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Bio Week 10 Notes

by: Sierra Taylor

Bio Week 10 Notes Bio 111

Sierra Taylor
Cal Poly

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About this Document

These notes are the Monday lecture and workshop notes. Wednesday's optional review notes will be included in the final exam study guide that will be posted within a few days.
General Biology
Eric Noel
Class Notes
Biology, general biology, BIO111
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Taylor on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Eric Noel in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
3/7: Last day of lecture, Wednesday is review, no lecture on Friday iClicker: An ecosystem consists of all the living and non­living things functioning together in an area. Latitudinal banding of tropics, deserts, temperate and polar climates is best explained by  atmospheric circulation patterns because it moves air around to become cooler/warmer. A rain shadow describes the lower average rainfall that occurs on the backside of mountains. (15.5) Global Patterns of Ocean Circulations ­ due to combination of wind, Earth’s rotation, gravitational pull of the moon, temperature, and  salt concentration ­ North Hemisphere’s circle is clockwise, South Hemisphere circle is counter­clockwise ­ beaches on the East coast of U.S. have warmer water than west coast at the same latitude  because of where warm/cool water is held during the circulation ex. Gulf Stream El Nino: occurs every 2­9 years, drastic climate change blamed for flooding, droughts, famine  and other extreme disruptions Usual Conditions: ­ huge gust of wind from South Asia to Australia ­ cooler water pushed west  ­ heats up Australia and South East Asia ­ energy cools in the air and rains ­ increased tide level ­ cold waters replenish from the Earth, rich in nutrients  El Nino: ­ usual wind gust eases ­ less warm water displaced and retained East, cools down and rains in the East ­ tides become different ­ no water being replaced in the West, causing extra warm water and no new nutrients  feeding the marine environment (15.6) Energy flows from producers to consumers ­ transitioning photons to chemical energy Sun  1. Producers: plants convert photons using photosynthesis, ex. plants, algae 2. Primary Consumers: herbivores eat plants, ex. rodents, termites, dairy cows 3. Secondary Consumers: carnivores eat herbivores, ex. snakes, cats, tarantulas 4. Tertiary Consumers: top carnivores eat other carnivores, ex. hawks, tigers, sharks,  humans Food chain: pathway from photosynthesis producers through various levels of animals Food web: involves harvesting energy from multiple stops in the food chain ex. Campbell’s Chicken and Rice: eating both animals and plants Secular diet: 30% animal, 70% plant Regulators of Decomposition Detritivores and decomposers. ex. mold decomposing oranges, dung beetle (detritivore) feeds off decomposing matter Purpose of breaking down organic wastes so then can be recycled throughout the food chain. (15.7) Energy Pyramids, 10% Efficiency Rule 10% of the biomass (total weight of living organisms) of plants is converted into herbivore  biomass. ex. herbivores eat 5 pounds of plant, gains 0.5 pounds of weight The rest goes and is expended in cellular respiration or lost as feces. ­ humans can only process 30% of protein ex. 12,000 pound of grain needed for a 1,200 pound cow, human eats entire cow and gains 120  pounds, dinosaur eats human and gains 12 pounds ­ 90% is lost throughout the chain ­ this is an example of an energy pyramid There is always less energy available at higher trophic levels than at lower trophic levels. 3 Models of Energy Pyramids Large­Base: supports large consumers ex. rainforests, marshes, algal beds Small­Base: reduced ability to support consumers, ex. deserts, tundra, open oceans Inverted (Rare): small biomass of producers, large consumers, ex. aquatic ecosystems where  plankton are producers Workshop Notes List three types of life history trade­offs and provide examples: 1 High reproduction, low survival: salmon, die after reproducing 2 High reproduction, low growth: beech trees, grow slowly when reproducing 3 Number and Size of Offspring: few larger eggs vs. many small eggs Life histories include age at first reproduction, litter size and frequency, longevity, and  probabilities of survival and reproduction at each age. Three areas an organism can allocate its resources are growth, reproduction, and survival. Biome: large ecosystems that occur around the world and are determined by temperature and  rainfall. How does the angle of sunlight hit the Earth affect weather? Hits straight at the equator so warm temperatures occur, heat rises and it warms and then  becomes cooler towards the poles. Why are Earth’s poles very dry? Temperature gradient generates atmosphereic circulation patterns that result in heavy rain and the equator and deserts at 30 degrees latitude. What is a rain shadow and how is it formed? A rain shadow describes the lower average rainfall that occurs on the backside of the  mountains; wind blows from ocean to land and rises when hitting the mountains, the  rising air cools and can’t hold the moisture so clouds form and it rains, the air passes over the mountains and falls, leading to the warmer air. Urban areas are warmer than rural areas. Streets in large cities are windy because the tall  buildings are essentially redirecting the wind through the tightly packed city, causing it to  increase speed and funnel. During el Nino years South Am to SE Asia winds ease up, how does this affect plankton  populations, and rain in the west? LOOK AT NOTES FROM LECTURE, HERS ARE CONFUSING During each energy conversion in a food web, some energy is lost as heat. The 10% rule is that with each step of trophic level will only consume 10% of energy grom the  previous trophic level and 90% of it will be lost. Where does the biomass that is not passed down the energy pyramid to the next trophic level go? Back into the atmosphere for cellular respiration and into feces.


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