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Module 9 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Module 9 Notes SPED 7007

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These are the notes for week 9 of our class. They cover chapter nine of our textbook as well as the four screencasts posted by the professor. The end-of-chapter questions for reflection are listed ...
Positive Behavior
Dr. Todd Haydon
Class Notes
Using Consequences to Encourage Student Behavior in the Classroom
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.

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Date Created: 03/09/16
Module  9  Notes   Using  Consequences  to  Encourage  Student  Behavior  in  the  Classroom   Written  by  Krista  Anstead   March  2016     Learning  Outcomes   •   Positive  Reinforcement   •   Negative  Reinforcement   •   Acknowledging  Appropriate  Behavior   o   Attention  as  a  Reinforcers   •   Activity  Reinforcers   •   Tangible  Reinforcers   •   Whole-­‐Class  Formal  Acknowledgment  Systems   o   The  Good  Behavior  Game     Readings/References   Scott,  T.,  &  Anderson,  C.  (2012).  Using  consequences  to  encourage  student  behavior  in  the     classroom.  In  Managing  Classroom  Behavior  Using  Positive  Behavior  Supports.  Boston:     Pearson.     Chapter  9  Notes   Introduction   •   School  implemented  “gotcha  bucks”  for  displaying  prosocial  behavior  in  common  areas   o   Gotcha  bucks  enable  S  to  purchase  various  incentives  from  the  school  store,  and   all  purchased  tickets  are  entered  into  a  daily,  weekly,  monthly,  and  semester-­‐ long  drawings  for  larger  incentives   •   Giving  attention  only  to  what  S  should  not  do,  T  lose  opportunities  to  teach  and   reinforce  S   •   Reinforcement  procedures  continue  to  be  one  of  the  most  misunderstood  and  often   underutilized  elements  in  the  classroom  for  effective  behavior  management  and   academic  instruction   •   Frequency  types  of  reinforcement   o   Dense  schedule  of  reinforcement:  frequent  use   o   Thin  schedule  of  reinforcement:  infrequent  use     Debunking  teachers  Objections  to  reinforcement   •   Reinforcement  is  bribery,  and  bribery  is  just  wrong   o   Bribery:  inducement  to  behave  illegally  or  dishonestly;  dishonestly  persuading   someone  by  paying  them  or  providing  an  incentive  before  the  behavior  occurs   o   Reinforcement:  a  consequence  delivered  after  a  response  that  results  in  an   increase  in  the  future  probability  of  that  response   §   We  reinforce  a  behavior  when  we  give  or  take  away  things  in  the   environment  that  make  someone  more  likely  to  do  that  behavior  in  the   future   o   Rewards:  objects  given  to  or  actions  done  for  an  individual  after  a  certain   behavior  is  demonstrated;  they  do  not  have  to  determine  future  occurrences  of   behavior     •   We  should  not  have  to  reinforce  S  for  doing  the  right  thing,  they  should  just  do  it   o   We  should  implement  an  intervention  to  help  S  learn  to  do  the  right  thing   o   Our  goal  is  to  help  S  become  better  citizens  of  their  school,  community,  and   world  by  doing  the  right  thing  just  because  it  is  the  right  thing  to  do   o   Instilling  this  motivation  requires  the  use  of  external  consequences  or  reinforcers   §   Over  time,  we  often  decrease  the  use  of  these  external  consequences   when  private  feelings  start  to  become  more  powerful   •   If  we  reinforce  S,  we  take  away  their  intrinsic  motivation   o   Decades  of  research  shows  that  reinforcement  is  effective  not  just  for  an   increasing  behavior  but  for  maintaining  it  over  time   •   S  who  misbehave  at  school  come  from  bad  homes  and  we  can’t  change  that   o   Consequences  are  more  effective  when  delivered  immediately  after  a  behavior   o   When  S  come  to  school  lacking  key  skills,  our  responsibility  as  educators  is  to   help  them  learn  these  key  behaviors   •   I  don’t  have  time  to  implement  a  new  system     Rules  of  reinforcement   •   S  will  find  ways  to  access  reinforcement,  and  it  is  up  to  T  to  modify  the  environment  so   as  to  provide  reinforcement  for  desired  behaviors  rather  than  undesired  behaviors   •   We  should  use  little  reinforcement,  in  terms  of  time,  energy,  or  money,  as  necessary  to   increase  the  probability  that  the  behavior  will  occur  again     Positive  reinforcement   •   Ultimate  