HISTORY OF ASIA
HISTORY OF ASIA ASH 3100
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Loren Beier DVM on Thursday September 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASH 3100 at Florida State University taught by Samiparna Samanta in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/205669/ash-3100-florida-state-university in Asian American Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/17/15
Ancient China Shang Dynasty Earliest documented dynasty in China Ruled the North China Plain and the Yellow River Information 0 Oracle Bone inscriptions give us a list of Shang Kings and royal activities 0 Bronze Pieces Main Features 0 Polity I CityStates and capital cities 0 Capital was never xed 0 5 successive cities I King was the leader of the military aristocracy o Captives were enslavedsacri ced 0 War booty is a major source of revenue 0 Bronze weapons gave them an advantage Possibly even used a chariot 0 Was the high priest Material Culture 0 I River based economy I Rammed earth technique to build forti cations 0 Massive labor force 0 Possibly slaves o Serf like farmers o Shang Script I Writing was a major element to Chinese culture I Writing may have been invented earlier but the date is unsure because it was originally written on perishable items I Learn about royal activities list of kings animals hunted war spoils enemies killed I Pictographic 0 Bronze Age of China I Possibly autonomous development I Made weapons chariots and religious items I Unsure of what animals I Very decorative 0 Religion I Ancestor worship I When king died slavesprisoners would be killed with him I Supernatural forces Zhou Dynasty 0 Two periods 0 Western Zhou 1045772 bee 0 Eastern Zhou 771256 bee I Spring and Autumn Period 770 475 bee I Warring States Period 475221 bee 0 Literary Works 0 Book of documents 0 Book ofpoetry o Diseourses of the states 0 Intrigues of the waning states 0 ArehaeologiealSourees 0 Metal bamboo wooden stripes bearing inseriptions 0 Human saeri ees decline 0 Political structure 0 King is the son of heaven 0 Divine theory of kingship o Waning aristoeraey 0 Eastern power the king loses power I Sueeession disputes were common 0 Adopted Shang ritualism 0 Iron was being used for weapons 0 Warfare beeomes common 0 Metalworking becomes more simplistic and a change occurs in the style 0 State of anarchy in 475 be 0 Qin takeover from here The First Chinese Empire Qin Authoritarianism 256206 BCE Han Dynasty 206 BCE220 CE Confueius 551479 BCE 0 Contemporary of Buddha 0 Born in a lower aristoeratie family 0 This baekground gave him some knowledge of classics 0 Served in the court of Lu I Little in uence in the court 0 At the age of 50 his ideas were erystallized o Analeets of Confueius I Doeument written by his followers o Virtues of Confucius I Ren 7 Humanity I Xiao Filial Piety I Yi Integrity I Zhong Loyalty I Xin Honesty I Jing Respect I Li Ritual Decorum 0 Men responsible for their actions I Urged followers to be an ideal man I Ideal man held those virtues o Valued education Qin Dynasty 0 Destroyed the remnants of the Zhou o 247 BCE Qin Shi Huang Di 0 13 years old when he came to the throne o Took on himself the title of Emperor o Centralized the Empire 0 Standardized everything I Writing I Measurements weights coinage even aXle length 0 Built thousands of miles in the roads 0 Canals eXpanded o Built massive personal tomb I Clay animals and human statues were found within I First Emperor s army 0 Clay statues o Carried real weapons I Three assassination attempts on his life possibly afraid of death 1975 Bamboo inscriptions were found detailing Qin laws 0 Harsh penalties hard labor death physical mutilations banishment 213 BCE free speech was outlawed so all classics were burned Great Wall was built during this time 0 Did not do much to defend northern border Falls in 210 BCE o Barbarians from the north invade Han Dynasty 0 Emperor Gao Founder 0 Real name Lin Bang 0 Lowered taxes on peasants o Eliminated many of the Qin laws 0 Born from a peasant family Emperor Wu 0 Expanded the empire by military means 0 Provided state support to Confucius scholars o Of cials chosen by Confucius virtues Famous for History writings 0 Under Wu Sima Qian wrote Records of the Grand Historian I Invented dialogues to bring events to life 0 Shang Zhou Han were discussed 0 Politics and nance were discussed 0 Also notable men Patrilinial hierarchy 0 Women cultivate obedience humility and subservience Economy 0 Silk In high demand especially by Romans Fall 0 War incompetent rulers and the massive bureaucracy put a strain on the economy 0 Civil War broke out o 210 CE collapses Ancient India Timeline IVC AryansVedic Age JainismBuddhism Mauryans Kushans Guptas Indus Valley Civilization 0 Discovered in 1920 s by British and Indian archaeologists o 5 major sites 0 MohenjoDaro I The Great Baths An enormous bathing pool 80 ft by 8 ft dedicated to a Female goddess used for ritual bathing I The Great