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Communication 201

by: Edwin Mauricio Parrillas Alfaro

Communication 201 COMM 303

Edwin Mauricio Parrillas Alfaro
U of L

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Communication Technology
Stuart Esrock
Class Notes
Communications, intro
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Edwin Mauricio Parrillas Alfaro on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 303 at University of Louisville taught by Stuart Esrock in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Communication Technology in Communication Studies at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Communications 201 08/24/2015 Communication is 55% nonverbal, 38% tone of voice, + 7% = 100% meaning Come to class everyday for the attendance points, they are random dates 7 components of human communication  Message creation o Encoding & decoding o Symbolic  Meaning creation o Content & relationship  Setting  Participants  Channels  Noise  Feedback  True or False Communication is complex Answer True 1.1 The Importance of Studying Human Communication How does the study of human communication differ from other studies of humans? Why does anyone need to study communication? Critical Thinking : A Key to Successful Communication Ex: Partner not texting you back o 1. Identify the assertion or action o 2. Ask, “what is the evidence for/against…? o 3.Ask, “…evidence point to?” o 4. Ask, “what other explanations or conclusions are possible?” o 5. Keep an open mind for new evidence/evaluating  Advantages of Studying Human Communication  Meeting people  Developing relationships  Terminating relationships  Establishing who you are to others  Transforming your life  Providing a new career path 1.2 Communication is a transactional process in which people generate meaning through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages in specific contexts, influenced by individual and societal forces and embedded in culture. 1.3 Linear Model means that the sender is the only one that is sending and the receiver is not responding Communication is transactional both the sender and receiver are sending a message at the same time and the meaning gets generated The synergetic model means that there are multiple messages being sent at the same time. Its not directly a part of the conversation. It contains everything like the culture, societal forces, and individual forces. ****communication occurs when two or more people create meaning as they respond to each other and their environment Individual and societal forces Communication is influenced by individual forces  Demographics  Personality  Cognitive ability  Physical ability  Field of experience  Being gay is both an individual and cultural factor ▯ Communication is influenced by culture  Culture changes over time  Members of cultural groups do not all think and behave alike  Participants bring their beliefs, values, norms, and attitudes to each interaction ▯ Communication is influenced by context  Setting or aspects of the physical environment  Who is present  The specific occasion ▯ Defining your communication ethic  Truthfulness o Others expect messages to be truthful o Messages have consequences  Sharing  Create an ethical stance based on your beliefs, values and moral training  Where would you place yourself on this ethics continuum o Absolutism <--- relativism Strengths and Limitations  Communication is unpredictable  Predictions The interpretive approach #2  Ethical issues o Strive for equality and reciprocity o Member checking used to verify findings  Assumptions o Understand societal forces in communication o Role of power and hierarchy o Use of cultural studies o Belief that reality is subjective o ▯ Contemporary approaches to studying human communication ▯ Paradigms, theories, and methods ▯ Paradigms (belief systems) ▯ Theory (explain a phenomenon)  Sometimes lead to a hypothesis ▯ Methods (collection and analysis of data) ▯ The Social Science Approach ▯ #1  Focused on the individual or the dyad  Assumptions o Social science researchers were oriented to behaviorism  Theories and methods o Focus on causality o Lab or naturalistic settings o Quantitative methods to collect data (collect information) o Conflict partners  Demand-withdrawal  Attachment ▯ #2  ▯ Carson is a whore /CHAPTER 2 ▯ 2.5 A Multifaceted Approach  three perspectives on communication o #1 Social Science Approach – focus on individual or dyad (2people) behaviors o #2 interpretive approach – focus on the individual rhetoric creativity of human behavior o #3 critical approach – societal influence with individuals. ▯ CHAPTER 3 ▯ 3.1 The importance of Identity  identify influences communication during interactions  interactions shape the identities of participants o in the united states, we are focused on our identity and how we look. We want to be seen  identity is prominent in intercultural communication  the u.s. is an identity based climate  individual and societal forces converge in identity and meaning creation 3.2 What is identity?  Identity made up of individual and social categories  It is both fixed and dynamic  It is created through interactions with others  It is tied to historical, social, and cultural environments ▯ 3.3 the individual and identity  identity development through communication o reflected appraisals (looking-glass self)  particular others  generalized other  childrens sel images are affected by their teachers’ reflected appraisals. We compare ourselves with other in our reference group and decide based on that  social comparisons o evaluating ourselves compared to others  self-fulfilling prophecy o explicit communication about expectations o stereotype threat  Richard bach , Illusions – “set your limitations and they are yours” o Communication plays an important role in how we develop our self-concept o We show the world who we think we are through the performance of identity – in this case, identify as Green Bay Packers fans.  