Chapter 11: What Drives Us: Hunger, Sex, Friendship, and Achievement (Appendix A)
Chapter 11: What Drives Us: Hunger, Sex, Friendship, and Achievement (Appendix A) Psych 1010
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 146 views.
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Date Created: 03/09/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 11: What Drives Us: Hunger, Sex, Friendship, and Achievement (Appendix A) Motivation Motivation – a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal o Instinct Theory – genetically predisposed behaviors o DriveReduction Theory – how we respond to inner pushes o Arousal Theory – finding the right level of stimulation o Hierarchy of Needs – prioritize some needs over others (Maslow) Instinct – complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned o Human babies behaviors are less prescribed by genetics DriveReduction Theory – the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need o Motivated to reduce drives o Drive – aroused or tense state related to physical need Pushes us from the inside while incentives are external o Homeostasis – the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state or the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level Need Drive DriveReducing Behaviors (Food/Water) (Hunger/Thirst) (Eating/Drinking) Incentive – positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior YerkesDodson Law – principle that performance increases with arousal to a certain point beyond which performance decreases o Humans seek optimum levels of arousal Hierarchy of Needs – pyramid of human needs beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higherlevel safety needs then psychological needs become active (Maslow) Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Physiological Factors in Hunger Glucose – a form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues o When glucose is low, we feel hunger o Semi starvation leads to more thoughts about food o Stomach contractions occur when hungry Rat study shows rats without stomachs continue to eat o Receptors in the indigestive system monitor levels of glucose and send signals to the hypothalamus which send out appetite hormones Set Point – the point at which “weight thermostat” is set o When the body falls below this weight, increased hunger and lower metabolic rate combine and restore lost weight o The body uses energy to adjust weight when it drops or increases Basal Metabolic Rate – the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure Environmental Influences on Hunger Part of knowing when to eat is the memory of our last meal Body chemistry and environmental influence taste preferences In culture, we tend to avoid unfamiliar foods (neophobic) Ecology of eating o Presence of others amplifies natural behavior tendencies o Portion size and unit bias occurs with similar mindlessness o Food variety stimulates eating Buffet Effect – more options leads to eating more Predisposing Factors of Obesity Obesity signals affluence and status The US obesity rate has doubled in the last 40 years Obesity increases the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer and arthritis Takes less food to maintain fat once it is gained o Fat is an ideal form of stored energy o In the past, those with body fat were more likely to live without food o Eating less slows metabolism o Formerly obese person will have to eat less than average person to prevent weight gain Weight resembles biological parents Genes explain 2/3 of body mass (identical twins have similar weight) o Genes burn calories, convert them to fat, signal when full, and can lead to fidgeting or movement If you are predisposed to fidgeting, you are likely to weigh less Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Sleep loss leads to obesity Social influence, if a friend is obese you’re more likely to become obese o Weight discrimination is more likely than race and gender discrimination o People that are obese are more likely to feel depressed and isolated Change food and activity levels can help monitor weight Hormones Influence in Sexual Motivation Asexual – having no sexual attraction to others Testosterone – male sex hormone found in both sexes that stimulates the growth of male sex organs during fetal period and develops male sex characteristics during puberty Estrogen – sex hormones (estradiol) secreted greatly in females contributing to sex characteristics Sex hormones influence development o During prenatal period, they direct development as a male or female o During puberty, there is a sex hormone surge Sexual desire is not as tied to hormone levels in humans as it is in animals o After puberty and in late adult years sexual behavior is activated Females are more sexually active during ovulation and less when testosterone is low o Rise in testosterone and estrogen in women leads to a rise in testosterone in the men around her Males’ sexual arousal can be a cause and consequence of increased testosterone levels Hormonal shifts in life span 1. Pubertal surge in sex hormones triggers development of sexual characteristics and interests 2. Later in life, estrogen levels fall and women experience menopause 3. Surgical changes can cause hormonal shifts Sexual Reponses and Sexual Dysfunctions Sexual Response Cycle – four stages of sexual responding including excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution (Masters and Johnson) o Refractory Period – resting period after orgasm during which man cannot achieve another orgasm Sexual Dysfunction – problem consistently impairing sexual arousal or functioning o Erectile Disorder – inability to develop and maintain an erection due to insufficient blood flow to the penis o Female Orgasmic Disorder – distress due to infrequently or never experiencing orgasms o Paraphilias – sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving inhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and nonconsenting persons Preventions for Sexually Transmitted Infections Condoms only offer limited protection Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Risks rise with the number of partners HPV infections 14 to 19 year old females are more vulnerable due to immature biological development and lower levels of protective antibodies Sexual Arousal Biological Influences Psychological Influences Sexual maturity Exposure to stimulating Sex hormones and conditions testosterone Sexual fantasies Sexual Motivation SocioCultural Influences Family and societal values Religious and personal values Cultural expectations Media Brain is the most sufficient sex organ Psychological and sociocultural factors are greater than biological influences Adverse effects of sexually explicit material (repeated exposure to erotic stimulus lessens the response through habituation) o Rape acceptance o Devaluing partner o Diminished satisfaction Imagination can influence sexual desire Men fantasize about sex more often, more physically, and less romantically o Prefer less personal and faster paced sexual content in media Teen Sexual Behaviors Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Minimal