PSY 201 Chapter 15/16
PSY 201 Chapter 15/16 Psy 201
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Saldana on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 201 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Freberg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
Chapter 15: Treatment -Approaches to Treatment Most people with disorders do not seek care/don’t have access Psychotherapies- “talk therapy”, behavioral management, change behavior Biological Approaches- medicine use Evidence-based practice- overlap of these three values: best scientific evidence, individual clinical expertise, and patient value and expectations (what are the goals for this person/what do they want) -Who are the Therapists? Psychiatrists (MD)- can write prescriptions/give medicine Clinical Psychologists (PhD, PsyD)- talking, can’t assign medicine Counseling- having trouble coping w/ anything in life (no disorder) 1. Doctoral/Masters degree- pretty much the same as a psychologist, different levels of licensing between states 2. Social Work, education- learning disabilities in school, etc Religious leaders- “south based”, clinical physicians with religious focus Unregulated therapists- be careful of 1. Hypnotherapists- don’t need regulation/ not reliable 2. Life coaches- some people prefer the wording of “life coach” vs “counseling”, more appealing and can be used for marketing -Delivering Psychotherapy Individual Treatment- expensive, classic old fashioned way Group Therapy- multiple people w/ one psychologist, nice to not feel isolated from everyone, can compare yourself to others and have role models/feel like they are doing good if they are above someone else, good to have support system Family Therapy- variation of group therapy, family mechanics that affect individuals’ behavior (vice versa), confidentiality is very important (ex: a teen confesses vital info to you, can’t tell the parents) Online Therapy- run at your own convenience and privacy of your home, inexpensive -Types of Psychotherapy Pt 1 Psychoanalysis- insight therapy, unconscious thoughts (ex: a child of divorce may think they were the cause of the divorce, have issues with relationships in the future) 1. Free association- substitute for hypnosis, encouraged to say what is on your mind 2. Dream analysis- talking about dreams, what they might mean 3. Resistance- as a psychologist gets closer to the root of a problem, the patient will become defensive 4. Transference- watching the way you treat the psychologist, how your behavior transfers Humanistic Therapies 1. Clients/Patients- role differentiation, clients are a customer 2. Reflection- “I hear what you’re saying” or “You seem angry”, holding up a mirror for how their behavior is coming across to others 3. Empathy- get into their head, understand how they are feeling -Types of Psychotherapy Pt 2 More modern, majority of people use these techniques Behavioral Approaches- applied behavior analysis, working w/ autistic kids, systematic desensitization, spider world, operant/classical conditioning Cognitive Approaches- change the way you think about a situation “im a good person so everyone should like me” Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)- strong outcome of results, past negative perspective positively correlated with depression/anxiety. Combine cognitive restructuring w/ behavior analysis, award themselves on their own. Medication=CBT in results, but CBT has no side effects, and lasts longer usually. -Biological Therapies Medication- used/ have highly trained expert assign it to you. Meds are outweighing psychotherapy, taking a pill is more appealing than therapy, lots of downsides to medication, abused very often. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)- treatment of the last resort, causing a seizure in someone to elevate their mood afterwards, only done if not responding to therapy, negative side effects of seizures such as memory loss Psychosurgery- removing/ treating areas of the brain that correlate with the disorder, the idea of localization is a bit of a stretch, the popularity stopped, but is still done. Brain Stimulation- new thing, dropping stimulating electrodes into the thalamus, pulses at intervals used for relief of Parkinsons Disease, helps them move. Also used for depression/OCD. Neuro Feedback- biofeedback that concentrates on activity of the brain, relaxed=low blood pressure, not relaxed=high blood pressure, trains people to understand these signs and pay attention to their brain activity -Treating Specific Disorders Anxiety- PTSD, phobias, panic, OCD 1. Medications: not anti-anxiety pills (bad side effects), anti depressants 2. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 3. Virtual Reality: virtual Iraq Mood Disorders- bipolar, mania, depression 1. Medications: lithium (patients hate it, requires a blood stick every week or so, really hard on the liver), anti depressants 2. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 3. Exercise: as equally effective as other methods, hard to get patients to do it, but once they do the results are high Dissociative/ Somatic Symptom Disorder 1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 2. Medications Schizophrenia 1. Medications: are a must, have to have them 2. Psychosocial Rehabilitation: Reinstituted to work in the community, be around people, help others, be outside in fresh air Personality Disorders 1. No medications 2. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy 3. DBT Dialectical Behavior Therapy Autism 1. Medications: only for those who are self injurious, tends to be over prescribed to too many children who don’t need it 2. Applied behavioral analysis ADHD 1. Behavioral Therapies Chapter 16: Health Psychology -Stress An unpleasant emotional state resulting from the perception of danger Stressor- a stimulus that serves a source of stress Jolts of stress are good for the immune system, but too much stress can harm the immune system -The Stress Response Walter Cannon coined the term “fight or flight” commonly used by guys, and “tend and befriend” by girls Rats swimming experiment, made them swim around but applied several stressors to them and changed the stimuli 1. Alarm Phase- burst of adrenaline, gets you out of a situation, cognition is clear, reflexes are heightened, burst of strength 2. Resistance- stuff coming at us and we are coping with it the best we can 3. Exhaustion- system crashing, no more resisting, body says stop what you’re doing, similar to symptoms of major depressive disorder -Sources of Stress Cognitive appraisals- what you are willing to look at as stressful, as we mature these standards change Disasters- injuries, death of people you know Change- can be good and bad, ex: just graduated- going to school is a good opportunity, but stressful because you are leaving home and won’t know anybody Hassles- little inconveniences that can add up, losing your keys, forgetting your water bottle, forgetting a due date Social Relationships- best strategy to escape from stress, so when this fails, we need to find some sort of support in other relationships, either romantic, friend, or family -Biological Correlates of Stress Amygdala and fear- main thing detecting threats SAM (Sympathetic Adrenal Medullary System) 1. Enhances the immune system 2. Good workout in the gym- feeling after 3. Fast, short term response HPA (Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal Axis) 1. Cortisol released, wakes you up, like a jolt 2. High levels can break the immune system 3. Hippocampus also can suffer, works like a limiter and once there is too much it can shut everything down and lose neurons 4. Slow, longer lasting Gender Differences- fight/flight, tend/befriend Epigenetics- maternal nature, licking/ grooming changes gene expression in cortisol receptors when treated with more care ended up growing up and dealt with stress better -Managing Stress Stress Management Strategies- more we experience, better we get with dealing with stress 1. Adaption 2. Control- choice of activity 3. Good health habits 4. Exercise 5. Social connectedness- reaching out to people who are important to you 6. Pets- military therapy dogs, library dogs Types of Coping 1. Problem Focused- problem solving mode, stress is relieved when you start to problem solve and find solutions to the problems 2. Emotion Focused- just failed a test means you react by going out and drinking to erase the problem for a small amount of time 3. Relationship Focused- Reaching out to friends for help, etc. 4. Resilience- capability to cope with stress, some are better than others -Positive Psychology Normal behaviors and human strengths Happiness- combination of two of these 1. Health, wealth, education 2. Pleasant life 3. Flow- a good book, video games, something that brings you passion, a hobby 4. Meaningful Life Hope, resilience, gratitude, and spirituality Positive Institutions- work, school, families: have to feel values and be in a good place
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