Chapter 8 Brain Development
Chapter 8 Brain Development CDFS 111
Long Beach State
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George Maxwell Miller
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Rubio on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFS 111 at California State University Long Beach taught by Lydia Grosso in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
•Others act in the opposite way: In a phenomenon called perseveration, some children persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action, unable to quit. Emotions and the Brain Three major areas of the limbic system: •Amygdala A tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. • locations.us A brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially memory for • •Hypothalamus A brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body. Improved Motor Skills throw, catch, and kick balls.ns ride tricycles; climb ladders; pump their legs on swings; and • •Muscle growth, brain maturation, and guided practice advance every gross motor skill. • •Practice improves dexterity and advances fine motor skills, which involve small body movements. Environmental Hazards •Pollutants do more harm to young than older people • •Some substances including lead, pesticides, BPA in plastic and secondhand smoke are proven to be harmful to children’s brain development Fine Motor Skills •More difficult to master than gross motor skills •Many involve two hands and both sides of the brain •Typically mature about 6 months earlier in girls than boys Injuries and Abuse •Accidents are the leading cause of death worldwide for people under age 40. •Among 2 to 6yearolds in the United States, four times more children die in accidents than die of cancer, the second most common cause of death. Consequences of Maltreatment •Severely maltreated children suffer physiologically, academically, and socially in every culture. • •Maltreated children come to consider other people to be hostile and exploitative, making them fearful, aggressive, and lonely. • •The earlier abuse starts and the longer it continues, the worse their peer relationships are. Three Levels of Prevention, Again •Primary prevention any measure that reduces financial stress, family isolation, and unwanted parenthood. •Secondary prevention home visits by nurses, highquality day care, and preventive social work—all designed to help highrisk families. •Tertiary prevention reduces harm when maltreatment has already occurred. Requires permanency planning, an effort to find a longterm solution to the problem. •Foster care maltreated child is removed from the parents’ custody and entrusted to another adult or family, which is reimbursed for expenses incurred in meeting the child’s needs. • •Kinship care A form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grandparent, becomes the approved caregiver. • AdoptionA legal proceeding in which an adult or couple unrelated to a child is granted the obligations and joys of parenthood •Injury control/harm reduction Practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities. Three levels of Prevention •Primary prevention Actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance, such as injury, disease, or abuse. • •Secondary prevention Actions that avert harm in a highrisk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian or installing traffic lights at dangerous intersections. • •Tertiary prevention Actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are reducing the harm or preventing disability.ss, injury, or abuse) occurs and that are aimed at Child Maltreatment Child maltreatment –Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age. •Child abuse –Deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual wellbeing. •Child neglect –Failure to meet a child’s basic physical, educational, or emotional needs. •Reported Maltreatment: harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities, up to 3.5 million a year in the U.S. • •Substantiated Maltreatment: harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated and verified, 1 in 80 children in the U.S. Warning Signs •Delayed development, slow growth •Posttraumatic stress disorder: child is fearful, startled by noise, defensive, etc. •Fantasy play around violence and sex •Repeated injuries, physical complaints •Hyper vigilance, absences from school •Fear of caregiver, going home Body Changes Growth Patterns •Children become slimmer as the lower body lengthens. •From age 2 through 6, wellnourished children grow almost 3 inches and gain about 4 1∕2 pounds annually. •Center of gravity moves from the breastbone down to the belly button. Nutrition •Children need far fewer calories per pound of body weight than infants do. • •Obesity is a more frequent problem than malnutrition. • •Children in lowincome families are especially vulnerable to obesity cultures still guard against undernutrition and parents may rely on fast foods. • •Overfeeding is causing an epidemic of illnesses associated with obesity –Such as heart disease and diabetes Oral Health •Many children want foods that are high in fat, salt, and sugar. •Adults frequently give in, even rewarding children with candy. –Too much sugar and too little fiber rot the teeth. –Tooth decay is the most common disease of young children in developed nations •Affects more than onethird of all children under age 6 in the United States Hazards of “Just Right” •Some children only eat certain foods, prepared and presented in a particular way. –Would be pathological in adults but is normal in children under 6. • •The responses of 1,500 parents surveyed about their 1 to 6yearolds (Evans et al., 1997) indicated that over 75% of the 3yearolds evidenced some justright tendency, they: –preferred to have things done in a certain order or way –had a strong preference to wear (or not wear) certain clothes –prepared for bedtime by engaging in a special activity or routine –had strong preferences for certain foods Brain Development •By age 2, the brain weighs 75% of what it will in adulthood –extensive sprouting and then pruning of dendrites has already taken place. – •The brain reaches 90% of adult weight by age 6. Speed of Thought •The primary reason for faster thinking is new and extensive myelination. –Myelin is a fatty coating on the axons that speeds signals between neurons. A gradual increase in myelination makes 5yearolds much quicker than 3yearolds, who are quicker than toddlers •The corpus callosum, a band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right sides of the brain, grows and myelinates rapidly during early childhood. •Growth of the corpus callosum makes communication between the two brain hemispheres more efficient. •Lateralization Literally, sidedness, referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The LeftHanded Child •Handedness is genetic and cultural •Differenceequalsdeficiterror: many cultures believe being righthanded is better than being lefthanded •Customs favor the right hand •Switching a child’s handedness may interfere with lateralization Maturation of the Prefrontal Cortex •From ages 2 to 6, maturation of the prefrontal cortex has several notable benefits: –sleep becomes more regular –emotions become more nuanced and responsive –temper tantrums subside •Enables children to focus attention and curb impulsiveness •Before such maturation, many young children jump from task to task; they cannot stay quiet.
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