Reading: Hock - 16
Reading: Hock - 16 APSY.UE.0002
Popular in INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
Reviews for Reading: Hock - 16
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 03/09/16
Reading: Hock 16 - Thanks For The Memories Elizabeth Loftus Leading researcher in the area of memory when an event is recalled, it is a reconstruction of the actual event Reconstructive memory is a result of our use of new and existing information to ﬁll in gaps in our recall of an experience memories are unstable - malleable and changeable over time In the four studies she conducted: she demonstrated that the mere wording of questions asked of eye witnessess could alter their memories of events when they were later asked other questions about the events Theoretical Propositions Focus of Studies: the power of questions containing presuppositions to alter a person's memory of an event Presuppositions: a condition that must be true for the question to make sense Loftus Hypothesized: if eyewitnesses are asked questions that contain a false presupposition about the witnessed event, the new false information may be may be incorporated into the witness's memory of the event and appear subsequently in new testimony by witness. Method and Results Experiment 1 150 participants in small groups A ﬁlm was shown to each group: ﬁve-car chain reaction accident that occurred when a driver ran through a stop sign into oncoming traﬃc Film= less than a min accident = 4 seconds A diﬀerent question was asked to each half of the participants (50/50) after viewing the ﬁlm 1. "How fast was Car A [ the car that ran the stop sign] going when it ran the stop sign?" 2. "How fast was Car A going when it turned right?" After the initial question, both groups were asked the same question "Did you see a stop sign for Car A?" Response according to what question ( 1 or 2) they were asked: 1. 50% said they saw a stop sign for Car A 2. 35% claimed they saw a stop sign for Car A Experiment 2 Involved delayed memory test did not use an automobile accident as the witnessed event 40 participants were shown a 3 minute segment from the ﬁlm Diary of a Student Revolution Showed a class being disrupted by eight antiwar demonstrators Immediately after viewing Film: given questionnaires containing 20 questions relating to the ﬁlm clip The 40 participants were split into two halves: each question were identical except one variant between each half 1. "Was the leader of the twelve demonstrators who entered the classroom a male?" 2. "Was the leader of the four demonstrators who entered the classroom a male?" A week after viewing Film: participants returned to answer a new set of 20 questions Important question: "How many demonstrators did you see entering the classroom?" Response according to what question ( 1 or 2) they were asked: 1. reported seeing an average of 8.85 men 2. reported seeing an average of 6.40 men Showed: On average, the wording of one question altered the way participants remembered the basic characteristics of a witnessed event Experiment 3 Designed to meet two goals: further demonstrate the memory reconstruction eﬀects found Loftus wondered if perhaps just the mention of an object, even if it was not included as part of a false presupposition, might be enough to cause the object to be added to memory 3 groups of 50 participants Viewed: 3 minute ﬁlm shot from inside of a car that ends with the car colliding with a baby carriage pushed by a man Immediately After Viewing: Each group recieved a booklet with questions about the ﬁlm Diﬀered as follows: Group D: The direct question group received booklets containing 40 "ﬁller" questions and 5 key questions directly asking about nonexistent objects ex. "Did you see a barn in the ﬁlm?" Group F: The false presupposition group received the same 40 ﬁller questions and 5 key questions that contained presuppositions about the same non existent objects ex. "did you see a station wagon parked in front of the barn?" Group C: The control group received only the 40 ﬁller questions. One Week after viewing: participants returned & asked 20 new questions about the ﬁlm 5 questions were the exact same key questions as were asked of the direct- question group a week before Results of groups answering "yes" to the direct question groups 29.2% for the false-presupposition group 15.6% direct-question group 8.4% control group Discussion The false presupposition in the questions provided new information that was unintentionally integrated into the participants' memories of the event Application to eyewitnesses in criminal investigations: Questioned several times - during these various Q & A sessions, it is not unlikely that false presuppositions will be made, possible unintentionally, in numerous ways Loftus contends that what is being remembered by the witness is a "regenerated image based on the altered memorial representation" Recent Applications Lawyers' complicated questions negatively aﬀect eyewitness accuracy and conﬁdence when eyewitnesses are shown more than one photographic lineup of criminal suspects, their accuracy in identifying the correct perpetrator decreases signiﬁcantly as they incorporate the newer faces into their reconstruction of the original event Loftus work has also been connected to memories that bear greater similarity to fantasy than reality (aliens, ghosts, out-of-body experiences) Conclusion the reliability of eyewitnesses in judicial proceedings are not justiﬁably questioned