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Joints/ Intro to Muscular System

by: Anna Macione

Joints/ Intro to Muscular System 1223

Marketplace > Temple University > Kinesiology > 1223 > Joints Intro to Muscular System
Anna Macione

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About this Document

Please excuse the formatting of the outline, it is horrendous.
Anatomy & Physiology 1
Dr. Rooney
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Macione on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1223 at Temple University taught by Dr. Rooney in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Kinesiology at Temple University.

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Date Created: 03/09/16
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1223 Dr. Rooney Spring 2016 Unit 3 Notes  I .           Joints - Arthrology: the scientific study of joints - Joints function as a system of levers and axes (fulcrums) A. Three Functional Classes of Joints - Named after amount of movement that occurs at each joint 1. Synarthrodial: found on surface of skull, no movement at all 2. Amphiarthrodial: found in the vertebrae, slight movement  3. Diathrodial: found in hips, knees (anywhere  w/ joint cavity), freely moving B. Three Structural Classes  1. Fibrous: bones in close contact, held together by thing fibrous CT, no motion a. Sutures: flat bones, CT fibers fill gaps b/w bones b. Syndesmosis: bones bound by sheet of fibrous CT, found b/w radius &  ulna c. Gomphosis: connection b/w tooth and socket 2. Cartilaginous: bones connected by hyaline or fibrocartilage a. Synchondrosis: bones held together by hyaline cartilage b. Symphysis: bones held together by articular cartilage   3. Synovial: joint cavities, separated by fluid, freely moveable, most Diathrodial  joints are this way a. Structure: joint capsule is loose and flexible dense irreg. CT; binds bones  together but is flexible enough for movement; hyaline cartilage covers the  surfaces that connect; prevents friction/ wearing down b. Synovial membrane: loose CT on inner surface of joint c. Synovial fluid: thick, slippery, lubricates joint to prevent friction d. Articular disc: usually fibrocartilage; absorb shock e. Labrum: outer edge of fibrocartilage, creates deeper/ more stable socket  f. Ligaments: stabilize joint in and out g. Tendon sheaths/ bursae: small sacs w/ synovial fluid; reduce friction &  provide “gliding” effect - Protective components of joints: articular cartilage & discs, synovial fluid, bursae - Stabilization: labrums, articular discs, shape of bone - Movement: shape of articular surface, tightness of capsule, tendons/ muscles - CANNOT HAVE 100% TRUE STABILIZATION AND MOBILITY AT THE  SAME TIME I. Muscular System ­ Myology: scientific study of muscular system; muscles involved in all physically functioning 1. Movement ­ Locomotion: moving the entire body from one place to another  ­ Manipulation: moving individual body parts ­ Act of moving materials in and out of the body: (Example= breathing in air,  digesting food) 2. Posture ­ Gravity: downward pull constantly acting upon the body ­ Opposed (partial) contractions of the muscles; always making adjustments to  keep posture ­ Anti­ gravity muscles: neck flexors, spinal extensors, gluteus maximus,  hamstrings, quads etc. 3. Joint Stability ­ Muscles assist with stabilizing joints 4. Heat Production ­ Byproduct of muscle contraction ­ Large amounts of heat are produced at a time ­ Maintain homeostasis to prevent overheating A. Types of Tissue ­ classified by their location, appearance, and nervous control Location Appearance Nervous Control Skeletal (move body parts) Striated Voluntary Smooth/ Visceral (lines  Smooth Involuntary internal organs/ cavities/  vessels) Cardiac (heart) Striated Involuntary B. Functional Characteristics of Muscle Tissue ­ Irritability/ excitability: responding to a stimulus, contractions after stimulus is applied ­ Contractibility: producing tension b/w ends; allows muscle to cause movement ­ Extensibility: allows stretching; protection from too much pulling force ­ Elasticity: ability to return to normal position after being stretched; protection  from over extending C. Skeletal Muscle ­ Muscle fiber: muscle cell named for its shape (long/ narrow) ­ Individual fibers called “myofibrils” located in the sacroplasm (cytoplasm of  muscle cells) ­ Sacrolemma: plasma membrane of muscle fibers ­ Endomysium: thin layer of areolar CT surrounding each fiber; attached  to Sacrolemma ­ Fascicles: bundles of muscle fibers; held together by perimysium (CT  sheath, collagen­ like) ­ Whole Muscle: groups of fascicles ­ Epimysium: dense fibrous CT sheath around entire muscle  ­ Belly: the bulky portion of the muscle that contains the fibers &  fascicles; direct or indirect attachments to bones  D. Muscle/ Tissue Attachments ­ Direct (Fleshy) Attachment: Epimysium of muscle connects to periosteum or  perichondrium of bone ­ Indirect Attachment: normally towards end of muscles; CT sheaths left behind; attaches to bone/ fascia/ Raphe; attachments take on two shapes ­ Tendon: CT is narrow ­ Aponurosis: CT is broad and flat ­ Both intertwine w/ Fibers of Sharpey (very strong); large forces over  small areas; DO NOT run entire length of muscle b/c it pulls on the bone 


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