Granary Massive granaries found in MohenjoDaro o Harappa First site IVC is also called Harappa Culture because of this 0 Rupar o Lothal o Kalibangan 0 Major Features 0 Urban Planning Extremely sophisticated with a level not seen again until Late European I Brick Building Sun baked I Grid System I Bathrooms with sewagedrainage o Econom I Agriculturally based with emphasis on controlling the ooding of the Indus o Religionseal I Pashuptai Seal Depicts a god historians believe to be Shiva Found with Cylindrical Pillars in Indus sites I Unicorn Seal Possible evidence for animism Animals such as unicoms and buffalo were worshipped o Indus Script Undeciphered 0 Culture I Held beautiful jewelry small statues and had dice and maze games 0 Fall 0 Around 1750 BC 0 Possibilities I Change in course of the Indus I Massive Floods I Earthquakes I Aryan Invasion most widely believed cause AryansVedic Age 0 Aryans as a race and a language group 0 Not a biological race but a group ofpeople who spoke a similar language I Sanskrit Slavic Latin Germanic are all related 0 Geographical Location of the Aryans 0 Central Asia who moved to Iran then to India 0 Controlled Northwestern Indian and Pakistan 0 Main Features 0 Polity I Tribal State with a Raja who was equivalent to a king 0 Purohita Prime Minister to the king 0 Sabha and Samiti are both tribal assemblies to check the king with the Samiti being the more difficult to be a member of I Composition of a tribal state is as follows 0 State is made up of several tribes o Tribe is made up of several districts 0 Districts are made up of several clans o Clans are made up of several families 0 Economic Seminomadic I Cattle rearing with some settled agriculture 0 Society I Caste System 0 BrahmansPriests o Kshatriya Warriors o VaishyasTraders o SudraUntouchable I Patriarchal 0 Religion Beginning of Hinduism I Indra god of creation I Vishnu preserver of the earth I Varuna cosmic order I Agni god of re I Surya sun god I Shiva destroyer of the earth 0 Vedic Teth 0 Early 15001000 BC I Rig Veda 0 Later 1000600 bc I Sama Veda I Yajur Veda I Atharva Veda o Consists of hymns charms verses spells 0 Later Vedic Age 0 Changes I Polity o Tribal States consolidate to form powerful kingdoms 0 Both Sabha and Samti disappear I Society Caste System becomes more rigid o The Epics o Ramayana The story of Ram I Ram Reincarnation of Vishnu I Sita the wife of Ram I Ravanna demon I Hanuman Monkey follower of Ram o Mahabharata I About the battle of Kurukshetra between two families 0 Pandavas and Kurus I BhagavadGita o Conversation between Krishna and Arjun about many things including Darma and is considered an extremely religious text Buddhism and Jainism o Jainism and Buddhism developed as dissent religions 0 They were opposed to Hinduism 0 Material Background for the rise of Jainism and Buddhism 0 Use of iron Iron led to an agricultural boom which caused trade to increase This led to the development of a money economy Leading to the creation of a Merchant Class 0 Vedic Religion becomes more ritualistic with animal sacri ce 0 Development of wandering holy men who challenged the established order in Eastern India 0 Jainism 6Lh century BCE o Vardhamana Mahavira I Founder of Jainism I Born in Vasali of the Shatrya Clan noble I At the age of thirty left family to become a wandered in which he spent thirteen years in penance to achieve enlightenment 0 Main Tenets I No god I Group of prophets called Jina o Svetambara White clad monks o Digambara Sky Clad monks o Buddhism 0 Gautama Buddha Siddhartha I Young noble 0 Four Noble Truths 1 Evil eXists in the world 2 It is caused by desire 3 Must become desireless in order to be happy 4 The Eight Fold Path allows one to become desireless 0 Eight Fold Path 1 Right Vision 2 Right Aim 3 Right Speech 4 Right Action 5 Right Livelihood 6 Right Effort 7 RightCorrect Awareness 8 Meditation o How JainismBuddhism are different from HinduismBrahminism o Buddhist Jain attitude toward animal husbandry Ahisma o Buddhist attitude toward prostitution Accepted 0 Buddhist attitude toward Hindu Caste System Accepted Sudras 0 Reasons for the spread of Buddhism 0 Decline of Buddhism Mauryan Empire 0 Third Century BC Greek invasion of India 0 Waged a series of battles conquering Northern India 0 Established IndoGreek Empire I Creates Greek settlements I Ruled by minor Greek generals I Power vacuum developed with Alexander s death 0 Mauryans exploited this vacuum 0 Chandragupta is the rst emperor 0 Main Sources 0 Literary Sources I Indica by Megasthenes Greek ambassador I Arthashastra The science of material gain by Kautilya o Minister for Chaudragupta 0 Archaeological sources I Monuments pillars columns I Ashokan Edicts I Coins 0 Empire 0 Covered the majority of Indian subcontinent 0 First nonlocalized kingdom o Chandragupta 322298 0 Ruler of Magadha at 25 0 Some believe he came to a matrimonial alliance with the Greeks 0 During his reign the majority of India was conquered