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HUM II Unit 2 Key Terms

by: Crystal Florman

HUM II Unit 2 Key Terms HUM 1022-08

Crystal Florman
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Key Terms for the second test
Humanities II: The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment
Mr. Micheal Prahl
Class Notes
key terms, Anabaptist, unit 2




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Florman on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HUM 1022-08 at University of Northern Iowa taught by Mr. Micheal Prahl in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Humanities II: The Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment in Arts and Humanities at University of Northern Iowa.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Humanities II Notes Unit 2 Key Terms  Anabaptists o believe that a person should get baptized only when they can express their own faith o based in Switzerland o believed in the separation of church and state  Erasmus o Humanist o Great scholar o First editor of the New Testament o Stood up for the church  Pope Julius II o Bribed the cardinals with money to become pope o First thing he did was extend papal power- went to war in Venice o Formed the Holy League- Venice, Spain, England, and the Swiss  La Felicissma Armada o 150 ships, mostly Spanish o Tried to invade England because they were falling away from Catholicism o Philip the II of Spain ordered the fleet to attack England- failed  Johannes Tetzel o Selling indulgences for money o Claimed his indulgences can get you out of anything- guaranteeing heaven  Reconquista o Long series of wars and battles between the Christian Kingdoms and the Muslim Moors for control of the Iberian Peninsula- lasted from 718-1492  Council of Constance o Main purpose was to end papal schism (3 Popes) o Tried Jon Hus for heresy  Teresa of Avila o Prominent Spanish mystic, roman catholic saint, Carmelite nun, theologian of contemplative life through prayer o Founder of Discalced Carmelites- simple living  Lollards o Derogatory term meaning unintelligent or uneducated o Followers of John Wycliffe were called this o Undercurrents of the Peasant Revolt of 1381  Oratory of Divine Love o Catholic brotherhood established in 1497 by Ettore Vemazza o First in Genoa, Italy o Help country from disease, poverty, and preach God’s Word  Ninety- Five Theses o List of questions and propositions for debate in the church o Mostly talked about indulgences’ legitimacy o Written by Martin Luther  Counter Reformation o Catholic reformation o Period of Catholic resurgence beginning with the council of Trent o Initiated in the response to the Protestant reformation  John Wesley o New branch of Calvinism o Didn’t believe in predestination o Traveled to North Carolina to preach about God  Niccolo Machiavelli o Senior official for many years in the Florentine Republic o Often referred to as the founder of modern political science and he was an influence for the novel “The Prince”  John Fisher o Chancellor at the University of Cambridge o Executed by Henry VIII because he refused to say that the king is the ruler of the church and for upholding the Catholic Church’s doctrine of papal primacy  Act of Supremacy o Recognized Henry VIII as the supreme head of the church of England o Required an oath from all citizens to recognize his marriage with Anne Boleyn as official  Sir Thomas More o Henry VIII liked him so much he made him a chancellor o Speaker of the House of Lords (King’s divorce- 12 briefs) o Wrote “Utopia”  Titian o Italian painter o Application and use of color was influential  Protestant Work Ethic o Emphasizes the hard work, discipline, and frugality as a result of a person’s belief in the protestant faith- salvation  Act of Succession o Required all those asked to take the oath to recognize Anne Boleyn as King Henry VIII’s wife and their children legitimate heirs to the throne  John Wycliffe o Strictly followed scriptures- we don’t need priests o God is the sole authority o Translated the Vulgate bible (the only true bible) o His bible was at the center of the break of the church  Fresco o Form of mural painting where the water has a pigment and it soaks into the wet plaster of the wall  Donation of Constantine o Forged Roman Imperial decree that gave the rule of Rome and the Holy Roman Empire to the pope  Michelangelo o Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet and engineer o “The Statue of David” “Sistine Chapel”  Baldassere Castiglione o Italian courtier, diplomat and Author o “The Book of Courtier”- etiquette and morality of a courtier  Treasury of Merits o Acts one could do to ensure salvation and is available for dispensation through indulgences  Charles V o Holy Roman Emperor o Diet of Worms  Huldrych Zwingli o Swiss o Everyone should be able to interpret what the scripture says for themselves  Henry of Navarre o Henry IV- first French monarch of the House of Burbon o Huguenot- involved with French religious wars  Jacob Fuggar II o European merchant, entrepreneur, and banker o Wealthy- funded a chapel in Augsburg  Cosimo de’Medici o The first of the Medici political dynasty o Used his vast fortune to control the Florentine Political System and sponsor a series of artistic accomplishments  Padua o Northern Italy o Joined Lombardy Association of Cities  Sole Fide o Faith o Philip Melanchthon develops Lutheranism further  Elizabeth I o Virgin queen o Fifth and last monarch of the Tudor Dynasty  Council of Trent o Held between 1545- 1563 o Embodiment of the Counter reformation- heresies by Protestantism  Chiaroscuro o The treatment of light and shade in drawing and painting  Reformation