HDFS 1070 Week 8 Notes (Exam 2)
HDFS 1070 Week 8 Notes (Exam 2) HDFS 1070
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Tabacchini on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development at University of Connecticut.
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HDFS 1070 3/7, Page 1 Applied Focus – Peers and Moral Development 3/7/16 Lecture Notes applied: means specific to all stages middle childhood: focus on peers and peer relationships in the development and understanding of moral development and sexual scripts development What is Moral Development? o The process of people developing moral ethical standards o Underlies people’s understanding of right and wrong o About the rules that regulate social, ethical, and moral behavior (learning these rules) Why Highlight Moral Development? o 99% of the tragedies that occur in the world that harm people are the result of people acting in immoral ways the other are natural events o welfare of every society depends heavily on how we develop the morality of individuals within the society when people don’t have moral ethical standards and act, there are negative consequences that come from that Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development (know examples and illustrations!) Level 1: Pre Conventional (38 years of age) o Based on whether behavior is rewarded or punished o Based on whether consequences result in benefits o Once we start observing children, little kids think that right or wrong is based on whether the behavior is rewarded or punished this is how all kids operate o Children think its only wrong if you get caught just internalize the rule of consequences o Ex. “You have to ask permission to eat cookies” if the little kid takes and doesn’t get caught, they think its okay. The only time it’s a problem to steal the cookie is if they get caught. o There are adults that operate in the world with this principle though! Ex. Not recalling a product because it would be too expensive Level 2: Conventional o Based on the views that right and wrong are based on what is conventionally accepted as proper behavior in society Based on whether “authorities” approve or disapprove Based on whether the behavior upholds or violates the laws of society o Establish laws and rules as a guide for behavior HDFS 1070 3/7, Page 2 o Understand the rules and regulations of their culture and abide because want to avoid the risk of disapproval from significant others Level 3: Post Conventional o Based on preserving social contracts grounded in cooperation and collaboration o More ethical view of right and wrong o Based on a personal belief system that is grounded in the importance of being ethical and preserving the welfare of people Based on ethical principles o We act in certain ways because its ethically right and don’t act in certain ways because its ethically wrong Does not necessarily have to be because of laws Ex. Laws used to say it was right to enslave people—people with moral ethics went against those laws in favor of human rights Move beyond to consider higher order ways of thinking right and wrong All people have certain basic human rights Ex. Hitler: operated with limited moral view What Factors Shape Moral Development? Obviously parental approval and modeling are important o If significant others in your life don’t model conventional morality, you’re in trouble o Ex. Most parents teach their children: don’t steal, respect and obey the laws o Parents are models for children! Television/media? o Historical progression in the story lines in TV All the most popular shows in the past: the good guys won in the end Now: people in power and who have authority are likely to be evil No discrimination between good and bad guys Peers and Moral Dilemmas o Parents can only take children to a conventional level of morality o What elevates people beyond conventional is being exposed to moral dilemmas and getting enough experience from those dilemmas and thus understanding in higher ways and developing higher moral ethical belief systems o Peer world is caught up in dealing with social pressures to go along conventions and against them o Peer interactions: sum total of them results in us having the opportunity to internalize the conventions and move beyond them o People who are less anxious and more empathic—reflect on the consequences of what happens to people o The anxious people—anxious