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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jess Graff on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 508 at University of New Hampshire taught by Mary Katherine Lockwood, PhD in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biological Sciences at University of New Hampshire.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
BMS 508.03 3/7/16 Chapter 22 (cont) Lymph and Immunity (cont) Nonspecific Diseases • 7 Major Categories of Innate (Nonspecific) Immunity 1. Physical barriers 2. Phagocytes 3. Immune surveillance 4. Interferons 5. Complement 6. Inflammatory response 7. Fever • Physical Barriers 1. Keep hazardous materials outside the body • Phagocytes 1. Attack and remove dangerous microorganisms • Immune Surveillance 1. Constantly monitors normal tissues • With natural killer cells (NK cells) • Interferons 1. Chemical messengers that trigger production of antiviral proteins in normal cells 2. Antiviral proteins • Do not kill viruses • Block replication in cell • Complement 1. System of circulating proteins 2. Assists antibodies in destruction of pathogens • Inflammatory Response 1. Localized, tissue-level response that tends to limit spread of injury or infection • Fever 1. A high body temperature • Increases body metabolism • Accelerates defenses • Inhibits some viruses and bacteria • Physical Barriers 1. Outer layer of skin 2. Hair 3. Epithelial layers of internal passageways 4. Secretions that flush away materials • Sweat glands, mucus, and urine 5. Secretions that kill or inhibit microorganisms • Enzymes, antibodies, and stomach acid • 2 Classes of Phagocytes 1. Microphages • Neutrophils and eosinophils • Leave the bloodstream • Enter peripheral tissues to fight infections 2. Macrophages • Large phagocytic cells derived from monocytes • Distributed throughout body • Make up monocyte–macrophage system (reticuloendothelial system) • Activated Macrophages 1. Respond to pathogens in several ways • Engulf pathogen and destroy it with lysosomal enzymes • Bind to pathogen so other cells can destroy it • Destroy pathogen by releasing toxic chemicals into interstitial fluid • 2 Types of Macrophages 1. Fixed macrophages • Also called histiocytes • Stay in specific tissues or organs • Example: dermis and bone marrow 2. Free macrophages • Also called wandering macrophages • Travel throughout body • Special Histiocytes 1. Microglia found in central nervous system 2. Kupffer cells found in liver sinusoids • Free Macrophages 1. Special free macrophages • Alveolar macrophages (phagocytic dust cells) • Movement and Phagocytosis 1. All macrophages: • Move through capillary walls (emigration) • Are attracted or repelled by chemicals in surrounding fluids (chemotaxis) • Phagocytosis begins: • When phagocyte attaches to target (adhesion) • Surrounds it with a vesicle • Immunological Surveillance 1. Carried out by natural killer (NK) cells 2. Activated NK Cells • Identify and attach to abnormal cell (nonselective) • Golgi apparatus in NK cell forms perforin vesicles • Vesicles release proteins called perforins (exocytosis) • Perforins lyse abnormal plasma membrane • Also attack cancer cells and cells infected with viruses • Cancer cells • With tumor-specific antigens • Identified as abnormal by NK cells • Some cancer cells avoid NK cells (immunological escape) • Viral infections • Cells infected with viruses • Present abnormal proteins on plasma membranes • Allow NK cells to identify and destroy them • Interferons • Proteins (cytokines) released by activated lymphocytes and macrophages • Cytokines • Chemical messengers released by tissue cells • To coordinate local activities • To act as hormones to affect whole body • Three Types of Interferons • Alpha-interferons • Produced by leukocytes • Stimulate NK cells • Beta-interferons • Secreted by fibroblasts • Slow inflammation • Gamma-interferons • Secreted by T cells and NK cells • Stimulate macrophage activity • Complement • Plasma contains 30 special complement (C) proteins • That form complement system and complement antibody action • Complement activation • Complements work together in cascades • 2 pathways activate the complement system • Classical pathway • Alternative pathway • Complement Activation: The Classical Pathway • Fast method C1 binds to: • Antibody molecule attached to antigen (bacterium) • Bound protein acts as enzyme • Catalyzes chain reaction • Slow method exposed to antigen • Factor P (properdin) • Factor B • Factor D • Interact in plasma • Both pathways end with: • Conversion of inactive complement protein C3 • To active form C3b • Effects of Complement Activation • Pore formation • Destruction of target plasma membranes • 5 complement proteins join to form membrane attack complex (MAC) • Enhancement of phagocytosis by opsonization • Complements working with antibodies (opsonins) • Histamine release • Increases the degree of local inflammation and blood flow • Inflammation • Also called inflammatory response • A localized response • Triggered by any stimulus that kills cells or injures tissue • Cardinal Signs and Symptoms • Swelling (tumor) • Redness (rubor) • Heat (calor) • Pain (dolor) • 3 Effects of Inflammation • Temporary repair and barrier against pathogens • Retards spread of pathogens into surrounding areas • Mobilization of local and systemic defenses • And facilitation of repairs (regeneration) • Products of Inflammation • Necrosis • Local tissue destruction in area of injury • Pus • Mixture of debris and necrotic tissue • Abscess • Pus accumulated in an enclosed space • Fever • A maintained body temperature above 37.2C (99F) • Pyrogens • Any material that causes the hypothalamus to raise body temperature • Circulating pathogens, toxins, or antibody complexes • Endogenous pyrogens or interleukin-1 (IL-1) • Pyrogen released by active macrophages • A cytokine Specific Diseases • Adaptive (Specific) Defenses • Specific resistance (immunity) • Responds to specific antigens • With coordinated action of T cells and B cells • Specific Defenses • T Cells • Provide cell-mediated immunity • Defend against abnormal cells and pathogens inside cells • B Cells • Provide antibody-mediated immunity • Defend against antigens and pathogens in body fluids • Forms of Immunity • Innate • Present at birth • Adaptive • After birth • Active • Antibodies develop after exposure to antigen • Passive • Antibodies are transferred from another source • Active Immunity • Naturally acquired • Through environmental exposure to pathogens • Artificially induced • Through vaccines containing pathogens • Passive Immunity • Naturally acquired • Antibodies acquired from the mother • Artificially induced • By an injection of antibodies • Four Properties of Immunity • Specificity • Each T or B cell responds only to a specific antigen and ignores all others • Versatility • The body produces many types of lymphocytes • Each fights a different type of antigen • Active lymphocyte clones itself to fight specific antigen
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