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by: Ms. Riley Hansen
Ms. Riley Hansen
GPA 3.57

James Hawker

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James Hawker
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Riley Hansen on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BCH 4624 at Florida State University taught by James Hawker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see /class/205658/bch-4624-florida-state-university in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 09/17/15
Dr Hawker 12 10 10 BCH 4624 Final Review Fall 2010 Part 1 Ch 22 23 After Exam 6 will be half of the final exam 1 Know all the review questions and structures for these chapters as you would a regular exam Part 2 Chapters 12 21 N0 structures from this part Chapter 12 Review Questions 2 Know the properties and structures of cell membranes and their components 3 What are the main phospholipids as in the notes and textbook 4 What is the uid mosaic model Fig 1230 Chapter 13 Review Questions UI Distinguish the different kinds of diffusion and kinds of transport and their properties 6 What ion balance must be maintained in the body for all cells especially muscle and neuron cells to work properly What ion pump in cell membranes maintains this balance What are 3 purposes of this pump How much of the body s ATP is used to maintain this pump 7 Distinguish primary active transport vs secondary active transport Distinguish 3 kinds of secondary active transport Fig 1310 8 How does a P type ATPase ABC transporter work Fig 139 What are ion channels Describe and de ne what an action potential is Fig 1313 and notes What cell types is this mostly seen in What is a voltagegated ion channel Fig 1323 and notes What is a ligandgated ion channel and how does it work Fig 1326 and notes De ne equilibrium potential Fig 1329 Describe the steps that occur in the Na and K channels in the action potential mechanism Fig 1330 14 What are gap junctions and what do they do Fig 1332 15 What are aquaporins and their function Fig 1333 50 D D D H LANHO Chapter 14 Review Questions 16 What is the purpose of signal transduction in the body and cells 17 What are the general steps of a signal transduction mechanism Fig 142 What are possible cell responses to a signal transduction pathway 18 Distinguish primary 1quot messenger from receptor R and 2quotd 2 0 messenger 19 Describe the steps of the epinephrine stimulated G protein coupled R pathway Fig 145 and notestext What is the 2quotd messenger in this pathway Does it act as an allosteric modulator Dr Hawker 121010 BCH 4624 20 Describe the steps of the G protein cou led R activated inositol phosphate pathway Fig 1412 What are the 2H messengers in this pathway What is the 3rd messenger How does Ca2 play a messenger role in cells as discussed in text and notes What is one protein it can activate as discussed in class When is insulin released in the blood What is its main function Describe the signaling mechanism of insulin through its insulin R in cells notes and Fig 1424 How are signaling pathways often terminated in cells What cellular processes is signaling used to control Describe the signaling mechanism of epidermal growth factor EGF through its receptor EGFR Figs 143031 How is it terminated In which kind of disease is EGFR overactive or mutated in What are promising treatments for diseases in which overactivemutant EGFR is a suspected agent What growth factor mediated signal transduction pathway is active in angiogenesis notes What is a recent drug developed to block this pathway in cancer and how does it work notes Chapter 16 Review Questions 30 31 32 LA LAMB ON IIbl LA 1 4 N What 2 of the main enzymes break down dietary carbohydrates Which sugar is the main fuel of the body What 2 organstissuescell types especially depend on this sugar What is the main purpose of glycolysis Where does it occur in the cell What 2 organstissues do make glucose What are the main products and net E yield of glycolysis What 2 rxns of glycolysis make ATP Fig 162 What is a key intermediate in metabolism and describe what it can be converted to fig in notes What reaction of fermentation produces carbon dioxide notes p 447 top What reaction produces lactate notes p 447 bottom Under what conditions does this occur in skeletal muscle Describe how glycolysis is regulated in skeletal muscle in resting vs exercise states Figs 1616161 Z What enzymes are inhibited or stimulated in each condition and by what effectors notes and Fig 1617 How is glycolysis regulated in liver and what key enzymes are regulated both and Figs 16181620 and notes Describe how pyruvate kinase is regulated in liver Fig 1620 and notes Describe the unique steps reactions in Gluconeogenesis that bypass large irreversible steps in glycolysis Fig 1622 p 461462 What enzyme contains biotin as a cofactor Figs 16231625 Describe how glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis are reciprocally regulated Figs 1628 1630 notes What is the Cori cycle Fig 1633 and notes Dr Hawker 121010 BCH 4624 Chapter 17 Review Questions 43 44 45 A ex A A UIlk 00 UI What is the purpose of the Citric Acid Krebs TCA Cycle Fig 172 notes Where does it occur in the cell and what is the overall scheme of what it does Fig 173 