about whether they matter, are competent, etc. … focus on themselves and not others HDFS 1070 3/7, Page 3 Prevents us from seeing the necessary consequences of acting in moral ways Applied Example: The Development of Prejudice Cultural values and societal standards Parents and authorities Meaningful Contacts with Disadvantaged Others o Contacts create moral dilemmas o Dilemmas provide an opportunity for moral development to move to more advanced levels (Level 3) o Helps to move people forward o Breaking down prejudicial barriers will only happen if you create meaningful contact between people who are in the out groups/diverse from us o People are prejudice towards a group because they lack that meaningful contact with them o There has to be something else that triggers people into moving to a justice oriented point of view—perhaps empathy? Sexual Script Development What is a Sexual Script? Long before kids are sexually active, they internalize expectations and knowledge about sexual orientation Addresses a number of broad W questions All of us have a working model of what excites us, motivates sex, etc. this all comes before we are sexually active and forms over time Addresses 5 “W” Questions Who you have sex with o Sexual orientation o Personal qualities that stimulate excitement Start to learn what is “sexy” From a boy’s point of view: deconstructed view of girls (deconstruct them into boy parts) Why you have sex – motives o 4 Culturally “Endorsed” Motives: grounded in cultural times and values (directed towards you starting at a young age and throughout life) Traditionalreligious script Ex. Have sex because you are married, want to have children Romantic script Ex. You have sex because you love someone o This is a dominant view in our society today Recreational script HDFS 1070 3/7, Page 4 Ex. “Hooking up” Have sex for the fun of it and to have the experience Utilitarian script You should use sex to gain power or advantage over others Use sex for benefits Conventional view: prostitutes What you do in sexual situations o From cohort specific point of view: we are the first generation growing up with widespread access to pornography o Grandparents’ era did not put so much emphasis on oral sex as our generation does When do you have sex o When in your life/what age/time of your life o Grandparents/parents: late in teen years and older o Now: much younger o What kind of relationship do you have to have with someone in order to have sex Where do you have sex o Is there a shift to “any time, anywhere”? Shapers of the Scripts Parents –Which Script Do they endorse? o Traditionalromantic script o Romantic script (if parents are progressive) Media – Which Scripts get endorsed? o Promotes a recreational script Schools – Which Scripts get endorsed? Peers – Which Scripts get endorsed? o Boys: recreational script o Girls: romantic script Experience as a Shaper? QUESTION: WHO IS BELIEVED? Kids believe their peers for this information o Parents are discounted as a reasonable source for information Sabatelli, Ronald. “Moral Development.” HDFS 1070. University of Connecticut, Storrs. 7 March 2016. Lecture. HDFS 1070 3/9, Page 1 Kids and Sexual Scripts Continued 3/9/16 Lecture Notes Peer Socialization Regarding Sex Parents disqualify themselves as sexual shapers because they don’t talk about sex in a real and authentic way. Children understand that sex is something that their parents are not comfortable with speaking about. o When you ask questions that are directly related to sex Ex. “Where did I come from?”, the parents act like it is an uncomfortable thing to be talking about Takes place in Samesex groupings (keep in mind the age range here (8 – 13)) o Sexual socialization and peer training takes place in samesex groups o Scripts of boys and girls differ because boys give different messages to boys than girls give to girls What do Boys Teach Boys? Sex and status o Gain status from having sex Importance of scoring Objectify females o Break them down into collections of body parts Doesn’t happen if you don’t push for it Girls are the “gatekeepers” o Learn that girls are responsible for how far the relationship goes Girls are more likely to “open the gates” if they believe you are committed to them o If believe he is committed, will be more open to having sex Its ok to pretend to be committed o Learn that its okay to pretend to want a relationship with them in