Chapter8.pdf CCJ 415 - 001
Popular in Prevention: Crime & Delnqncy
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hertis Mcclanahan on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 415 - 001 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Cindy L. Hart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Prevention: Crime & Delnqncy in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
Chapter 8: Developmental Crime Prevention Introduction o Developmental crime prevention targets the potential of individuals to become criminal o Basic assumption is that criminal and deviant activity is the result of early life experiences and learning o Focus is not very different from core criminological theories about crime and deviance Emphasis on what causes individuals to commit deviant acts and what can be done about that activity Point of divergence is the focus on trying to address the causes early in the process Background o Foundation in the basic ideas of learning theory Crime results from the behavior, beliefs, and attitudes that are learned, primarily, but not exclusively, as youth’s o Elaboration model Key factor in developmental approach Attempts to take components of various theories and build a single explanation that incorporates the best parts of the individual theories o Tremblay and Craig (1997) offer three theoretical models Simplest model is a linear explanation such as Gottfredson and Hirschi’s (1990) general theory of crime Assumes that failures in early child reaing by parents lead to low self-control by the individual and a much greater chance that crime and deviance will be expressed Second model assumes multiple possible pathways to adult offending Different pathways recognize that youthful misbehavior can take different forms, emerge at different times, and progress into different types of adult offending Final model includes elements of strain theories (poverty), biological problems, poor parenting, cognitive deficits, and other factors, all interacting with each other Risk Factors and Developmental Prevention o Very broad spectrum of variables and issues that could be addressed o Not feasible to try and address every possible factor o Reasonable approach is to identify and intervene in those factors that are most likely to influence an individual’s choices and behaviors o List of potential risk factors that have been identified for later criminality is extensive and can be grouped into different categories o Individual Risk Factors Low intelligence and attainment Low empathy Impulsiveness Poor social cognitive skills o Family Risk Factors Family Criminally Large family size Poor parental supervision Harsh punishment Poor/cold familial attachment Child abuse and neglect Broken home o Not all variables or factors that are related to criminality should be considered risk factors Many factors strongly correlated with crime ( such as age, sex, and race) cannot be changed by a prevention program Important to recognize the distinction between a simple correlate and a causal factor o Developmental prevention programs often address crime and delinquency indirectly Look for changes in risk factors and in intermediate outcomes that appear between the risk factor and later behavior Skills Training o Seek to teach children how to recognize problem situations and react in an appropriate manner o Teach self-control, anger management, how to recognize your feelings and emotions, building a positive self-image, identifying the needs and concerns of others, and how to solve problems o Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies ( PATHS) Taught in regular classrooms A five-year curriculum offered in elementary schools intended to reduce both behavioral and emotional problems, while building self-control and problem solving abilities Evaluations reveal improved problem- solving ability, reduced hyperactivity, increased planning activity, reduced self- reported conduct problems, less peer aggression, and reduced teacher reports of conduct problems o Parent Training Programs range from those targeting expectant mothers to those working with families of young children to those addressing families with school- age children o Elmira Prenatal/Early Infancy program Targets the earliest stage of the child’s development, specifically when the child is still in the womb Centerpiece of the program is home visitation by nurses beginning during pregnancy and lasting through the child’s second birthday Targets subjects are young, poor, first-time and often unmarried mothers Focus on three areas: Health and health-related activities of the mother and child Learning how to provide appropriate care to the child Social and personal skills development for the mother Evaluation of the program Maternal abuse and neglect were significantly reduced In a 15- year follow up, the children reported significantly less running away, arrests, and substance abuse Fewer arrests of the program mothers o Syracuse Family Development Research project Targeted pregnant, young, single, African-American mothers and worked with the families from birth to age eight Included home visitation by child development trainers, parent training in health, nutrition, and child rearing, and individualized day care for the children Children from the project have done better academically, demonstrate better self-control, and have fewer arrests than control youths o Incredible Years program Identified families for intervention that had youths displaying early conduct problems from age 4 to 8 Parents receive training in parenting skills, how to recognize and address child problem behaviors, and how to set rules and use incentives Child component focuses on helping them recognize emotions, how to deal with anger, appropriate responses to problem situations, and educational skills Teacher training element deals with classroom management, providing skills to youths, handling problem youths and behaviors, and disciplinary practices Evaluations reveal consistent positive results Parents display more positive parenting skills and less coercive and punitive punishments Children display fewer anti-social behaviors, better interpersonal skills, and better preparation for school Preschool Programs o Considered as a means of establishing a level of competence that avoids early placement into differential ability tract building a positive attitude toward school providing basic social skills to youths who are not prepared to enter school o Best-Known preschool program is Head Start Proposes that disadvantaged youths are not prepared to enter school without some form of early intervention targeted at social and intellectual skills Typically not well-implemented, and any gains made in the program fade over a year or two o Perry Preschool program Provide students with a positive introduction to education Involve children in the planning of activities A low child-teaching ratio Enhanced reinforcement of the students achievement Frequent home visits with parents Study subjects are from low-income black families, typified by low parental education, unemployment, and single-parent households Significantly increase measures of academic performance, reduces the need for special education and remedial work, prompts more positive attitudes toward school, enhances the high school graduation rate, and results in lower unemployment after graduation from high school Fewer experimental students are arrested as either adults or juveniles than are control students Results through age 27 reveal that about one-half as many program participants are arrested compared to control group subjects Multi-Component Programs o Often begin by targeting youths who have already displayed antisocial behavior and/or delinquency o Recognition of a need to address the causal factors leading to the deviant behavior and keep the youths from developing more problematic activities o Target youths as early as possible o Utilize a range of interventions rather than only one or two approaches o Seattle Social Development Project Primary setting for the program is classrooms, with strong home/family component Teacher component involves training in appropriate classroom management techniques, establishment of rules and consequences, teaching positive social skills, and motivating students Parents trained to recognize problematic behaviors, reward positive behavior, promote academic success, and build a strong family bond to help avoid anti-social activities Children learn to recognize and cope with peer pressure, build communication skills, appropriately respond to aggression by others, and avoid problematic situations and people Results have been overwhelmingly positive Youths who completed the program were more successful in school, had a higher graduation rate, committed fewer delinquent and criminal offenses, and had a lower levels of substance abuse Less sexually promiscuous and the females had a lower incidence of teenage pregnancy o Communities That Care Unique in that there is no single intervention or set of programs for addressing problems Requires communities to undertake an analysis of the problems it is facing, identify the risk factors that are at work, and build an intervention that is tailored to the unique situation and needs of the community Complicated task that requires the involvement of many individuals Developing interventions has multiple stages Looks to address multiple groups of risk factors, beyond those in just the family or individual Long term endeavor Changes in community level risk factors will take anywhere from two to five years to emerge, and community level changes in delinquency and substance abuse may take up to five to ten years to appear Promising results Significantly reduces risk factors Lower delinquency and substance use among students Developmental Concerns o Many of the risk factors, such as sex and race, are really not amenable to change o Require interventions where it may not be feasible to change, especially in any reasonable period of time o Concern with identifying risk factors that need to be addressed and which are of secondary concern o Does not always fit into primary prevention Targeting an entire classroom or community does Addressing only individuals or situations that are at high risk is secondary prevention Intervention with individuals who have broken the law and targeting reoffending is tertiary o Need a relatively long time to have an impact o Require a great deal of funding, which is often hard to sustain o Problem gaining the support of key participants for a lengthy intervention o Many individuals and groups (particularly funding agencies and politicians) ask for results in the short term (if not immediately) that are simply not possibly when making basic changes under the developmental model
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