communication about birth control o Close relationships with parents and being in an exclusive relationship leads to higher use of contraceptives Guilt related to sexual activity o Regret sex and reduced planning for birth control Alcohol use o Disarms normal constraints Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity o Stereotypical portrayals of sex o More sexual content allows people to perceive peers as sexually active, develop sexual attitudes, and experience early intercourse Sexual restraint o High intelligence o Religious engagement o Father presence o Participation in servicelearning programs Sexual Orientation Sexual Orientation – enduring sexual attraction to members of one’s own sex (homosexuality), the other sex (heterosexuality), or both sexes (bisexual) o Neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed o 34% of men and 2% of women are homosexual o Discrimination, rejection, and isolation lead to higher risk of mood disorders and anxiety We have a need to affiliate with others and become attached to others in enduring and close relationships Women have more erotic plasticity Questions concerning the causes of homosexuality o Is it because of a domineering mother or absent father? o Is it because of hatred for the other sex? o Were they molested as a child by a homosexual? o Is it due to the level of hormones in their blood? Differences begin in the prenatal period and can be genetic or due to hormones or antigens in the womb o Fraternal birth order effect o Female fetus is exposed to more testosterone and male fetus exposed to low testosterone Causes attraction to same sex and physical traits of the opposite sex Research on Sexual Motivation Expression of social nature o Sex is more satisfying in committed relationships Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Sex and love feed each other due to overlapping brain reward areas Human Affiliation Need Affiliation Need – need to build relationships and feel part of a group Helped survival, those that bond reproduce and nurture offspring and cooperate during hunting Division of labor Mutual protection Cooperation in sharing food Seeking bonds with others aids in survival (evolutionary) EmChildren close to caregiversis Autonomy – sense of personal control and competence o Competence – belief in one’s abilities or skills Feelings of love activate brain reward and safety systems Disruptions in multiple attachments leads to difficulty in forming deep relationships All experience anxiety, loneliness, jealousy, or guilt when something threatens our ties Social isolation leads to mental decline and ill health Acceptance increases lead to increased selfesteem, positive feelings, and physical health Ostracism – deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups o People first attempt to restore acceptance, then become depressed, then withdrawal o Elicits increased activity in brain areas that respond to physical pain Influences of Social Networking Texting and social media sites Less social people spend more time online Social connectedness stems from social networking Communicating electronically we are less focused on others reactions and less self conscious Online profiles give accurate visions of true self Narcissism – excessive selflove and selfabsorption Online socializing and gaming leads to lower grades In order to balance the real world and online Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Monitor time o Monitor feelings o Hide distractions online o Turn off mobile devices o Have a social networking fast o Refocus Achievement Motivation Achievement Motivation – desire for significant accomplishment, mastery of skills or ideas, control, and attaining a high standard o Calling – fulfilling and socially useful activity Grit – in psychology, passion and perseverance in the pursuit of longterm goals o Desire achievement and willing to work hard Flow and the Subfields of IndustrialOrganizational Psychology Work satisfies needs o Income satisfies the drive for food and hunger Flow – completely involved and focused state of consciousness with diminished awareness of self and time resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills o Engaged, immersed, and challenged o Boosts selfesteem, competence, and wellbeing IndustrialOrganizational Psychology – the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing behavior in work places o Personnel Psychology – focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development Predict job performance through tests, past work, sample work, and structured interviews Strength based selection system that matches strengths and tasks and assesses performance and values employee performance feedback o Organizational Psychology – examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change Motivation, satisfaction, and engagement help to understand the productivity of leadership and team work o Human Factors Psychology – explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use Design of body and function of the mind are taken into account in designing products Personnel Psychology in Work Find personal environment fit Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Strengthsbased selection system Successful people spend time accentuating their strengths Gap between interviewers overconfidence and resulting reality o Interviewers presume people are what they seem to be in the interview situation o Interviewers overestimate their ability to read people o Interviewers’ preconceptions or moods color how they perceive interviewees o Interviewers judge people relative to the interviewees before and after them o Interviewers more often follow the successful careers of those they have hired than the successful careers of those they have rejected o Interviewers disclose the interviewees good intentions which are less revealing than habitual behaviors Structured Interviews – asks same jobrelevant questions of all applicants each of whom is then rated on established scales o Reduces bias Performance appraisal methods o Checklists o Graphic rating scales o Behavior rating scales Halo errors and leniency occur along with severity and recency errors Organizational Psychology Study employee satisfaction o Satisfied employees stay longer o Engaged employees are more productive Positive moods at work enhance creativity, persistence, and helpfulness Happy workers are good workers Employee attitudes predict business success Effective Leadership Techniques Managers excel by o Helping people identify talents o Reinforcing positive behaviors o Matching talents and tasks o Caring Focus on goals leads to motivation o Goals must be specific, challenging, measurable, and immediate Task Leadership – goaloriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals Social Leadership – grouporiented and builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support Human Factors Psychology Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Design efficient environments Help to prevent accidents Enable safe, easy, and effective interactions
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