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by: Brittany Woody

Suckling PSB4504

Brittany Woody

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About this Document

This is PowerPoint 9 according to the old numbering that skipped 6 but he corrected the numbers on Sakai so now it's under powerpoint 8. Lecture and PowerPoint notes on suckling
Developmental Psychobiology
Dr. Donald J. Stehouwer
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSB4504 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Donald J. Stehouwer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Monday, March 7, 2016 PowerPoint 8 Suckling - Source for nutrition as well as fluid - Olfactory cues are important for pups finding nipple; washed mother has much less attaching by pups than the unwashed mother; there is an odor on nipples that help them recognize it • if washed extract solution was put back on the mother, they would attach; they would also attach if pup saliva was put on nipples; also would attach if amniotic fluid was put on nipples (washed extract: the water used to wash mother’s nipples) - pups inhale and swallow amniotic fluid in the womb; after birth, mom licks pups and then licks nipples so that the nipples have amniotic fluid • virgin female saliva and mother’s urine on nipples did not elicit attachment • “nipple extract”: swabbed from another mother’s nipples elicited attachment; if other mother was on a different diet, there was not attachment • pups attach if washed mother is injected with oxytocin • ligated nipples: tied so milk is not released; if mother with ligated nipples is injected with oxytocin, pups still attach • if injected with atropine, there is less attachment - Dimethyl disulfide is common to the effective solutions, and when a solution of dimethyl disulfide dissolved in distilled water is painted on the nipple of a washed dam, attachment is reinstated - In experiment, pups were exposed to citral (citrus smell) prenatally and/or postnatally and nipples are citral scented • if not exposed at all: no attachment • if exposed postnatally only or prenatally only: no attachment • if exposed both pre and postnatally: attachment - Nipples are not citral scented; dimethyl disulfide scented nipple • if not exposed to citral at all: attachment 1 Monday, March 7, 2016 • if exposed to citral only post or prenatally: attachment • if exposed to citral post and prenatally: no attachment to dimethyl disulfide scented nipple - Canulas are placed in pups mouths and dam in anesthetized (cannot eject milk); anesthetized dams produce milk if injected with oxytocin - Pups form tight seal around nipple and suck in bursts; change is poster of pups once milk is released (arched back, limbs extended, stretched, tail lifted) to facilitate milk delivery; increases negative pressure (sucking); response disappears between 10 and 15 days - Pups show no preference between a non-nutritive nipple (does not give milk, fake nipple) and a nutritive nipple (real nipple) up to 12 days of age. - Pups that have gone without food for 23 hours show no more latency (time to attach to a nipple) than those who have not been deprived up to 13 days old. After 14 days old, the deprived animals will suckle quickly. - Older pups (over 13 days) have a preference for nutritive over non-nutritive nipples, so if a nipple stops producing milk, the pup will switch to a different nipple. At younger ages, the pup will stay on the nipple even if it is not producing milk. - Suggests suckling is independent of the reward of food; suckling is rewarding itself, it is not only done to get milk - Experiment measured if deprived pups would lick milk from the floor; in warm temperatures, the pups would lick the milk; in cold temperatures, they would not lick it - The temperature of the pup does not affect their tendency to lap the milk, only the temperature of the environment does - More deprived animals were more likely to lap the milk - Pups will not stop suckling; they will continue to suckle until they choke on the milk (if put on a new dam each time the last dam runs out of milk) - If pups are given milk through a canula (not a nipple), they make random body movements such as curling and pelvic thrusting; compared to the coordinated stretch during suckling - Rats usually ween off the nipple between 15 and 25 days old 2 Monday, March 7, 2016 - Rats who never suckle can still eat, showing that suckling is not a necessary precursor to eating - Feeding is seen earlier evolutionarily than suckling, supporting the idea that the two exist independently even in mammals - Suckling only ends when the dam’s ventrum (where her nipples are located) over heats and the dam leaves the nest; the pups will suckle as long as possible - Dams and pups in nature have separate “rooms” in underground burrows so that the dam can leave the pups - Methysergide: serotonin blocker • rats given the serotonin blocker will attach for longer periods of time • if given a serotonin agonist (quipazine), rats will not suckle even if they are food deprived - Beginning at 21 days of age, each rat in the experimental group was housed with a littler of 16- day- olds for five days; after five days, they were transferred to another littler of 16- day- olds until the day of testing; the older rat would continuously be put with 16- day- olds; these rats, even though they are now past adolescence, will suckle like the 16- day- olds; they were never weened - Cats can be trained to eat unusual foods: mashed potatoes and mashed bananas in this experiment; cat got rewarding brain stimulation when eating these foods; kittens would prefer the bananas even in the presence of meat pellets by modeling after the mother • human preference may be related to what the infant is first exposed to - Baby animals get food safely because the mother does the hunting, so they prefer these foods later in life; prefer familiar foods; “learned safety” - Rats will take a small sample of a new food and then wait several hours to see if they get sick before eating more - Food preference begins in-utero; prefer amniotic fluid of the mother and the milk has a familiar taste; pups will prefer milk of their own mother than another dam - Human infants dislike mother’s milk if she has just worked out due to lactic acid “souring” the milk; humans are sensitive to the smell of mother’s nipple and taste of the milk (prefer their own mother) 3


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