objective  is  to  have  the  environment  naturally  reinforce  appropriate  behaviors,   without  artificial  or  teacher-­‐distributed  reinforcers   •   Fading:  All  reinforcers  should  be  gradually  removed  to  allow  the  response  to  occur   independent  of  the  presentation  of  reinforcers   •   The  more  naturalistic  and  authentic  a  reinforcer  is  across  various  settings,  the  better   •   T  should  rely  on  reinforcers  that  are  closely  approximated  in  other  settings     Negative  reinforcement   •   Classroom  systems  that  use  negative  reinforcement  involve  the  removal  of  some   desired  items  or  privileges   •   Potential  problem:  because  T  are  required  to  focus  on  problematic  behavior,  they  may   be  less  likely  to  notice  and  reinforce  desired  behavior   •   T  who  use  a  negative  reinforcement  system  should  combine  it  with  a  system  of  positive   reinforcement   Types  of  reinforcers   •   Attention  as  a  reinforcer   o   Can  be  T  and  S  attention   o   Examples:  Getting  noticed,  receiving  praise,  sticky  note  saying  “good  job,”  verbal   reinforcement,  social  recognition,  physical  gestures,  thumbs  up,  eye  contact   o   Acts  as  a  powerful  reinforcer  up  and  down  the  age  continuum   o   Attention  is  provided  inadvertently  throughout  a  school  day,  for  both  desired   and  undesired  behavior   o   Using  attention  strategically  and  deliberately  is  a  vital  tool  for  highly  effective  T   who  elicit  high  rates  of  prosocial  behavior  from  their  students   o   Effective  praise:  praise  delivered  together  with  the  reason  for  acknowledgement,   contingent  on  appropriate  behavior   §   More  than  just  saying  good  job   §   Verbal  or  written  statement   §   Advantages:     •   Highly  efficient  in  terms  of  T  time  and  energy   •   Occurs  natural  in  environment   •   Builds  a  positive  relationship  and  establishes  rapport  between  T   and  S   •   Acts  as  a  signal  to  other  S  that  praise  is  available   •   Should  occur  in  4:1  ratio  with  redirection  and  punishment   statements   •   Can  be  combined  with  other  categories   §   Steps:   •   State  S  name,  behavior,  and  acknowledgement  in  close  proximity   to  S  when  response  occurs   •   Be  sincere  and  credible  by  matching  facial  expressions,  tone  of   voice,  and  body  language  to  the  statement   •   Gradually  reduce  praise  as  skill  is  mastered   •   Activity  reinforcers   o   Computer  games,  extra  recess  time,  free  time,  classroom  jobs   o   Advantages:   §   Relatively  inexpensive   §   Helpful  in  developing  rapport  and  establishing  positive  classroom   environment   §   Useful  for  teaching  social  skills   §   Easy  to  manipulate   §   Does  not  require  lots  of  money   o   Disadvantages:   §   Time  intrusive   §   Difficult  to  allow  S  to  participate  in  noninstructive  activities   §   T  may  view  fun  activities  as  antecedents  to  challenging  behavior  (post-­‐ reinforcement  pause)   §   Require  T  energy  and  attention   §   Cannot  always  be  used  immediately  after  S  demonstrates  behavior   •   Tangible  reinforcers   o   Most  powerful  type  of  reinforcer   o   Presentation  of  an  object,  contingent  on  a  specific  behavior,  that  increases   future  occurrences  of  that  behavior   o   Demand  more  time,  energy,  and  resources   o   Food  as  a  reinforcer  is  easily  satiated   o   Good,  tangible  resources:   §   School  supplies   §   Art  materials   §   Imaginative  play  toys   •   These  can  be  combined  in  numerous  ways  to  powerfully  affect  behavior   •   Effective  T  typically  use  more  than  one  acknowledgement  system  and  vary  the  use  of   the  three  reinforcers  that  can  be  provided     Whole-­‐class  acknowledgement  systems   •   Simplest  type  of  acknowledgement  system   •   Considerations   o   Determine  what  you  want  S  to  do   o   Make  sure  behavior  is  easily  recognized   o   Make  sure  you  are  willing  and  able  to  deliver  an  incentive  every  time  behavior   occurs   o   Determine  what  you  will  use  as  reinforcer   o   Consider  how  often  reinforcer  should  be  delivered   •   Token  economy:  gradually  working  towards  earning  a  reinforcer   •   S  are  good  at  suggesting  feasible  activities  they  would  like   •   Reinforcement  should  be  delivered  in  least  amount  necessary  to  change  behavior   •   Most  useful  when  S  can  work  together  to  help  others  do  the  right  thing   •   Good  