SOCI 2013 - 007, Week #7
SOCI 2013 - 007, Week #7 SOCI 2013 007
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 2013 007 at University of Arkansas taught by Stefanie Collier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
3-2-2016 I. Functionalist Perspectives on Deviance Certain amounts of deviance is a necessity for a smooth and functioning society Rooted from social factors – rabid social change and lack of social integration Anomie oWhen social control becomes ineffective because of loss of shared values oIndividual does not know societies behavioral expectations Functions of deviance oClarifies rules – don’t want to be punished oUnites groups oPromotes social change What two theories fall under the functionalist perspective oStrain Theory oOpportunity Theory II. Strain Theory People turn to deviance because they don’t have the means or will to follow social norms Merton’s 5 ways of adapting cultural goals oConformity – do what others do oInnovation – conformity but be creative with what you have oRitualism – don’t change or evolve oRetreatism – just be you! Don’t worry about what others are doing oRebellion – challenge social and cultural norms Define these situations oThe theft of a loaf of bread by a hungry person We don’t know their source of income so we can’t make a judgement oGang warfare among teenagers and young adults It is their means to survive III. Opportunity Theory Based on a person’s circumstance their ability to obtain opportunity may be through illegitimate or legitimate methods Deviance is unlike crime in that crime is a behavior that breaks a law whereas deviance is a behavior that breaks a norm Illegitimate VS Legitimate Methods oIllegitimate methods – reaching opportunity through means that don’t follow the law or social norm oLegitimate methods – reaching opportunity through means of the law and social norm oExample: A person wanting to learn business Legitimate – going to college and obtaining a degree Illegitimate – selling drugs on the street Define these situations 3-2-2016 oTheft of a loaf of bread by a hungry person We only know the person is hungry not their ability to afford the bread so we can say that it is a crime no matter what but if the person was able to purchase it the action goes against social norm and if the person wasn’t able to purchase it that follows social norm oGang warfare among teenagers and young adults Legitimately they are a family and help each other out in achieving opportunity yet their methods are illegitimate IV. Conflict Perspective on Deviance Power elite class holding social capital oSocial rules on deviant life style oBenefits power elite, not actually what’s right and wrong Capitalism produces haves and havenots oDeviance based in social standing oHaves set standards of deviance that benefit them only Upper class oEnforced theory law oProtect social/material property oEthical and moral lines can be abused by power elite Approaches that fall under Conflict Perspective oFeminist Approach oMulti-Racial Approach V. Feminist Approaches on Deviance Different social norms for women oDeviance standards set by men School of feminists thoughts oLiberal – deviance is a response to discrimination oRadical – male domination over women = patriarchy oMarxist / Socialist – women exploited by men and patriarchy Define these situations oTheft of a loaf of bread by a hungry person Women make less money and have children so it’s okay yet they get the same punishment oGang warfare among teenagers and young adults Men are the head of the family so without that comes gangs VI. Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives on Deviance Association with others who deviate oCulture of deviance oDeviance becomes norm Differential Reinforcement Theory oBoth deviant and social behavior is learned through the same process Differential Association Theory 3-2-2016 oDoes not address socialization process Define these situations oTheft of a loaf of bread by a hungry person Hungry person decided to hangout with others who steal that’s why he or she did it oGang warfare among teenagers and young adults Hanging out with the wrong crowds and then joining the gangs VII. Rational Choice Theory Cost / benefit of deviance oBenefits outweigh the risks If yes be deviant Situational factors oBased on information or intel that suggests they won’t get caught Personal factors oBased on personal gains Define these situations oTheft of a loaf of bread by a hungry person Personal factor – have to eat or die – they have to be deviant oGang warfare among teenagers and young adults Situational – they have fun and have each other and “don’t get caught” , only option for social bonds VIII. Control Theory on Deviance A group of people forcing others to perform deviant actions – peer pressure Four elements of social bonds oAttachment to others oCommitment to conformity oInvolvement in activites oBelief and legitimacy in social values and norms Define these situations oTheft of a loaf of bread by a hungry person For your own good – acceptable oGang warfare among teenagers and young adults To feel family – acceptable IX. Labeling Theory on Deviance Socially constructed process ‘label’ people and reinforce their actions Stages of labeling process oPrimary – initial act of rule breaking oSecondary – been labeled by primary and they continue in this direction oTertiary – individual validates their actions to normalize them X. Postmodern Perspectives on Deviance Knowledge of powerful oJudge and control powerless 3-2-2016 Physical structure used in prisons oScare tactics No one knows when they are being watched
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