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Meiosis Notes

by: Casey McConnell

Meiosis Notes 211

Casey McConnell
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About this Document

Covers the process of Meiosis I and II in detail.
Principles of biology I
Dr. Colbert
Class Notes




Popular in Principles of biology I

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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey McConnell on Wednesday March 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 211 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Colbert in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Principles of biology I in Biology at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 03/09/16
Benign tumor – noninvasive, noncancerous Malignant tumor – invasive, cancerous, can spread • Metastasis – invasive cancer cells detached from original tumor Cancer Meiosis + = Meiosis Sexual reproduction Fertilization – sperm and egg fuse, form zygote Gametes – reproductive cells (eggs / sperm) Meiosis – reduction division: produces genetically distinct haploid daughter cells Chromosomes Karyotype – number and types of chromosomes • Autosomes – paired set of chromosomes • Sex chromosomes – “unpaired” set (X and Y) Chromosomes Homologs (homologous chromosomes) – chromosomes of the same type – carry the same genes – can contain different alleles Chromosomes unreplicated chromosome – one chromatid replicated chromosome – two sister chromatids joined at centromere homologs – homologous pair of corresponding replicated chromosomes non-sister chromatids – chromatids of homologs bivalent (tetrad) – homologs joined together during meiosis Ploidy Ploidy – number of each type of chromosome • Haploid (n) – contain one of each type of chromosomes • Diploid (2n) – contain two versions of each type of chromosomes • Haploid number (n) – number of distinct types of chromosomes (e.g., 23 in humans) • Diploid number (2n) – number of total chromosomes (e.g., 46 in humans) • Polyploid (3n, 4n, 5n, etc.) – contain three or more versions of each type of chromosomes Interphase – Meiosis Meiosis I Meiosis I – early Prophase I – late Prophase I – Metaphase I – Anaphase I – Telophase I + Cytokinesis Meiosis II – Prophase II – Metaphase II – Anaphase II – elophase II + Cytokinesis Meiosis I Early Prophase I – chromosomes condense – spindle apparatus forms – nuclear envelope breaks down – homologous chromosomes pair during synapsis and form bivalent (or tetrad) Late Prophase I – nuclear envelope broken down – kinetochore microtubules attach to kinetochores – non-sister chromatids separate along length – chiasmata form – crossing over occurs Metaphase I – kinetochore microtubules move bivalents to metaphase plate Anaphase I – homologs separate and move to opposite poles Telophase I – homologs on opposite poles – nuclear envelope re-forms – spindle apparatus breaks down Cytokinesis – cytoplasm divides – two haploid daughter cells form Meiosis II Prophase II – spindle apparatus forms – kinetochore microtubules attach to kinetochores – nuclear envelope breaks down Metaphase II – kinetochore microtubules move chromosomes to metaphase plate – kinetochore microtubules move chromosomes to metaphase plate Anaphase II – sister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles Telophase II – sister chromatids on opposite poles – nuclear envelope re-forms – spindle apparatus breaks down Cytokinesis – cytoplasm divides – four haploid daughter cells form Differences between mitosis and meiosis Mitosis Meiosis # cell divisions 1 2 # chromosomes (parent vs. daughter cells) same half synapsis of homologs no yes crossing over no yes genetic material (parent vs. daughter cells) identical different role in life cycle asexual reproduction sexual reproduction somatic cell production gamete production Life cycles


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