Popular in Biology of the cell
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheryl bruce on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 112 at Indiana University taught by Megan Dunn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology of the cell in Biology at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
Biology Exam 2 notes Prokaryote and Eukaryote cells Structures in Common: 1. A Plasma membrane that encloses the cytosol 2. Chromosomes 3. Ribosomes: a complex of RNA and protein molecules that functions as the site of protein synthesis. Key differences: Eukaryotic cells have a membrane bound nucleus, and numerous membrane bound organelles suspended in cytosol (the semifluid portion of the cytoplasm) Cytoplasm: Region of the cell between the plasma membrane and nucleus What is the purpose of membrane compartmentalization in eukaryotic cells? Provides local environments for specific metabolic functions Several metabolic enzymes are embedded in these membranes Nucleus: contains genetic information Nuclear Envelope: Double membrane contains pores Nuclear Lamina: Surrounds inner layer of the nuclear membrane Nucleolus: dense structure synthesizes proteins which combines with to make ribosomal subunits Chromosomes: the structures that carry - Chromosomes consist of chromatin: A complex of one long DNA molecule (blue) associated with many proteins (purple) - Most of the time chromosomes are in a disperse form as long thin fibers - Visible as individual chromosomes only when condensed in dividing cells Ribosomes: complexes of proteins that function to carry out protein synthesis within the cytoplasm - Assembled in nucleus - Transported to cytoplasm through nuclear pores - Free Ribosomes: are located in the and function to synthesize proteins that are used within the cytosol - Bound ribosomes: are attached to function to synthesize proteins that are found within membranes packaged into organelles, or exported from the cell Endomembrane system: regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell In Animal Cells: 1. Nucleus 2. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 3. Golgi apparatus 4. Lysosome 5. Plasma membrane These different structures are either connected directly or connected via tiny membrane vesicles Note: each membrane is unique in structure and function, and the content and function of a given membrane will change several times during its life The endomembrane system carries out many tasks within the cell including: - Synthesis of proteins and transport of proteins into membranes, organelles, or out of the cell - Synthesis, metabolism, and movement of lipids - Detoxification of poisons Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): -no ribosomes, smooth and rough ER -ER consists of a network of interconnected tubules or compartments called Cisternae Area inside a cisterna is referred to as the lumen (cysternal space) The lumen of a cisterna has a different environment than the cytosol Rough ER (RER): has ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic side of cisternae Functions: 1. Synthesis of proteins 2. Glycosylation of proteins (addition of carbohydrates) 3. Synthesis and assembly of phospholipids and proteins into ER membranes as they grow Smooth ER (SER): lack ribosomes Diverse functions that vary with cell type Many different types of enzymes are attached to the membrane of the SER These enzymes are involved in: 1. Synthesis of lipids (oils, new membrane phospholipids, and steroids) 2. 3. Detoxification of drugs, poisons, alcohol, etc. the SER also stores Ca2+ within the lumen The release of Ca2+ from the lumen to the cytosol is necessary for: 1. Muscle contraction 2. Secretion of vesicles carrying proteins from cells Golgi Apparatus: shipping and receiving center of a cell Cis face of Golgi: where transport vesicles that bud from the ER join the Golgi apparatus Cisternae: where carbohydrates on glycoproteins are modified/ where membrane proteins are altered Trans face of Golgi: where transport proteins bud off from the Golgi Lysosomes: digestive compartments within the cell (hydrolyze carbohydrates, proteins, fats and nucleic acids) Membrane-enclosed sacs containing over 50 digestive enzymes Internal acidic environment (pH ~5) Example: Autophagy (cells eating the damaged ones) If you break open a single lysosome cell, not a lot will happen but might digest some macromolecules of the cell Lysosomes fuse with outer membrane and releases enzymes that digest
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