order to be able to have sex More likely to be socialized for the recreational view of sex What do Girls Teach Girls? You are an object! o Assess each other based on physical looks You are the gatekeeper o Learn that they are gatekeepers There are identity consequences from being too loose with the “gates” o Note there really is a guy equivalent of “slut” o You are either a prude or a slut or somewhere in between Shouldn’t typically be active unless you are sure the guy is committed to you Guys will lie about commitment to get sex HDFS 1070 3/9, Page 2 It is best when partnered with love! o Taught that sex is better when partnered with love More likely to be socialized for the romantic view of sex Experiences as a Shaper of the Scripts – we are talking here about how the scripts are influenced by the sexual experiences kids have Can base our decisions on reason and rationality or base our decisions on emotion America is not rational about kids and sex Elders said that to deal with STDs and the AIDS epidemic, we should teach kids more about sex and in particular teach girls to masturbate (this is not rational, this speaks to the emotion that is invested in sex in the US) o She was fired after saying this More boys than girls have autoerotic experiences than girls, boys come into their interpersonal encounters with more knowledge about what pleases them and experience than girls do this creates an imbalance of power and control o Many girls think what is pleasurable to them is what guys think should be pleasurable to girls Two Types of Experiences Autoerotic Experiences o Who is Joycelyn Elders "Our children have seen 15,000 hours of TV to only 11,000 hours of reading, writing, and arithmetic. We've not used the most powerful medium that's our television to educate our people [against AIDS]. That says our country has really not made a commitment." United States Surgeons General Joycelyn Elders United Nations, World AIDS Day, December 1, 1994 After 12 painful years of genocide from Reagan/Bush NEGLIGENCE, there was hope that AIDS would finally be addressed by the White House with Clinton's appointment of Joycelyn Elders as Surgeon General because of her forthright and frank advocacy in the fight against AIDS. When Joycelyn Elders was asked to speak at the United Nations on World AIDS Day 1994, she heard from a high school student HDFS 1070 3/9, Page 3 who had not been allowed to graduate because he had passed condoms out at a high school prom. The speaker suggested that the U.S. government could do more to reach the administrators in the school to address the AIDS crisis. The first question that happened to be asked of Joycelyn Elders at this United Nations World AIDS Day Conference: "...if masturbation might be taught as a way to prevent AIDS?" Joycelyn Elders replied: "masturbation is something that is a part of human sexuality, and is a part of something that perhaps should be taught." * Joycelyn Elders was fired by President Clinton one week later for "values contrary to the administration." And the Second Type of Experience – interpersonal sexual experiences o Males/boys approach these situations with more knowledge of themselves and more presumed knowledge of females Is there a relationship between knowledge and power? o Females often first learn about what is supposed to be erotic for them by paying attention to what males believe is erotic for females Sabatelli, Ronald. “Kids and Sexual Scripts Cont.” HDFS 1070. University of Connecticut, Storrs. 9 March 2016. Lecture. 3/9/16 Kids and Sexual Scripts, Page 1 Kids and Sexual Scripts 3/9/16 Lecture Notes What has changed since the 1950’s? age of initiation clearly has gone down down to around 13 years of age (younger than in the past) percent sexually active has gone up: 70% of teens are fully sexually active in their teenage years adults talk as if all kids are the same and all kids are sexually active, which is not true, 30% of them are not closing of the gender gap equal percentage of girls and boys are having sex, back then there were more males than females having sex as teens changes in gatekeeping standards females were more likely to wait until a very serious relationship than now there is a more recreational view today Why have these changes taken place? No simple or single answer changes in cultural values – clearly more widespread acceptance of a recreation and romantic view of sex