Joints/ Intro to Muscular System
Joints/ Intro to Muscular System 1223
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Macione on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1223 at Temple University taught by Dr. Rooney in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Kinesiology at Temple University.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1223 Dr. Rooney Spring 2016 Unit 3 Notes I . Joints - Arthrology: the scientific study of joints - Joints function as a system of levers and axes (fulcrums) A. Three Functional Classes of Joints - Named after amount of movement that occurs at each joint 1. Synarthrodial: found on surface of skull, no movement at all 2. Amphiarthrodial: found in the vertebrae, slight movement 3. Diathrodial: found in hips, knees (anywhere w/ joint cavity), freely moving B. Three Structural Classes 1. Fibrous: bones in close contact, held together by thing fibrous CT, no motion a. Sutures: flat bones, CT fibers fill gaps b/w bones b. Syndesmosis: bones bound by sheet of fibrous CT, found b/w radius & ulna c. Gomphosis: connection b/w tooth and socket 2. Cartilaginous: bones connected by hyaline or fibrocartilage a. Synchondrosis: bones held together by hyaline cartilage b. Symphysis: bones held together by articular cartilage 3. Synovial: joint cavities, separated by fluid, freely moveable, most Diathrodial joints are this way a. Structure: joint capsule is loose and flexible dense irreg. CT; binds bones together but is flexible enough for movement; hyaline cartilage covers the surfaces that connect; prevents friction/ wearing down b. Synovial membrane: loose CT on inner surface of joint c. Synovial fluid: thick, slippery, lubricates joint to prevent friction d. Articular disc: usually fibrocartilage; absorb shock e. Labrum: outer edge of fibrocartilage, creates deeper/ more stable socket f. Ligaments: stabilize joint in and out g. Tendon sheaths/ bursae: small sacs w/ synovial fluid; reduce friction & provide “gliding” effect - Protective components of joints: articular cartilage & discs, synovial fluid, bursae - Stabilization: labrums, articular discs, shape of bone - Movement: shape of articular surface, tightness of capsule, tendons/ muscles - CANNOT HAVE 100% TRUE STABILIZATION AND MOBILITY AT THE SAME TIME I. Muscular System Myology: scientific study of muscular system; muscles involved in all physically functioning 1. Movement Locomotion: moving the entire body from one place to another Manipulation: moving individual body parts Act of moving materials in and out of the body: (Example= breathing in air, digesting food) 2. Posture Gravity: downward pull constantly acting upon the body Opposed (partial) contractions of the muscles; always making adjustments to keep posture Anti gravity muscles: neck flexors, spinal extensors, gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quads etc. 3. Joint Stability Muscles assist with stabilizing joints 4. Heat Production Byproduct of muscle contraction Large amounts of heat are produced at a time Maintain homeostasis to prevent overheating A. Types of Tissue classified by their location, appearance, and nervous control Location Appearance Nervous Control Skeletal (move body parts) Striated Voluntary Smooth/ Visceral (lines Smooth Involuntary internal organs/ cavities/ vessels) Cardiac (heart) Striated Involuntary B. Functional Characteristics of Muscle Tissue Irritability/ excitability: responding to a stimulus, contractions after stimulus is applied Contractibility: producing tension b/w ends; allows muscle to cause movement Extensibility: allows stretching; protection from too much pulling force Elasticity: ability to return to normal position after being stretched; protection from over extending C. Skeletal Muscle Muscle fiber: muscle cell named for its shape (long/ narrow) Individual fibers called “myofibrils” located in the sacroplasm (cytoplasm of muscle cells) Sacrolemma: plasma membrane of muscle fibers Endomysium: thin layer of areolar CT surrounding each fiber; attached to Sacrolemma Fascicles: bundles of muscle fibers; held together by perimysium (CT sheath, collagen like) Whole Muscle: groups of fascicles Epimysium: dense fibrous CT sheath around entire muscle Belly: the bulky portion of the muscle that contains the fibers & fascicles; direct or indirect attachments to bones D. Muscle/ Tissue Attachments Direct (Fleshy) Attachment: Epimysium of muscle connects to periosteum or perichondrium of bone Indirect Attachment: normally towards end of muscles; CT sheaths left behind; attaches to bone/ fascia/ Raphe; attachments take on two shapes Tendon: CT is narrow Aponurosis: CT is broad and flat Both intertwine w/ Fibers of Sharpey (very strong); large forces over small areas; DO NOT run entire length of muscle b/c it pulls on the bone
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