o Pataliputra is the capital 0 Bindusara 297272 0 Not much 0 Ashoka 272232 0 Until 1837 Ashoka was just an obscure king I British historian discovered an inscription written in Brahmi I Called him Piyadasi meaning Beloved of the gods I In the following decades many inscriptions were discovered all over the subcontinent and Afghanistan I The scripts were of his own words 0 Conquered Kalinga 0 After this battle Ashoka converts to Buddhism 0 Dhamma I Derived from the principle of dharrna I Not a sectarian faith I Social order based on righteousness o Nonviolence o Harmony 0 Truthfulness I Inspired art and architecture 0 Sarnath Pillar o Chakra 0 Wheel of religion 0 Represents the 24 states of India 0 Stuppa a beautiful Buddhist temple 0 Fall of the Mauryans o Ashoka s proBuddhist policies alienated Brahmans Economic deterioration Ashoka s policy of nonviolenceahimsa The consensus I Top heavy administration I Centralized bureaucracy o Fell due to incompetent leaders following Ashoka OOO PostMauryan Dynasty 0 Several foreign migrations into India 0 Bactrian Greeks from day Afghanistan I Known for their coins I In uenced Indian art and architecture I Crossed Hindu Kush mountains o Kushanas I Very little is known about the origins possibly Chinese tribe located in Central Asia I Conquered Gandhara center of power 0 Eastern Indian Central India Indus Valley as well I Founded a multicultural empire 0 Trade 0 Silk route a major section traveled through India I Network of passages between China and Rome I Acted as an intermediary I Held much of Chinese silk trade I Rome imported gems teXtiles and spice 0 Exported wine and glassware I China eXported silk to both I Major cultural exchange 0 Art ideas architecture religion o Guptas O O o Fahsien o Wrote a report on the holy places of India 0 India sent Buddhist ambassadors Religion 0 Patronized Buddhism 0 Kanishka most famous king 0 Converted to Buddhism 0 Patronized Buddhism 0 Followed a policy of religious toleration Art and architecture 0 Patron of the arts and architecture 0 First time images of Buddha were seen 0 Gandhara School 0 AKA GrecoRoman school of art 0 Style Greek 0 Subject Buddha o Bamian Buddha 0 Located in Afghanistan 0 Largest statues of Buddha in the world 0 In 2001 destroyed by the Taliban o Mathura School 0 Indian roots 0 Red sand stone 0 Headless statue of Kanishka o Samath School 0 Showed Buddha as almost godlike o Meditating with eyes closed Indigenous people of India Chandragupta I Founder of the empire Samadragupta Chandragupta II Golden Age of India Economy 0 Birth of the wealthy class of merchants 0 Period of affluence and wealth o Coins issued Religion 0 Period of religious toleration o Rulers of India 0 Built Buddhist temple Architecture 0 Most famous the Ajanta caves o In Maharashtra o Reclining Buddha o 38 caves Art 0 Beautiful paintings Ancient Japan Timeline J omon Yayoi Buddhism Taika Reform Nara Period Hein Culture Fujiwara Rule Geography 0 4 major islands 0 Kyushu Shikoku Honshu Hokkaido J omon Hunter gatherer Created rst known pottery vessels in the world 0 Utilitarian purpose 0 Possibly religious as well Maximum age of 30 Suffered periodic famine Believe in global cooling which enhanced problems that led to the collapse Yayoi Culture Immigrants from China and Japan Displaced Jomon people Emergence of agriculture and cultivation 0 New warming trend facilitated rice cultivation Roughly increase of four million people 0 Not solely due to immigration 0 Mostly due to shirt to agriculture New technology Different pottery o More sophisticated Literary Sources 0 Chinese Sources I Account of the Three Kingdoms 0 Compiled in 290 AD 0 Describes Japan as a member of Korea 0 Japanese Sources I Kojiki Records of Ancient Matters o 780 CE I Nihon Shoki The Chronicle of Japan o 720 CE 0 Political Structures 0 Queen Himiko I Sent emissaries to China I Rarely seen I Helped by her brother who conveyed commands I Mentioned in Chinese sources but not Japanese 0 Nature of Kingship I Ruled in pairs usually male and females I Descended from the Sun Gods o Largely a tribal society 0 Clans called Uji who composed the society I Ruled by a hereditary chief o Worshipped nature I Temples and priesthood I Called Shinto o Buddhism made it into Japan 639h century BC 0 Championed by Prince Shotoku of Soga Clan I 572621 I Sent large scale ambassadors to China I Revolted in 622 by clans due to Soga patronage of Buddhism Taiku Reform 0 Begun by Prince Tenchi o Reforms based upon Chinese model 0 New capital built in present day Osaka 0 Chinese form of taxation 0 Chinese law code 0 Uni ed centralized rule was imposed Nara Period 0 After death of Tenchi capital is moved to Nara o 710794 0 Strong Buddhist domination o Kojiki and Nihon Shoki 0 Written and established legitimacy of the Japanese rulers o Linked the ruling family of Japan to the gods 0 Recorded characteristics and aws of monarchs
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