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Mood Disorders

by: Erika D'Angelo

Mood Disorders 15480

Erika D'Angelo
University of Hartford
GPA 3.75

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About this Document

These notes go into detail of mood disorders, like bipolar, depressive disorders - Major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder. Along with that are the symptoms, causes, and treatments.
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Milling
Class Notes
mood disorders, bipolar, major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, bipolar 1, bipolar 2
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erika D'Angelo on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 15480 at University of Hartford taught by Dr. Milling in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Hartford.

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Date Created: 03/09/16
Part Nine: Disorders of Mood 1. Overview of Disorders of Mood ­ These disorders involve a serious and persistent difficulty maintaining an even,  productive emotional state  ­ Second most common disorders ­ Two groups of disorders of mood in DSM 5  Depressive Disorders – characterized by low and unhappy mood   Bipolar Disorders – characterized by high mood, usually accompanied by low  mood  Mania separates these two disorders 2. Depressive Disorders  ­ Major Depressive Disorder  ­ Persistent Depressive Disorder  A. What is a major depressive episode? ­ A major depressive episode is a group of depressive symptoms, but not a diagnosis  with its own diagnostic code in the DSM B. What are the features (symptoms) of a major depressive episode  ­ A period of at least 2 weeks where there is either depressed mood or loss if interest in  activities, plus other depressive symptoms.  ­ Depressed Mood – sad, hopeless, numb, bodily aches and pains, irritable, easily  frustrated over minor matters, etc  ­ Anhedonia – diminished interest or pleasure  ­ Appetite Changes – may increase, or decrease. No way of telling for sure  ­ Sleep Disturbance – terminal insomnia – waking up during the last phase of sleep –  and is an indicator of major depressive episode. Devastating because terminal  insomnia messes up REM sleep, which is the most important kind of sleep  ­ Psychomotor agitation or retardation –  (agitated) might appear to be agitated.  (Retardation) Motor output is reduced  ­ Energy Disturbances – chronically feel tired, little energy. Doing small tasks can  deplete energy reserves. Ex: getting dressed, grooming ­ Feelings of worthlessness or guilt – negative evaluation of own worth   ­ Difficulties concentrating  ­ Thoughts of death or suicide – might think others would be better off without them.  Having thoughts of dying or killing themselves. More serious if person has a suicide  plan/method.   Children do not present the same way  These symptoms are classic for the adult  C. What is Major Depressive Disorder? ­ A major depressive disorder consists of one or more major depressive episodes  without any manic symptoms  ­ Course specifiers:   Single episode – person has one episode, and when they get over it, it never  comes back   Recurrent – person will have major depressive disorder, it will go away after 6  months, then come back again, and again.  D. What is Persistent Depressive Disorder? ­ A chronically depressed mood that lasts at least two years  ­ Eating problems­ appetite may increase or decrease ­ Sleep problems­ over sleep or under sleep  ­ Energy problems  ­ Low self­esteem – critical of self  ­ Concentrating problems – trouble making decisions  ­ Feeling of hopelessness  Major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder share the same  symptoms  Major depressive disorder symptoms are greater than persistent depressive  disorder   Person can actually be diagnosed with both disorders  3. Etiology of Depressive Disorders  A. Psychoanalytic Theories of Depression  ­ Classical Psychoanalytic ­ anger turned against self  ­ Modern psychoanalytic – early attachment between mother and infant is disrupted  and child becomes vulnerable to depression. Most critical age is 18 months for  children to make that attachment to parents. Parents must be emotionally responsive  to the child.  B. Beck’s Cognitive Theory of Depression  ­ Negative schema – a tendency to see the world negatively  ­ Negative Triad:  Negative view of self   Negative view of world around them   Negative view of future   The way they think is going to be very negative  ­ Cognitive Distortions – 4 distortions   Arbitrary Inference – drawing a conclusion without evidence to support the  conclusion. “A bit of a stretch” conclusion will have nothing to do with original  thought.  Selective Abstraction – focusing on a detail and ignoring larger context.  