o A shift in religious views with ideals that everyone should be able to interpret the scripture for themselves  Henry VIII o Started the Church of England- Anglican church o Divorced his first wife and made a bunch of treaties and decrees to make it okay  Virtu o Niccolo Machiavelli o Ideals for a population and for a leader  Jon Hus o 1409- excommunicated for teaching Wycliffe o Protested the selling of indulgences o 1415- tried for heresy at the Council of Constance- burned at the stake  Leonardo da Vinci o Known for inventing, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography o “The Last Supper”  Huguenots o French Protestants  Giovanni Pico della Mirandolo o Proposed to defend 900 theses on religion, philosophy, natural philosophy, and magic o “Oration on the Dignity of Man”- key text in Hermetic Reformation  Unitas Fratrum o Moravian Church o Influenced by Wycliffe’s writings o Their leader was Jon Hus  John Knox o Believes in Calvin’s teachings o Brings them to Scotland and initiates the Prespreterian Church  Philip Schazert Melanthon o Lutheranism- 1530 Augsburg Confession o 4 primary points- scripture, faith, grace, community of faithful is the only church with Jesus as the head o The church grows through preaching and observing 2 sacraments: baptism and communion  Indulgences o Pieces of paper claiming to save you from all your sins that the church sold to increase profit  Studia Humanitatis o The study of grammar, poetry, metric, history, and moral philosophy  Palestrina o Italian composer of sacred music o Representative of the Roman Catholic School of Music Company  John Calvin o Huguenot- establishes a theocracy in Geneva o Predestination- God knows where you will go before you are born and there is nothing you can do about it o Believed that life should be lived simply- little joy  Isabella d’Este o Marchesa of Mantua- nobleman o Met with Louis XII of France in Milan to convince him not to send troops into Mantua  Lorenzo Valla o Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator o Provide textual analysis that proved the Donation of Constantine was fake  Martin Luther o Monk/ teacher- 95 theses o Only way to heaven is salvation by grace o Sacraments of Penance- contrition, confession, absolution, penitent  Augsburg Confession o Primary confession of faith the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran Reformation  Katherine von Bora o Wife of Martin Luther o German leader of the Protestant Reformation  Humanism o Attaching prime importance to human rather than a supernatural being o Stress the potential value of goodness o Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in Greek and Roman thought  Diet of Worms o Gathering in Germany o Martin Luther was invited to go, but decided against it  Ignatius Loyola o Spanish knight from a local Basque noble family o Founded the Society of Jesus- Jesuits- male- Catholic Church  Edict of Nantes o Law signed by Henry IV that granted Calvinist Protestants of France substantial rights in the nation o France is still Catholic at this time  Exercrabilis o Papal bull issued by Pope Pius II condemning Calvinism  Giovanni Boccaccio o Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and a humanist o Notable works: “The Decameron” and “On Famous Women”  François Rabelais o French writer, physician, humanist, monk and Greek scholar o Wrote fantasy, satire, the grotesque, bawdy jokes, and songs  Sacraments o Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance  Giorgio Vasari o Italian painter, architect, writer, and historian o Most famous book: “Lives of the most excellent painters, sculptors, and architects from Limabue to our time”  Marsilio Ficino o Italian scholar and Catholic priest o Florentine Academy- huge influence on the direction and tenor of the Italian Renaissance and development of European philosophy  Sistine Chapel o Official residence of the Pope o Takes the name from Pope Sixtus IV who spent a bunch of money renovating it  Francesco Petrarca o Italian scholar and poet o Rediscovery of cicero’s letters- credited for starting the 14 th century Renaissance  Sfumato o Allowing tones and colors to shade gradually into one another producing softened outlines or hazy forms  Cesare Borgia o Duke of Valentinois, nobleman, politician, and cardinal o His fight for power was a huge influence for “The Prince” by Machiavelli  Hans Holbein the Younger o German and Swiss artist and printmaker o Worked in Northern Renaissance Style th o One of the greatest portraitists in the 16 century  Girolama Savonarla o Italian Dominican Friar and preacher- Florence o Known for prophesies of civic glory, the destruction of secular art and culture, and his calls for Christian renewal  Jan Van Eyck o Early Netherlandish painter active in Burges o Ghent Alter Piece- 1432  Thomas Cassai (Masaccio) o First great Italian sculptor of the Quattrocento period of the Italian Renaissance o Virgin and Child with Saint Anne- 1424  Catherine d’Medici o Italian noblewoman who was the Queen of France o Henry VIII divorced her because she was not giving him a son  Sandro Botticelli o Italian Painter of early Renaissance o Primavera- 1482  The Institutes of the Christian Religion o Written by John Calvin o Seminal work of Protestant systematic theology  St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre o Aug. 24 , 1572  Donatello o Early renaissance sculptor from Florence o The head of Saint John the Evangelist 1408-1415  Raphael o Italian painter and architect o The Coronation of the Virgin  Index Librorum Prohibitorium o List of books that were banned by the Catholic Church


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