behavior  game   o   Increases  desired  prosocial  behaviors  and  decreases  challenging  behaviors   o   Useful  for  discrete  instances  of  behavior   o   Difficult  to  implement  for  behaviors  that  occur  multiple  times  during  class   o   Precorrection  may  remind  S  of  expected  behaviors  before  the  problematic   context   o   Remember  that  small  number  of  S  can  impact  the  entire  group   o   Couple  S  who  are  having  more  difficulty  with  positive  role  models  who  will   encourage  desired  behaviors       Mindfulness  Screencast  Notes   •   Meditation  practice  by  Buddhists  that  helps  people  become  clam  and  quiet   •   Self-­‐compassion:  helps  reduce  anxiety  and  depression   •   New  concept  in  personality  psychology  in  the  last  10  years   •   Self-­‐compassion:  Open  to  and  moved  by  one’s  own  suffering,  experiencing  feelings  of   caring  and  kindness  towards  oneself,  taking  an  understanding,  nonjudgmental  attitude   toward  one’s  inadequacies  and  failures,  and  recognizing  that  one’s  experience  is  part  of   the  common  human  experience   •   Working  with  SWD  can  be  daunting  and  seem  like  we  aren’t  making  progress;  if  we  have   Using  supportive  thoughts  and  self-­‐compassion  will  help  build  up  our  health  status  and   well-­‐being   •   Self-­‐criticism:  repetitive  form  of  thinking  in  which  an  individual  repeatedly  ponders  the   possible  causes,  meanings,  and  implications  of  sadness  or  depressed  feelings;  aka  ruts   •   Scale  for  evaluating  self-­‐criticism  shows  that  higher  scores  indicate  higher  levels  of  self-­‐ criticism   •   Self-­‐kindness   •   Self-­‐judgment  and  isolation  should  be  avoided  as  much  as  possible;  ask  for  help!   •   Assert  that  we  have  common  humanity   •   Mindfulness   •   Over-­‐identification:  fixating  on  everything  that  is  going  wrong     Tools  of  the  Week  Screencast  Notes   •   Remember  that  transition  planning  is  an  important  step  in  a  student’s  life   •    UC  Transition  and  Access  Program   o   4-­‐year  course  in  postsecondary  training  and  learning   o   jobs  and  job  training:  job  coach  and  a  part-­‐time  job   o   home  living:  living  on  campus   o   community  participation   o   recreation  and  leisure  skills     Classroom  organization  and  behavior  management  innovation  and  configuration  Screencast   Notes   •   A  examples  of  the  ABC   o   antecedent  interventions:  structured  environment,  active  supervision,  school-­‐ wide  behavioral  expectations,  classroom  rules  and  routines   o   these  all  happen  before  the  behavior   •   C  example  of  the  ABC   o   encouragement  of  appropriate  behavior,  behavior  reduction  strategies   o   happens  after  the  behavior     FBA  Assignment  Screencast  Notes   •   due  the  last  week  of  class  or  the  following  week,  whatever  works  for  you   •   Haydon,  Mancil,  &  Van  Loan  2009  document  in  course  documents   •   Data  should  look  something  similar  to  data  in  article   •   Can  reinsert  another  phase  of  intervention  to  make  ABAB  design  if  you  want  and  have   time   •   FBA  assignment  should  compare  baseline  data     •   A  phase:  business  as  usual,  how  does  student  respond  to  behavior?   •   Graphs  could  contain  two  variables:  i.e.  disruptions  and  correct  responses  per  minute   •   On-­‐task  behavior  is  done  by  percentage   •   motivAIDer  app:  sets  vibrations  to  cue  you  to  see  if  S  is  on  task   •   expect  to  have  a  screencast  as  part  of  final  assignment  to  describe  what  happened  in   class  based  on  data;  shouldn’t  be  longer  than  10  minutes   o   describe  behavior,  hypothesis,  intervention,  ABC  analysis     Db  Post   Post  Answers  to  end  of  Chapter  Questions  1  and  2  on  the  Discussion  Board  by  Friday  11:59  pm   of  that  week  AND  Please  comment  on  the  Discussion  Board  at  least  one  of  your  classmates'   answers/comments.     Question  1:  Provide  examples  of  the  three  main  types  of  reinforcers  and  explain  who  they  can   increase  desired  behavior  in  the  classroom.  Consider  the  schedule  of  reinforcement  and  how   the  system  can  be  used  efficiently  within  the  classroom  context.       Question  2:  Explain  how  a  class-­‐wide  system  of  reinforcement  such  as  the  Good  Behavior  Game   could  be  implemented  within  a  classroom  you  are  familiar  with.      


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