Example: If a student gets all good grades but gets one bad one then focuses on  the bad one that is considered selective abstraction   Overgeneralization – a sweeping conclusion based on one very specific event.  Example: say you take a course in a random subject you never studied before.  Don’t know whether you are good or bad in the subject. When you take the first  exam, you fail. From that you assume you are always going to fail exams related  to that subject.   Magnification – exaggerating the negative consequences from a negative event.  Example: you take a course in something you never have before. Unfortunately,  you get a D in that class. If you assume that because you got a D that you’re going to get kicked out of the university, that is magnification.  ­ Magnification is similar to another disorder called Panic Disorder –  catastrophizing – blowing meaning of bodily symptoms out of proportion.  C. Behavioral Theory  ­ Individuals’ environment may lack sufficient reinforcers of the individual may lack  sufficient skills to obtain reinforcers. Example: the summer before freshman year of  college. Move in day arrives and you discover that you are the only person living in  your dorm complex. No one else is there. No social reinforcers available; so you  become depressed. Other possibility: there are social reinforcers but you don’t have  the sufficient skills to obtain them  D. Biological Theories  ­ Genetics – family, twin, and adoption studies  ­ Neurochemistry:  Anti­depressants affect serotonin and norepinephrine   Metabolites of norepinephrine and serotonin  ­ Endocrine – cortisol. When body is under stress, body makes cortisol. People who  are depressed have high levels of cortisol ­ Brain imaging studies:  Low activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus   High activity in amygdala and Brodmann Area 25 4. Therapies for Depressive Disorders: Psychological therapies  ­ Psychoanalytic – outward expression of anger  ­ Beck’s Cognitive Therapy – identify and replace cognitive distortions with more  realistic thoughts  ­ Social Skills Training – often done in form of group therapy  1. Biological Therapies   ­ Electroconvulsive Therapy – passing current of 70 – 130 volts through brain ­ Bilateral ECT – both hemispheres of brain  ­ Unilateral ECT – right hemisphere only – seems to be effective, and help people  who don’t respond to medication. Last resort treatment. It might straighten out certain brain waves.  ­ Medications:  Tricyclics – Imipramine   Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitor – Parnate  Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors – Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil   Medications are the same for the Anxiety Disorders as well  5. Bipolar Disorder  A. What is a manic episode? ­ A Manic Episode is a group of symptoms revolving around elevated mood, but it is  not a diagnosis with its own diagnostic code in the DSM B. What are the features of a Manic Episode ­ Manic Episode is a distinct period of at least a week in which there is abnormally  elevated, expansive or irritable mood and increased activity and energy  ­ Unusual good mood or cheer  ­ Inflated self­esteem or grandiosity  ­ Irritability  ­ Decreased need for sleep ­ More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking ad ­ Flight of ideas of feelings that thoughts are racing  ­ Distractibility  ­ Increase in activity. Engaging in new projects, do things they have little knowledge,  nothing seems out of reach to them, etc. ­ Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have potential for painful  consequences  C. Hypomanic Episode  ­ Hypomanic Episode – same symptoms as manic episode except that it is not severe  enough to interfere with daily functioning  D. What are the Bipolar Disorders? ­ Bipolar 1 – at least one Manic Episode with or without a major depressive episode  ­    Bipolar 2 – at least one Hypomanic Episode in combination with at least one major  depressive episode  ­ Cyclothymic Disorder – a chronic mood disturbance of at least two years involving  less severe manic and depressive symptoms  6. Etiology of Bipolar Disorders  ­ Genetics – predisposition. Family, twin, and adoption studies.  ­ Neurochemistry Studies:  High levels of norepinephrine related to mania   Lithium helps regulate activity in neurons   Ion activity in neurons – irregularity in neuron activity causes neurons to fire  easily  7. Therapy  ­ Cognitive – behavioral therapy to address erratic behaviors during mood swings  ­ Medications –   Lithium Carbonate – affects both manic and depressive symptoms – mood  stabilizer   Anti­Seizure Medication­ Tegretol, Valproate, and Depakote for people who  cannot tolerate Lithium Film Clip: 3 Clinical relevant behaviors 


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