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Intro to Ocean Science, week 1 notes

by: Rhianna Heide

Intro to Ocean Science, week 1 notes GEOL 104-1

Marketplace > Northern Illinois University > Oceanography > GEOL 104-1 > Intro to Ocean Science week 1 notes
Rhianna Heide
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the history of ocean science
Intro Ocean Science
Mr. Scherer
Class Notes
Geology, ocean science
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rhianna Heide on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 104-1 at Northern Illinois University taught by Mr. Scherer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro Ocean Science in Oceanography at Northern Illinois University.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
History of Ocean Exploration + Science A. Early History a. H.M.S Challenger- first ship dedicated to global ocean research b. Earliest known sea voyage: Egypt, 2750 BC i. Exploration of Southern Arabian Peninsula + Red Sea c. Pacific Islanders crossed Pacific starting 2500 BC (4,500 years ago) i. Colonized Hawaii by ~500 BC (2,500 years ago) ii. Colonized New Zealand (Aotearoa) by ~700 AD iii. Colonized Easter Island (Rapa Nui) by ~700 AD iv. Polynesian culture developed w/ boat design, navigation and seamanship at its center v. Navigation relied heavily on celestial observations  Made careful records of star patterns  Drew first compass rose  Developed system of mapping relative positions of islands vi. Relied on sea itself  Followed migration patterns of whales, sea turtles, and sea birds  Studied wind + weather patterns (cloud formations) B. Mediterranean Sea a. Arab traders explored Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean from ~1500 BC i. Trading “cartel” that continued for 3000 years b. Phoenicians: 1200-146 BC i. Great sailors and navigators across Mediterranean ii. Explored Atlantic Coast of Europe and Africa iii. Circumnavigated Africa in 590 BC c. Greeks: first “organized” ocean science i. Eratosthenes calculated circumference of Earth in 240 BC  7⁰ change in angle across known distance ii. 300 years later, Ptolemy: astronomer + cartographer (map-maker)  Developed global grid system of latitude + longitude  Produced “Geographica” the first Wthld Atlas  Translated and reproduced in 15 century and used by Columbus, etc. d. Middle Ages: Vikings as master seamen in 1000 AD i. Reached Newfoundland (Canada) 500 years before Columbus ii. Advances in technology:  Compass (from 1200s)  Quadrant (from 1400s)  Octants: refinement of quadrant  Sextant: further refinement  Measured angle from horizon to sun, moon or stars  Allowed estimation of latitude (distance from equator)  Did not allow longitude  Chronometer (clock that worked at sea; determined longitude)  In 1714, British parliament offered reward of 20,000£ ($4M today) for clock  Success came in 1761, 47 years later e. Benjamin Franklin mapped North Atlantic currents, esp. Gulf Stream, 1769 f. Charles Darwin sailed as doctor + naturalist aboard the Beagle, 1831 g. Challenger Expedition: 1872-1876 i. First global scientific voyage to carry specialized scientific equipment + on board labs ii. Developed ocean bathymetry (depth), marine biology, marine geology (seafloor rocks, sediments, fossils), physical oceanography, chemical oceanography iii. “Challenger Reports” published 20 years after th C. 20 century, Global Ocean Studies a. Harry Hess i. Geophysics + remote sensing ii. Bathymetry profiles by sonar soundings iii. Discovery of Mid-Ocean Ridges b. Deep Sea Drilling Project: 1968-1983 i. Glomar Challenger c. Ocean Drilling Program: 1985-2004


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