Module 9 Notes
Module 9 Notes SPED 7007
Popular in Positive Behavior
Popular in Special Education
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.
Reviews for Module 9 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/09/16
Module 9 Notes Using Consequences to Encourage Student Behavior in the Classroom Written by Krista Anstead March 2016 Learning Outcomes • Positive Reinforcement • Negative Reinforcement • Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior o Attention as a Reinforcers • Activity Reinforcers • Tangible Reinforcers • Whole-‐Class Formal Acknowledgment Systems o The Good Behavior Game Readings/References Scott, T., & Anderson, C. (2012). Using consequences to encourage student behavior in the classroom. In Managing Classroom Behavior Using Positive Behavior Supports. Boston: Pearson. Chapter 9 Notes Introduction • School implemented “gotcha bucks” for displaying prosocial behavior in common areas o Gotcha bucks enable S to purchase various incentives from the school store, and all purchased tickets are entered into a daily, weekly, monthly, and semester-‐ long drawings for larger incentives • Giving attention only to what S should not do, T lose opportunities to teach and reinforce S • Reinforcement procedures continue to be one of the most misunderstood and often underutilized elements in the classroom for effective behavior management and academic instruction • Frequency types of reinforcement o Dense schedule of reinforcement: frequent use o Thin schedule of reinforcement: infrequent use Debunking teachers Objections to reinforcement • Reinforcement is bribery, and bribery is just wrong o Bribery: inducement to behave illegally or dishonestly; dishonestly persuading someone by paying them or providing an incentive before the behavior occurs o Reinforcement: a consequence delivered after a response that results in an increase in the future probability of that response § We reinforce a behavior when we give or take away things in the environment that make someone more likely to do that behavior in the future o Rewards: objects given to or actions done for an individual after a certain behavior is demonstrated; they do not have to determine future occurrences of behavior • We should not have to reinforce S for doing the right thing, they should just do it o We should implement an intervention to help S learn to do the right thing o Our goal is to help S become better citizens of their school, community, and world by doing the right thing just because it is the right thing to do o Instilling this motivation requires the use of external consequences or reinforcers § Over time, we often decrease the use of these external consequences when private feelings start to become more powerful • If we reinforce S, we take away their intrinsic motivation o Decades of research shows that reinforcement is effective not just for an increasing behavior but for maintaining it over time • S who misbehave at school come from bad homes and we can’t change that o Consequences are more effective when delivered immediately after a behavior o When S come to school lacking key skills, our responsibility as educators is to help them learn these key behaviors • I don’t have time to implement a new system Rules of reinforcement • S will find ways to access reinforcement, and it is up to T to modify the environment so as to provide reinforcement for desired behaviors rather than undesired behaviors • We should use little reinforcement, in terms of time, energy, or money, as necessary to increase the probability that the behavior will occur again Positive reinforcement • Ultimate objective is to have the environment naturally reinforce appropriate behaviors, without artificial or teacher-‐distributed reinforcers • Fading: All reinforcers should be gradually removed to allow the response to occur independent of the presentation of reinforcers • The more naturalistic and authentic a reinforcer is across various settings, the better • T should rely on reinforcers that are closely approximated in other settings Negative reinforcement • Classroom systems that use negative reinforcement involve the removal of some desired items or privileges • Potential problem: because T are required to focus on problematic behavior, they may be less likely to notice and reinforce desired behavior • T who use a negative reinforcement system should combine it with a system of positive reinforcement Types of reinforcers • Attention as a reinforcer o Can be T and S attention o Examples: Getting noticed, receiving praise, sticky note saying “good job,” verbal reinforcement, social recognition, physical gestures, thumbs up, eye contact o Acts as a powerful reinforcer up and down the age continuum o Attention is provided inadvertently throughout a school day, for both desired and undesired behavior o Using attention strategically and deliberately is a vital tool for highly effective T who elicit high rates of prosocial behavior from their students o Effective praise: praise delivered together with the reason for acknowledgement, contingent on appropriate behavior § More than just saying good job § Verbal or written statement § Advantages: • Highly efficient in terms of T time and energy • Occurs natural in environment • Builds a positive relationship and establishes rapport between T and S • Acts as a signal to other S that praise is available • Should occur in 4:1 ratio with redirection and punishment statements • Can be combined with other categories § Steps: • State S name, behavior, and acknowledgement in close proximity to S when response occurs • Be sincere and credible by matching facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language to the statement • Gradually reduce praise as skill is mastered • Activity reinforcers o Computer games, extra recess time, free time, classroom jobs o Advantages: § Relatively inexpensive § Helpful in developing rapport and establishing positive classroom environment § Useful for teaching social skills § Easy to manipulate § Does not require lots of money o Disadvantages: § Time intrusive § Difficult to allow S to participate in noninstructive activities § T may view fun activities as antecedents to challenging behavior (post-‐ reinforcement pause) § Require T energy and attention § Cannot always be used immediately after S demonstrates behavior • Tangible reinforcers o Most powerful type of reinforcer o Presentation of an object, contingent on a specific behavior, that increases future occurrences of that behavior o Demand more time, energy, and resources o Food as a reinforcer is easily satiated o Good, tangible resources: § School supplies § Art materials § Imaginative play toys • These can be combined in numerous ways to powerfully affect behavior • Effective T typically use more than one acknowledgement system and vary the use of the three reinforcers that can be provided Whole-‐class acknowledgement systems • Simplest type of acknowledgement system • Considerations o Determine what you want S to do o Make sure behavior is easily recognized o Make sure you are willing and able to deliver an incentive every time behavior occurs o Determine what you will use as reinforcer o Consider how often reinforcer should be delivered • Token economy: gradually working towards earning a reinforcer • S are good at suggesting feasible activities they would like • Reinforcement should be delivered in least amount necessary to change behavior • Most useful when S can work together to help others do the right thing • Good behavior game o Increases desired prosocial behaviors and decreases challenging behaviors o Useful for discrete instances of behavior o Difficult to implement for behaviors that occur multiple times during class o Precorrection may remind S of expected behaviors before the problematic context o Remember that small number of S can impact the entire group o Couple S who are having more difficulty with positive role models who will encourage desired behaviors Mindfulness Screencast Notes • Meditation practice by Buddhists that helps people become clam and quiet • Self-‐compassion: helps reduce anxiety and depression • New concept in personality psychology in the last 10 years • Self-‐compassion: Open to and moved by one’s own suffering, experiencing feelings of caring and kindness towards oneself, taking an understanding, nonjudgmental attitude toward one’s inadequacies and failures, and recognizing that one’s experience is part of the common human experience • Working with SWD can be daunting and seem like we aren’t making progress; if we have Using supportive thoughts and self-‐compassion will help build up our health status and well-‐being • Self-‐criticism: repetitive form of thinking in which an individual repeatedly ponders the possible causes, meanings, and implications of sadness or depressed feelings; aka ruts • Scale for evaluating self-‐criticism shows that higher scores indicate higher levels of self-‐ criticism • Self-‐kindness • Self-‐judgment and isolation should be avoided as much as possible; ask for help! • Assert that we have common humanity • Mindfulness • Over-‐identification: fixating on everything that is going wrong Tools of the Week Screencast Notes • Remember that transition planning is an important step in a student’s life • UC Transition and Access Program o 4-‐year course in postsecondary training and learning o jobs and job training: job coach and a part-‐time job o home living: living on campus o community participation o recreation and leisure skills Classroom organization and behavior management innovation and configuration Screencast Notes • A examples of the ABC o antecedent interventions: structured environment, active supervision, school-‐ wide behavioral expectations, classroom rules and routines o these all happen before the behavior • C example of the ABC o encouragement of appropriate behavior, behavior reduction strategies o happens after the behavior FBA Assignment Screencast Notes • due the last week of class or the following week, whatever works for you • Haydon, Mancil, & Van Loan 2009 document in course documents • Data should look something similar to data in article • Can reinsert another phase of intervention to make ABAB design if you want and have time • FBA assignment should compare baseline data • A phase: business as usual, how does student respond to behavior? • Graphs could contain two variables: i.e. disruptions and correct responses per minute • On-‐task behavior is done by percentage • motivAIDer app: sets vibrations to cue you to see if S is on task • expect to have a screencast as part of final assignment to describe what happened in class based on data; shouldn’t be longer than 10 minutes o describe behavior, hypothesis, intervention, ABC analysis Db Post Post Answers to end of Chapter Questions 1 and 2 on the Discussion Board by Friday 11:59 pm of that week AND Please comment on the Discussion Board at least one of your classmates' answers/comments. Question 1: Provide examples of the three main types of reinforcers and explain who they can increase desired behavior in the classroom. Consider the schedule of reinforcement and how the system can be used efficiently within the classroom context. Question 2: Explain how a class-‐wide system of reinforcement such as the Good Behavior Game could be implemented within a classroom you are familiar with.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'