Elkind’s concept of the hurried child – emphasis on early maturity creates introduces kids to sexual behavior at earlier age combined with less supervision Prolongation of adolescence and delays in the transition to adulthood Hard to convince kids that things that are desirable and pleasurable are things they shouldn’t experience Consequences of Changes –STD’s and teen pregnancy STD’s 19 million new STD cases in U.S. last year – with half of them involving teens 4 in 10 sexually active teen girls have had an STD that can cause infertility over 50% of new HIV cases occur among teens Consistently surveys report that about 40% of teens admit that they did not use a condom during their last experience of intercourse People unknowingly have unprotected sex with others and then find out down the road that they have an STD that they are spreading to others why STDs become so widespread Among teens, 15% report having had sex with 4 or more people Hooking up has always occurred, but it is just more common today and happens more often Having an STD as a teenager has lifespan implications Fertility rates, cervical cancer rates, etc. 3/9/16 Kids and Sexual Scripts, Page 2 3/9/16 Kids and Sexual Scripts, Page 3 Teen Pregnancy – Good News/Bad News Good News – rates since the early 1990’s have gone down (and in recent years the rates have gone down by a lot) Teen births have gone down So, is there any bad news here? Let’s Get To the Details (pay attention to 3 different indicators of consequence when it comes to sexual activity) Teen Birth Rate = # of Babies Born/1,000 Teens (counted as 1519 year olds) Teen Abortion Rate = #of Abortions/1,000 Teens (1519 year olds) Teen Pregnancy Rate = Birth + Abortion Rates (adjusted upward for miscarriages) If kids are being rationally prepared to be sexually active, these rates should be much lower U.S. Teen Birth Rates (2013 Data) Overall Teen Birth Rates = 34/1000 (these rates were highest in 1991: 62/1000) Because African Americans and Hispanics are disproportionality represented among the poor, when we look at data like this, we need to keep in mind that what we may be seeing is more of a manifestation of what happens when kids are poor, more so than their ethnicity Birth Rates for White Teens =21/1000 (rate was 42.5/1000 in 1991) Birth Rate for AfricanAmerican Teens = 44/1000 (rate was 116/1000 in 1991) Birth Rate for Hispanic Teens = 46/1000 (rate was 100/1000 in 1991) Rates for Hispanic Teens have been higher than rates for AfricanAmerican Teens since 1994 Note within group differences in Hispanic populations (Puerto Rican Teens 59.6/1000; Mexican Teens 73.0/1000) Historical Digression: Teen Birth Rate in 1957 was 96/1000. But, Teen Births to Unwed Mothers was only 15% U.S. Teen Abortion Rates Overall Teen Abortion Rates = 15/1000 (rate peaked at 43/1000 in 1985) If ask on exam: what’s the pregnancy rate based on the data here? Almost 50/1000 Abortion Rates for Whites = 8.5/1000 3/9/16 Kids and Sexual Scripts, Page 4 Abortion Rates for AfricanAmerican teens = 34.5/1000 If you calculate the pregnancy rates, they have much higher pregnancy rates than other groups Just have lower births because higher rate of abortion Abortion Rates for Hispanic Teens = 15.3/1000 U.S. Teen Pregnancy Rates Overall Teen Pregnancy Rate = 57/1000 (rate was 117/1000 in 1991) Note Please: the Teen Pregnancy Rate for “sexually experienced teens” is 127/1000 – was 223/1000 in 1991) Pregnancy Rates for Whites = 38/1000 down from 87/1000 in 1991) Pregnancy Rates for African Americans = 99.5/1000 down from 223/1000 in 1991) Pregnancy Rates for Hispanic Teens = 84/1000 down from 170/1000 in 1991) Overall Teen Pregnancy Rate means that approximately 6 out of every 100 teens in the U.S. in 2013 experienced a pregnancy 4 in 100 white teens 10 in 100 African American teens 8 in 100 Hispanic Teens Almost 13 in every 100 “sexually experienced teens” experienced a pregnancy Rates are Different by Social Class Standing Some insight into this is from data from States CT Birth Rate = 19/1000; Abortion Rate = 20/1000; Pregnancy Rate = 44/1000 MISS Birth Rate = 55/1000; Abortion Rate = 9/1000; Pregnancy Rate = 76/1000 West VA Birth Rate = 45/1000; Abortion Rate = 9/1000; Pregnancy Rate = 64/1000 Cross Cultural Comparisons: Pay attention to the rates in other countries Countries where kids are as sexually active as kids in the US o Much more common to not censure nudity. Sex is more celebrated. 