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Matters of the Mind Week 5 Notes

by: Athena Manzino

Matters of the Mind Week 5 Notes PSYCH 23200

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Psychlogy > PSYCH 23200 > Matters of the Mind Week 5 Notes
Athena Manzino

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Notes from Week 5
Matters of the Mind: The Neuron and Beyond
Brandy Bassette-Symons
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Athena Manzino on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 23200 at Ithaca College taught by Brandy Bassette-Symons in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Matters of the Mind: The Neuron and Beyond in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Matters of the Mind: The Neuron and Beyond Notes Week 5 Part of the eye  Macula o In the middle of the retina o Important for clear central vision o Macular degeneration (lack of central vision) o Mostly made up of cones but some rods o Responsible for visible acuity (ability to see clearly)  Fovea o Pit in retina this is densely packed with only cones (no rods) o Responsible for visible acuity (ability to see clearly) To the Brain  Bipolar cell o One dendrite and one axon (very small but fast communication)  Ganglian cell o Axons bundle together to form optic nerve  Track through brain o Optic nerve optic chiasm (separates visual field info/contralateral organization)optic tract (takes in info and spreads info through brain)thalamus (visual cortex in occipital lobe is main for sight)lateral geniculate bodyoptic radiationspulmonary visual cortex (V1) Visual representation in the brain  Neural code o Pattern of neural firing represents environmental stimuli  Specificity coding  Firing of specifically tuned neurons specialized to just respond to a specific stimulus  Grandmother cells (why you know its your grandma/discredited theory)  Distributed coding  Representation by a pattern of firing across a number of neurons  Occurs in the V1 o V1 is a retinopathic map of the visual field o Map is inverted and reversed (upside- down) o Calcarine fissure  Much of V1 is in this fissure  In back of occipital lobe and runs right though V1 Damage  Field defects o Hemianopia  Loss of entire visual field  Damage above and below o Quadrantanopia  Loss of ½ of visual field  Damage below o Scotomas  Small blind spot  Small areas of damage  Micropermitry o Tests light absorbed in retina o Determines light sensitivity Hubel and Wiesel  Cat experiments o Cats grew up with only surroundings that had vertical lines o They didn’t develop neurons for horizontal lines because of neural plasticity of the vertical lines  Featural hierarchy o High level  Orientation, direction, and length o Mid level  Orientation and direction o Low level  Orientation V1  V1 is heterogeneous o The beginning of a very large, densely interconnected visual system  Pass info to V2 and all other 30+ visual centers o Vision begins in V1 that is heterogeneous and then travels to more specialized cortical zones  Blobs in V1 (not sensitive to color) project to V4 (color and form)  V5 (middle temporal or MT)  Detects motion  V3  Detects dynamic form (changing form) Visual Streams  Dorsal stream o Top of parietal lobe o Comes from occipital lobe  Ventral stream o Bottom of temporal lobe o Comes from occipital lobe Case Studies  B.K.: V1 damage and a scotoma o Migraine stroke heminopic in LVFquadrantonopia1/4 of fovea  J.I.: loss of color vision o Concussion suddenly lost color vision and cognition o Couldn’t image or dream color  Imagined an apple looked black o Improved acuity at twilight/dark o Years later, no longer remembered color  P.B.: conscious color perception in a blind person o Ischemia destroyed large area of posterior cortex o Can only detect presence or absence of light has intact color vision o Could name the color of imagined objects  L.M.: V5 (MT) damage and the perception of movement o Vascular abnormality that produced bilateral posterior damage o Loss of movement vision (looked frozen) o Could see color, form, read and write o Movement of form is spate from form o Unable to intercept moving object by using their hand o TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) of V5 produced same symptoms (turn off this brain area) o Akinetopsia


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