine spark that ignites when they realize God Head exists Demiurge Bastard god without father Ignorant and imperfect Yahweh Gnosticism Nag Hammadi Library Texts found in desert surrounding Nag Hammadi Egypt Documents written by Gnostics Gospels that didn t make it into the bible Gospel of Thomas Supposedly rst gospel written Didn t make it into the bible Paul upholds hierarchy Corinthians ProtoiCatholics Paul abolishes hierarchy Galatians Gnostics Marcion More powerful than Valentinus Inspired Iraneous with Canons Marcionite Gnosticism First to gather Paul s writings Battled with Iraneous over who gets to claim the term quotChristianityquot Godhead Real main god gender hierarchy Roman social hierarchy Citizens free own property can vote participate in politics Men Penis only Commoners free don t own property can t vote Women Penis or vagina Slaves not free no rights at all Women Penis or vagina Everyone born female Commoners could become citizens had to earn it Citizens could not have sex with other citizens but could have sex with commoners male or female Gnostics wanted to overthrow the hierarchy 1010 Transubstantiation Roman Catholic doctrine that bread and wine become body and blood ofJesus Pope Authoritative voice of Catholicism Bishop of Rome most important Saint Peter quotThe rock Supposedly the first Pope Benedict39s Rule Discusses daily life in monasteries Confess sins verbally Adopted by Roman Empire and forced onto people Feudalism Economic system that influenced the Catholic Church in the beginning of the 9th century Political and military customs in Europe Structure to organize communities Lords administrate land organize military Vassalsi granted land by lords Fiefsi land Crusades Holy wars against Muslims Religiously sanctioned military battles with primary goal to recapture Jerusalem Captured Jerusalem in 1099 and 1187 John WycliffeLollards Wycliffe taught consubstantiation Lollards were followers of Wycliffe John Huss Priest and philosopher Questioned consubstantiation Had power because he had a printing press 1012 Avignon France Where Pope was exiled to Martin Luther 95 theses on Catholic Church door about issues with church To be saved you only had to believe in God justi cation through faith No need for Catholic rituals simpler church Excommunicated by church and emperor Hid wrote and became very influential John Calvin Liked Luther s critiques but had different theological beliefs Believed in predestination Depravityi through original sin we re flawed inescapably Broke from Catholic Church 1530 King Henry VIII Couldn t have a son blamed his wife Disagreed with pope because pope was against divorce Puritans Negative term reformers within Catholic Church Embraced over time Led byJohn Winthrop to Massachusetts made no separation of church and state quotcity upon a hill thought the world was watching when really no one cared 1017 Qur an Koran quotreadingquot or quotrecitationquot Revealed to Muhammad by archangel Gabriel Verbatim word of God Muhammad Started Islam in 7th century Prophet Trader how he made his living Born around Mecca Preached monotheism to polytheists Hijra quotemigrationquot Muhammad and followers go to Medina People of the Book Dhimmi Protected under Islam law Close to Islam but not quite Muslim Five Pillars ofIslam Instructions for every Muslim 1 Profession of faith 2 Ritual prayer 3 Ramadan fast no eating drinking or smoking during the day 4 Almsgivingi give to people in need 5 Pilgrimage to Mecca sacred center ofIslam Ka bah Building of Mecca Center ofIslam Most sacred site in Islam Predates Islam built by Abraham to housefavor deities before Islam Surrounded byIslamic mosque temple Took over polytheistic community


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