What reactions does pyruvate dehydrogenase catalyze What is the advantage of having several enzymes in a multienzyme complex in a metabolic pathway What products are produced in the citric acid cycle Describe how Pyruvate Dehydrogenase enzyme is controlled Figs 17161718 notes What 2 enzymes regulate its activity and how is each of those enzymes regulated Describe the other points at which the citric acid cycle is regulated and describe the positive and negative effectors at these steps Fig 1719 What is the result of decreasing Isocitrate Dehydrogenase DH activity List the possible biosynthetic fates of 4 of the citric acid cycle intermediates Fig 1720 If the Citric Acid cycle is low on intermediates what reaction can be used to replenish intermediates Fig 1721 notes Chapter 18 Review Questions 52 VI 3 UIUIUI ONUIlk ON ON UI UI VI 0 KC 00 O L What overall occurs in Oxidative Phosphorylation Where does it occur Fig 18 1 Describe the overall scheme and enzyme components of electron transfer in the electron transport chain Fig186 Table 182 Which enzyme corresponds to complexes 1 II III and IV What is coenzyme Q Where do the electrons of NADH enter the electron transport chain at What are the intermediate carriers of electrons used in this transport chain Figs 188189 Where is the entry point for electrons of FADHz in electron transport book and notes What enzyme or complex reduces oxygen to water What electron carrier is oxidized in this process Describe the overall ow of electrons and H ions in electron transport and how they relate to the citric acid cycle Fig 1817 and notes What is the Chemiosmotic hypothesis Fig 1823 How big is the pH gradient in the mitochondria What is the AG value of it What process drives activation of ATP synthase to make ATP in the mitochondria Know the overall scheme of how electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation are linked Fig 1834 What enzyme couples transport of ADP into the mitochondria with ATP exit into the cytosol Fig 1837 and textbook Dr Hawker 121010 BCH 4624 64 What is the net yield of ATP new number in the oxidation of one glucose Table 65 18 4 What factor determines the rate of oxidative phosphorylation Fig 18401841 text and notes Chapter 20 Review Questions 66 67 68 69 l l Nt I O 1 L What is the purpose of the Pentose Phosphate Pathway What is the net yield of NADPH for the conversion of Glucose 6 phosphate 9 Ribose 5 phosphate Name 2 cellular conditions where the cell would want to activate the pentose P pathway Describe the 4 modes by which pentose P pathway can link to glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Fig 2024 and notes What is the reaction that produces reactive oxygen species ROS In what cell type of the body can this occur a lot Why are ROS dangerous to the body Describe the reaction by which NADPH can reduce ROS p 586 and notes What cofactor is required What happens if there is no detoxi cation of ROS If there is Glucose 6 P dH de ciency Describe the pathway by which NADPH aids Phagocytosis NO production What is the physiological role of NO in the body notes Know the summary of how glucose is linked to ROS production or detoxification and pentose P pathway end of Ch 20 notes Chapter 21 Review Questions 75 76 77 What is the purpose of glycogen in the body Where is it stored Know the overview of how glucose or G6P is linked to metabolism and various pathways Fig 213 and notes What is the structure of glycogen Fig 211 and notes What kind of linkages does it have between sugar residues Describe the reaction of glycogen breakdown Fig 214 and notes 7 know to the level of the notes What are the 2 main enzymes that are regulated in glycogen synthesis Describe how Glycogen phosphorylase is regulated Figs 21102111 and notes Include R vs T state a vs b forms etc What are and 7 regulators of phosphorylase b Fig 2111 and notes How is phosphorylase a regulated in the liver Fig 2112 and notes What enzymes regulate bR 9 aR conversion both ways What form is favored in resting muscle vs active muscle What hormone favors bR 9 aR in muscle Figs 211415 and notes Liver Fig 2114 and notes What hormone is released in the starved state and what does it do in terms of glycogen synthesis vs breakdown Hormone in the fed state and its effect on glycogen metabolism Dr Hawker 121010 BCH 4624 86 What is the regulatory pathway by which epinephrine E activates phosphorylase a Fig 2115 and notes What 2 factors regulate phosphorylase kinase 87 How is glycogen synthase regulated Fig 2117 and notes What 2 enzymes activate it and inhibit it respectively notes Fig 21172118 88 If you want to mobilize glycogen ie promote glycogen breakdown what main 2 enzymes do you activate and inhibit 89 What molecule is the key to integrating glycogen metabolism How is it sensed physiologically as described in notes and how does the pancreas respond What hormone acts to lower blood glucose 90 After a meal how is glycogen synthesis regulated Fig 2118 and notes 91 What is the effect of insulin on glycogen synthesis What enzymes does it regulate turn on or off Fig 2120 92 What is the effect ofblood glucose on liver glycogen metabolism Figs 212122 and notes What is net effect on glycogen synthase


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