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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeremy on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 290 at Western Illinois University taught by Dr. Satern in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology 1 in Kinesiology at Western Illinois University.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
1 Chapter 8.1-8.4 –Joints Study Guide 8.1 Joints are classified into three structural and three functional categories Learning Objectives • Define joint or articulation. o Joints are sites where two or more bones meet and are also called articulations • Classify joints by structure and by function. o Structural • Fibrous o joints connected by collagen fiber • Cartilaginous o joints that are united by cartilage • Synovial o Adjoining bones that are covered by articular cartilage and separated by a joint cavity are enclosed within an articular capsule lined by the synovial membrane o Functional classifications • Synarthroses: These are immovable joints • Amphiarthroses: These joints are slightly moveable • Diarthroses: These joints are freely moving 8.2 In fibrous joints, the bones are connected by fibrous tissue Learning Objectives • Describe the general structure of fibrous joints. Name and give an example of each of the three common types of fibrous joints. • Bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue • No joint cavity-no space between articulating joints • Most are immovable • Depends on length of connective tissue fibers Sutures • These are rigid, interlocking joints of skull • They allow for growth during youth by containing short connective tissue fibers that allow for that growth • In middle age, the sutures ossify and fuse • Immovable joints join skull into one unit that protects brain Closed, immovable sutures referred to as synostoses Syndesmoses • Bones connected by ligaments, bands of fibrous tissue-bones do not move relative to the each other • Fiber length varies, so movement varies 2 • Short fibers offer little to no movement o Example: inferior tibiofibular joint • Longer fibers offer a larger amount of movement o Example: interosseous membrane connecting radius and ulna Gomphoses • Peg-in-socket joints • Only examples are the teeth in alveolar sockets • Fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament; holds the tooth in socket 8.3 In cartilaginous joints, the bones are connected by cartilage Learning Objectives • Describe the general structure of cartilaginous joints. Name and give an example of each of the two common types of cartilaginous joints. o These are bones that are united by cartilage and there is no cavity o Not highly movable Synchondroses • This is a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage that unites bones • They are almost all synarthrotic (immovable) • Examples: • Temporary epiphyseal plate joints • Cartilage of 1st rib with manubrium of sternum Symphyses • Is fibrocartilage that unites bone at the symphysis joint • Hyaline cartilage is also present at the articular cartilage on bony surfaces • Symphyses are strong, amphiarthrotic (slightly movable) joints • Examples • Intervertebral joints • Pubic symphysis 8.4 Synovial joints have a fluid-filled joint cavity Learning Objectives • Describe the structural characteristics of synovial joints. • Synovial joints include bones that are separated by a fluid-filled joint cavity • All are diarthrotic (freely movable)-there is a space between the two bones to allow for movement • These include almost all limb joints • Characteristics of synovial joints § Have six general features § Have bursae and tendon sheaths associated with them § Stability is influenced by three factors 3 § Allow several types of movements • Compare the structures and functions of bursae and tendon sheaths. o Bags of synovial fluid that act as lubricating “ball bearing” Not strictly part of synovial joints, but closely associated • The bursae reduces friction where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together. These are the bags of synovial fluid • Tendon sheaths are the elongated section of bursae wrapped completely around tendons that are subjected to friction. • List three natural factors that stabilize synovial joints. 1. Shape of articular surface (minor role) • Shallow surfaces are less stable than ball-and-socket 2. Ligament number and location (limited role) • The more ligaments there are involved in a joint then the stronger the joint will be. 3. Muscle tone keeps tendons taut as they cross joints (most important) • Extremely important in reinforcing shoulder and knee joints and arches of the foot: stabilization • Name and describe (or perform) the common body movements. o Angular movements Either increase or decrease the angle between two bones • Flexion: decreases the angle of the joint • Extension: increases the angle of the joint • Hyperextension: movement beyond the anatomical position • Abduction: movement along the frontal plane, away from the midline • Adduction: movement along the frontal plane, toward the midline • Circumduction o Involves flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction of limb o Limb describes cone in space o Rotation is the turning of bone around its own long axis, toward midline or away from it the midline • Medial rotation is rotation towards the midline • Lateral rotation is rotation away from the midline o Examples § Rotation between C a1d C v2rtebrae § Rotation of humerus and femur o Special movements • Supination and pronation: rotation of radius and ulna o Supination § When the palms face anteriorly the radius and ulna are parallel 4 o Pronation: § When the palms face posteriorly then the radius rotates over the ulna • Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of foot o Dorsiflexion is bending foot upward toward the shin o Plantar flexion is pointing the toes downward • Inversion and eversion of foot o Inversion is rotating the sole of foot so it faces medially o Eversion is rotating the sole of foot so it faces laterally • Protraction and retraction: movement in lateral plane o Protraction is making the scapulae move away from the spine o Retraction is making the scapulae move toward the spine • Elevation and depression of mandible o Elevation is lifting the body part superiorly like shrugging shoulders o Depression is lowering of the body part like opening your jaw • Opposition is movement of the thumb o This would include touching thumb to tips of other fingers on same hand or any grasping movement of the thumb o Gliding movements o One flat bone surface glides or slips over another similar surface o Examples: § Intercarpal joints § Intertarsal joints § Between articular processes of vertebrae o Name and provide examples of the six types of synovial joints based on the movement(s) allowed. • Plane • In the fingers: gliding motion at the joints: nonaxial movement • Hinge • Elbow joints, phalanges: flexion and extension: uniaxial movement • Pivot • Proximal radialulnar joints, altantoaxial joint: rotation: uniaxial movement • Condylar • Metacarpophylangeal (knuckle) joints, wrist joints: flexion and extension, adduction and abduction: biaxial movement • Saddle • Carpometacarpal joints in the thumb: adduction and abduction, flexion and extension: biaxial movement • Ball-and-socket • Shoulder joints and hip joints: flexion and extension, adduction and abduction, rotation: multiaxial movement 5