Self concept o Ones understanding of self based on interactions with others  Self esteem  Self respect  Performance of Individual Identity o Self presentation o Enacting identities  Performing scripts of an identity o Role expectations  Expectations pared with social roles o Mutable  Identities subject to change 3.4 The Individual, Identity, and Society  Identify examples of racial, national  National Identity o Refers to ones citizenship o o Ethnic Identity  Based on social groups  Shared religious beliefs language  Does not require national government revognition  A racial group may contain a number  ▯ Chapter 4  4.1 The Importance of Perception o explain why understanding perception is important o our perceptions largely determines our understanding and our actions o identities are influenced by and also influence  HIT THE JUAN  Perception is the process of selection, organization, and interpretation o We collect and understand information through our senses o Selection  Conscious or unconscious stimuli  Selective attention allows us to narrowly focus on stimuli  We select stimuli based on  Aspects of our identity  Features of another person or object  Our own goals  What is perception? o Organization Cognivitive representation  Mental model o Cognitive maps consist of general outlines and are not fixed o Communication behavior influenced by prototypes o Interpersonal scripts keep us from making too many social mistakes o Interpretation o Attribution o Many factors influence how we interpret and respond to sensory information o Physical differences o Personality and individual characteristics  Emotional state  Ones outlook on life  Knowledge (what you know of an event)  What are the three body types? o Mesomorph o Endomorph o Ectomorph  Cognitive complexity o Levels of details and numbers of our constructs o More constructs for things that interest us o Constructs develop with age o Interpersonal constructs o o o Christen McAllister  Gorgeous  Funny  Weird  Famous  Dumb  Silly  Goofy  Confusing  Self-independent  Constructive  Caring  Singer  Model  Body  Exercise  Spanish  Instagram  Blonde ▯ 5.2 What is verbal communication? Functions and compliments  7 functions of Language o instrumental in helping obtain what we need or desire o regulatory in helping control the behavior of others o functions to inform when used to report facts o heuristic when used to acquire knowledge o interactional in establishing and defining social relationships o personal language expresses individuality and personality o used imaginatively to express creativity ▯ today is the October 2nd  5.2 What is verbal communication? Functions and components o components of language o every language has its own rules of grammar language based on 4 components  phonology  syntax  semantics pragmatics o components of language  #3 semantics  examples  denotative (literal meanings of words )  connotative meanings (interpretive meanings of words)  #4 pragmatic  speech act theory suggests that people create actions through their use of words  requires cultural and contextual knowledge  may be indirect or direct  conversational rules (like turn taking)  contextual rules define the pragmatics appropriate for the communication define the pragmatics appropriate for the communication situation and vary be culture when identifies influence several aspects of language, speakers have a distinct dialect dialect is variation of language distinguished by lexical choice(vocabulary), grammar, and pronunciation. Regionality  language use changes by geographical location  Langugae and Peception o Nominalists claim any idea can be expressed in any language and that it does not influence perceptions o Relativists – argue that language shapes ideas as wella s gives voice to ideas  The spair whorf hypothesis claims language actually determines the way people see the world (Relativists) o  language and power  co cultural theory shows how language and power are intertwined  hierarchies privilege certain groups  privileged groups set the norms  languages maintains and reinforces power  society tends to value a more female communication style  dominant language structures impede progress for less dominant groups  nonverbal communication  express and interpret verbal aspect of communication  don’t always have information to interpret nonverbal behavior  nonverbal cues are continuous  nonverbal cues are mulitchanneled  can affect public policy decisions  Nonverbal actions transmitted that are not words  Nonverbal behavior that has symbolic meaning and is intentional  Actions without intention  Bodily out put such as coughing or yawning  ▯ Public policy seeks to regulate nonverbal expression, such as what type of clothing they wear  Cultural groups assign different meaning  The relationship with two people  Our understanding is influenced by how well we know the person  We interpret nonverbal behavior based on sex and expectations of men and women  The university of texas has a sign for their school where in Norway it is a sign of Satan  Nonverbal Codes Distinct organized means of expression consisting of symbols and rules Do not occur in isolation  Five types of nonverbal codes  Kinesics  Paralinguistics  Time and space  Haptics  Appearance and artifacts  Kinesics  the body  gestures  illustrators (clarify messages)  emblems(stand in for messages)  adaptors (manage nerves and emotions)  regulators (control conversation)  immediacy  relaxation(the degree of tension we experience)  the face  primary channel for transmitting emotion  eye behavior important for communication  Paralinguistics  Vocal aspects of nonverbal communication  Rate  Volume  Pitch  Stress  Vocal qualities  Vocalizations  Time and Space  Chronemics  Cultures value time in different ways  Timing and spacing of events carry specific meaning  Monochronically (one task at a time)  Polychronically  ▯ 7.1 The Importance of Listening ▯ identify five reasons why listening is important ▯ Benefits of Listening  1. Improved cognition  2. Enhanced academic performance  3. Enhanced personal relationships  4. Enhanced professional performance  5. Improved Health ▯ The Process of Decoding  Hearing occurs when you pick up sound waves  Interpret the message of the sound to understand meaning  Evaluate your reaction  Respond by showing how you regard the message ▯ Influences on Listening  Listening styles represent how people prefer to take in information – which do you prefer? o Action oriented/informational listening o Contact/oriented/critical listening o People-oriented/supportive listening o Time-oriented/ineffective listening ▯ 8.3 intercultural communication and the individual: border dwellers  intercultural communication on the borders o many people live in multicultural environments ▯ Chapter 9 Relationships  Close relationships and the Individual o Theories of Relationship Development o Both theories based on how “rewarding” relationships are o 4. Social Exchange Theory o social exchange: people try to maximize rewards and minimize cost of friendships o and romantic relationships o 5 Equity theory o Equity: people  Initiating romantic relationships more expected from men ▯ 6 social penetration theory  relationships develop through increases in self-disclosure:  breadth and depth of communication  ▯ Chapter 11 ▯ Groups  WHEN I WAS IN SIGEP LOL  SUPERVISOR – SUBORDINATE COMMUNICATION  One person has formal authority to regulate behavior of another o Subordinates want to please supervisors ▯ 14.1 The Importance of Interactive 


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