3/9/16 Kids and Sexual Scripts, Page 5 Canada: BR=18; AR=11; PR=34 Sweden: BR=4; AR= 5; PR=14 Netherlands: BR=5;AR=6; PR=16 France: BR=9; AR=6; PR=20 UK: BR=25;AR=17; PR=47 US: BR=34;AR=15; PR=49 Teen Pregnancy Rates (in USA) 2010 AFRICAN OVERALL WHITE AMERICA HISPANIC N Pregnancy 57 Rate (#/1000) Sexually 38 99.5 84 Experienced: 127 Abortion Rate 15 8.5 34.5 15.3 (#/1000) Birth Rate 46 (#/1000) 34 21 44 Puerto Rican: 59.6 Mexican: 73 Teen Pregnancy Rates (by Social Class) 2010 CONNECTICUT MISS. WEST VIRGINIA Pregnancy Rate (#/1000) 44 76 64 Abortion Rate 20 9 9 (#/1000) Birth Rate (#/1000) 19 55 45 3/9/16 Kids and Sexual Scripts, Page 6 Possible Exam Questions: o What are the conclusions from the data? o Who has the highest teen pregnancy and birth rates from an international perspective? US by far o Who has the highest pregnancy rates in the US? African American girls Teen Pregnancy Rates (by Country) 2010 CANADA SWEEDEN NETHERL FRANCE UK US ANDS Pregnancy Rate 34 14 16 20 47 49 (#/1000) Abortion Rate 11 5 6 6 17 15 (#/1000) 3/9/16 Kids and Sexual Scripts, Page 7 Birth Rate (#/1000) 18 4 5 9 25 34 What Does this Mean? Contraceptive Risk Taking is less common than in the past Contraceptive Risk Taking is still common? Are programs designed to protect teens working? How To Account for Contraceptive Risk Taking? Adolescent Egocentrism destined for fame/fortune imaginary audience invincibility fable frontal lobe of the brain regulates impulse control, response to risk this lobe doesn’t fully develop until early adulthood BUT, THERE IS NO REASON TO BELIEVE THAT EGOCENTRISM IS MORE A FEATURE OF U.S. ADOLESCENTS WHEN COMPARED TO THOSE IN OTHER COUNTRIES. Think of selves as being invincible to risks Cant make this account for the higher rates, because kids are just as underdeveloped with their frontal lobe in other countries SO WHAT DIFFERS?? VALUES ARE FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT, PARTICULARLY IN COUNTRIES WITH LOWEST RATES BROADER AND WIDESPREAD ACCEPTANCE OF SEXUALITY WITH AN ACCOMPANYING EMPHASIS ON ITS NATURALNESS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATING KIDS, FROM EARLY ON, ON ALL ASPECTS OF THEIR SEXUALITY (AS COMPARED TO WIDESPREAD AMBIVALENCE FOUND IN U.S. THESE CULTURAL VALUES ARE ACCOMPANIED BY A COMMITMENT TO MAKING CONTRACEPTION READILY AVAILABLE – Health Care and Contraception are Rights! THESE CULTURAL VALUES ARE ACCOMPANIED BY A COMMITMENT TO TEACHING ABOUT SEX AS AN ASPECT OF ONE’S IDENTITY AND SEX AS AN ASPECT OF PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS (HERE THE FOCUS IS ON RESPECTING PARTNERS, NEGOTIATING ACTIVITY LEVELS, AND ACTING IN A RESPONSIBLE WAY WITH OTHERS 3/9/16 Kids and Sexual Scripts, Page 8 Most sex education programs are saying that sex, drugs, alcohol: avoid them at all costs because they can kill you No one buys this If we were rational right from the beginning, when kids are very young, we would say we want you to grow up having healthy attitudes about sex Know how to manage sex, drinking, drugs, etc. We don’t do the rational thing we do the emotionally reactive thing of saying “you can’t do that” MY OWN BIASIS IS THAT OUR GENERAL AMBIVALENCE COMBINED WITH OUR UNWILLINGNESS TO TEACH ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS AND SEX AS AN ASPECT OF RELATIONSHIPS BOTH IN THE HOME AND AT SCHOOL ACCOUNTS FOR THE WIDESPREAD PROBLEMS WE ENCOUNTER What can parents do? Need to become more Rationale and less Emotionally Reactive Would also commit ourselves to teaching that sex is part of a relationship that needs to be negotiated in a respectful way You never see relationship education about sex We are uptight about sex as a culture In the US we are passing laws across the country that are meant to eliminate the problematic litigation around forcible sex and rape called “Yes means yes” laws If you actually had a rational perspective right from the beginning about consent, then we wouldn’t have to have these kinds of laws Laws should be reframed as “only yes means yes” Parents are much more rational about sex in other countries than parents are in the US Parents in the US hide sex from their children Sabatelli, Ronald. “Kids and Sexual Scripts.” HDFS 1070. University of Connecticut, Storrs. 9 March 2016. Lecture. Note: Highlighted are parts of the latter part of the lecture that were rushed through that he spent more time on.